An Imperial History Of India/Provincial History of Lāḍa Sea-coast (Kachh-Sindh)
By K.P. Jayaswal - the Sanskrit Text, Revised by Rahul Sankrityayana
Publisher - Motilal Banarasi Dass, The Punjab Sanskrit Book Depot, Sasdmrha, Lahore
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PROVINCIAL HISTORYLāḍa Sea-coast (Kachh-Sindh)
15. The Valabhi Dynasty [595 A.D. 650 A.D.]
Sīla (āditya): Beginning at Ujjayini, up to the West country up to the sea-coast, in the country of the Lāḍas, there will be king Sīla Buddhist. At Valabhi, he will be a dharma-rājā. He will make attractive (artistic, 'citran') monasteries with relics for public good, and beautiful Buddha images, and various worships (586-589). He will be in the dynasty of Dhara, and king of the Ladas. He rules for 30 years (597-98).
Chapala:He was followed by Chapala (601) who ruled for half a year and one fortnight and was killed by soldiers. His successor (anuja) was Dhruva, who becomes king of the Ladas. He was subordinate, miserable and foolish (603-604).
This Sīla the Dharmaraja, of the family of Dhara is Siladitya Dharmaditya I, the seventh in succession from Dhara-sena I, founder of the Maitraka dynasty of Valabhi. His inscriptions with dates equivalent to 605 A.D. 609 A.D. have been found. His successor Chapala will correspond with Kharagraha (his nephew) of the inscriptions. His nephew Dhruvasena II7 was the next king. Records of his, dated 629 639 A.D., have been found. D h r u v a is described in the AMMK as anuja of Chapala, which is to be taken in its original sense 'born after', 'a younger cadet' , and not of 'younger brother'. Yuan-Chwang saw the artistic Buddhist temple built by Siladitya when he visited Valabhi in the reign of D h r u v a, who was a vassal and son-in-law to Harsha.
7. 'Kielhorn's Table, EI, VIII. 11. ,
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The dynastic description and the extent of the territories of Siladitya given here settles the controversy started by Hoernle (JRAS., 1909,122) . He was king of the territory from Ujjain in Eastern Malwa up to the West Country on the sea, i.e., Kachchha, which was the limit of the West Country according to the Puranic geography (I. A., 1933, 126) ; and he was king of the Ladas , i.e., what we call Gujarat, and of Valabhi i.e., Southern Kathiawar.
Dhruva, according to our Text, becomes subordinate, which was a fact in Harshavardhana's time.
The history of Valabhi is here accurately given by the AMMK.
16. The Yadava Republics
[Before 500 A.D., i.e., before Siladitya's family and after him.]
The other kings of the West or Lada will be servants of the subjects [T.; S. 'will be crown-less' ("head-less", mūrdhānta)]. Their own earlier families will be rulers after Śīla. They will be mariners, sailing beyond the sea to Sura (T., Sura= Assyria; S. 'going to Persia,' Parshagāh) (605). At Vāravatī there will be Indra,Suchandra, Dhanu, (and) Ketu, with the style Pushpa. Having occupied Valabhi, there will be the first king and his numerous successors with the names Prabha and Vishnu: the numerous kings will be Yadavas (606-8). The last (T.) amongst them will have the name Vishnu whose 'capital with its citizens and the king himself was washed away by the sea owing to the curse of the Rishi. The Varavatyas (T.; S. Dvaravatyas) then disappeared and sunk in the sea (609).
- [CASTE OF THE MAITRAKAS]
The Varavatyas were Yadavas as mentioned at p. 604 (verse 324) Yātavā Vārayatyāś (cha) . The Varavatyas seem to be noted in the Paikuli Sassanian inscription in Asuristan in the form of Boraspacin whose chief was Mitra al-Sen in 294 A.D. (JJBORS., XIX) . It is noted in the AMMK that from the sea the Valabhi (Kathiawar) people used to cross over to Sura, which refers to their trade ventures to and regular commerce with Assyria. The port Śūrapāraka (Sopārā) acquired that name for being the port of embarkation for Assyria.
The rulers noted by name are post-Siladitya, though their families had existed from before. The washing away of Varavati seems to have taken place towards the end of the seventh century. They according
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to the AMMK occupied Valabhi, probably in the 7th century. The Varavatyas are expressly described as belonging to the family from which Siladitya descended; the Varavatyas represented the earlier stock tesām cha purvajā-Vaṃśāh Śīlahvoparate tadā. The Maitrakas thus were a branch of the Yadavas.
The Pushpa-nama of our text probably means the Push-pamitras.
Madhyadesa: Imperial History
17. Saka Dynasty Saka Emperors [the Kushans, 78 A.D.-350 A.D.].
Now the Buddhist historian leaves the West and takes up the Middle Country. These kings he calls Madhyamas i.e., the kings of the Madhya country.^ He begins with North Mid-Land:
"In the Northern Quarter on the mountains (T.; S. rambhā ?) and tableland, everywhere, many kings of different births (castes or nationalities jāti) have been declared.
The Saka dynasty (Śaka-vamsa) known to be of 30 rulers (T. with a wrong reading for 'Sakavamsa', '21 +30'). 18 kings are known to be Emperors (Sārvabbumika, T.; S. wrongly, 'sarvabbutika') of Madhyadesa (Madh-yama) (610-612).
18. The dynasty of Naga-Senas. [150 A.D.-348 A.D.]
At the close there (will be) the Naga-Senas, and then they ceased (viluptā) (612).
The Nagaenas are the Naga dynasty of the Bharasivas where-in Virasena Naga was the first king (of the Nava Nagas of the Puranas) who defeated them and dislodged them from Mathura, and earlier still some king who founded Kantipuri below the Vindhyas (Mirzapur) dispossessed them from Eastern Aryavarta. 8 It seems very probable that the compound "Naga-Senas" is made up of the "Nagas"
8. JBORS,, XIX, I.
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and Pravara-"Sena" (the Vakataka emperor) and other kings of the 'Sena' line. The histories of the two families are knit together. The member of the Imperial Sakas 18 kings would bring them down to the time of Samudra Gupta (78 A.D.+18x15=348 A.D.) and the closing period of the Naga-Vakatakas.
It is not possible to say how the other figure (30) is made up. Evidently the number was made up with some class of subordinate rulers, as distinguished from 'the emperors' (shāhamushāhis) , probably it included the Saka Satraps.
The Naga dynasty, like all other Hindu dynasties of the Imperial Madhyadesa, is repeated in the history of Bengal, (s-30) ,
[530 A,D.-647 A.D.]
19. Vishnu, [520 533 A.D.]. Hera, [533 550 ?]19 (c). The Maukharis [550 A.D. 600 A.D.]
The Guptas are omitted here, as they are taken up separately under the section of the Imperial Eastern History (s-24) and then also in the Provincial Eastern History (Pt. II) .
Then (there will be) (1) Vishnu, and (2) Kara. Another (3) Ājita [Hara (T.) ] called Kunta (Kuntanama Harah); (4) Īśāna, (5) Sarva and (6) Paṅktī, (7) Graha and after him Suvrata (T.) (613). Then they lose their kings and become fallen in prestige (bhrashta-maryada) (614).
In this group whom I have numbered above, it is easy to recognise Maukhari kings in Nos. 4 to 7. 'Pankti' is an easy misreading for 'vanti' and is to be restored as Avanti (reading Sarv=Avanti, instead of Sarvapankti of the text) . The list will thus agree with the Maukhari list known to us from inscriptions and Bāṇa:
|(Pankti, i.e., Avanti)||Avantivarman|
|Graha||Grahavarman d. 606 A.D.|
|Ajita is the Prakrit form of Aditya.||Adityavarmaii was the first|
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Maukhari ruler to come into importance. He married a Gupta princess Harshagupta. The AMMK begins with only important names. It seems that in continuing the imperial history of Madhyadesa, it should have begun the Maukhari line with Isanavarman (इसानवर्मन) who is the first Maukhari to assume the imperial title Maharajadhiraja and whose rise is dated about 554 A.D. But the Maukhari and the Thanesar lines include some earlier names.
Vishnu is the emperor Vishnuvardhana of the Mandasor inscription (GI., p. 50) of 589 ME (533 A.D.). The other name Hara (हर) appears to be of his descendant. The grouping in the text would indicate that. Further there is no other imperial line under which it can come. Situated as he is before the Maukharis (550 A.D.) [Isana(varman 554 A.D.) ] and after Vishnu (vardhana, 533 A.D.) he very likely belonged to the line of Vishnuvardhana.
The AMMK instead of mentioning the name Yasodharman gives Vishnu [dharman], and seems to support Hoernle's view that both names mean one personality (sa eva, as in the inscription) .
The AMMK implies that the Maukharis occupied the imperial position in Northern India, i.e., from 550 A.D. to the rise of Prabhakaravardhana, 600 A.D., who is noted next. Our text also supplies the much needed confirmation that Vishnuvardhana - Yasodharman became the real emperor in his time. The Maukharis seem to come into prominence under his house.
The origin and history of the family of Harshavardhana is given next. It is detailed that they were born of (king) Vishnu (vardhana) , they were of Vaisya caste; they became first ministers and then they became kings. The style vardhana seems to have been borrowed from their imperial ancestors. They were ministers evidently to the Maukharis.
There were at the time two very prosperous rich men from Madhyadesa, descended from (king) Vishnu, Bh. by name and another. Both became chief ministers. The two noted rich men possessed of majesty, were devoted to this Religion. They practised Mahayana mantra of Kumara after which they became rulers of men and (one) became king. (614-616).
Then, there (were) for 78 (T.; S., 115(?)) years three kings, residents of Srikantha (1) Aditya by name, the Vaisya, inhabitant of Sthana(v)
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Īśvara; (2) there will be king everywhere at the end H (arshavardhana) an imperial sovereign (sarvabhuminaradhipa) (617-618) [mantra prescribed for that Low Age].
The form Sthanvisvara is incorrectly given as Sthanamisvara. God Sthanu, the presiding deity of Thanesvara, was the only god to whom their ancestor Vishnuvardhana-Yasodharman bent his head (GI, 146). The family was thus connected with Thanesvara from the time of the first founder. Vishnuvardhana-Yasodharman had a governor in Malava, he himself did not live there. The history of H(arsha) is again taken up in s-34 in connection with Soma (Sasanka) where he is called king of Madhyadesa.
- Rajyavardhana - Harshavardhana (606-647)
are noted to have covered 115 (S.) or 78 (T.) years. In the former case Aditya's initial time will be 532 A.D. and in the latter 569 A.D. The former alone can be right, for there were two generations of rulers before Adityavardhana. Harsha alone is called Emperor.
'In the South with the sea" there will be (S. 621; p. 627):
20. The Satavahana [223 A.D.-231 A.D.]
(1) "King Svetasuchandra, called Satavahana" (613) (Śālavahana, T. 456A).
21. Contemporaries of King Mahendra (600-640 A.D.)
'The celebrated kings of the South:
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(2) Mahendra, (3) Sankara, and (4) Vallabha [T. has Chittabha for Vallabba] (622-623). "Now, king Vallabha (623) (is) called 'Sukeshi' and 'Keshi'. (5) Mangala is (also) called Vrisbaketu (T.) (Brindtkhetu, - S.). (2) Mhendra is called 'Supota' (T,; incorrect Mutpata in S.) 'Pott' and 'Chandra' (624), (7) Gopendra, Indra (Chandra T.) sena, (8) Madhava, Pradyumna (Kamadeva T.), (3) Gana-Sankara (called) Vyaghra; (9) Budha called Simha; (10) the Sudra king (T.) [Budha Suddha',-S.] Kumbha called Nikumbha; and (11) Mathita Sumati." (625-26).
[S. adds (not in T.): Bala-Pulina-sukesi (=Pulakesi), and Kesins, 626.]
They died different deaths; some died from weapons, some of starvation (or famine) 628.
"They are up to 'the Pota' king Mahendra, and are his contemporaries" (629).
[Necessary worship for the South in the age of Kali that had arrived detailed. 630-33].
On the peaks of the Vindhyas and in the Lavana Ocean (Indian Ocean) god Kartikeya will be the giver of boons (633 ) . And so in the country of Shri- Parvata; in the valley of the Vindhya and its high lands (636).
(1) Sveta-su Chandra is the Satavahana king who was practically the last emperor in that line Chandra sata. The name is found in our text as sveta (corruption from svati) su Chandra.
The kings (2) to (10) make a group of contemporary kings amongst whom (2), (3) and (4) were the most 'celebrated'. To take up their identification:
Pallava Mahendravarman: (2) Mahendra who is particularised as the Pota king is the Mahendrapota of the inscriptions. Kielhorn (EI, VIII, Sup., p. 20) rightly anticipated and said that 'probably' this and also 'Mahendra' were names of Mahendravarman I. He is the great Pallava king of Kanchi, 600-625 A.D., the builder of rock-cut temples, and the rival of Pulakesin II.
Sankaragana: (3) Sankara and GanaSankara of our text is the Śanka-gana mentioned in the Nerur copperplates of M a n g a 1 e s a, uncle of Pulakesin II (IA, VII, 161 ;Kielhorn's List No. 6) . Mangalesa defeated B u d d h a r a j a, son of Sankaragana (c. 601 A.D.). According to our AMMK, 'G a n a S a n-k a r a' was one of the famous Southern kings of the time. He was an ancestor of the Southern Kalachuris (Kielhorn, No. 5) . The name was repeated amongst the Tripuri Kalachuris.
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(4) Vallabha Sukesi is a Chalukya Pulakesi of Badami. As he is one of 'the celebrated' kings of the South; he is to be taken as Pulakesin II (608 642 A.D.) . In some inscriptions he is called only Vallabha (Kielhorn, No. 14) , while in some Polekesi Vallabha (Kiel- horn, No. 12).
(5) Mangala Vallabha is the famous Mangalesa or M a n g a 1 a r a j a, the predecessor and uncle of Pulakesin II. The order (Mangala coming after Pulakesin II) is due to the fact that the three 'celebrated kings' are picked out and mentioned first as a group of celebrities. The statement about him that Mangala is also called 'Vallabha' is by way of a footnote.
(6) G o v i n d a is the king defeated by Pulakesin II (Aihole insc.; Kielhorn, No. 10).
(7) Gopendra Indrasena, who was, according to our text, a contemporary of Mahendra I and Pulakesin II, is yet unknown (as far as I know) from other sources. He would have been one of the rulers of the Southern states of the Aihole inscription.
(8) Madhava is evidently the Kadamba king Madhuvarman who became the ruler of Vanavasi in the time of Pulakesin and Mahendravarman (Moraes, Kadamba Kula, pp. 64, 66).
(9) Budha, who comes with Gana Sankara, is the ruler who came in conflict with Mangalesa and was the son of Sankara-gana. The name in the Chalukya inscriptions is spelt as Buddha.
(10) Nikumbha, a sudra king according to T., is traceable from inscriptions of his descendants or their servants found in Khandes. These are dated in the llth and 12th centuries of the Saka era (Kielhorn, Nos. 333, 337) . Kielhorn regarded the name Nikumbha of the Nikumbha Dynasty as mythical. Now this new evidence takes us four centuries back when we find Nikumbha actually a ruler, a contemporary of Mahendra. Later princes of the Nikumbha Dynasty patronized the science of astronomy, for the teaching of which a college founded by the grandson of the great Bhaskaracharya was endowed by them.
(11) Mathita sumati is not yet known from any other source.
It seems that the author had some good history to draw upon for the time of Harsha, Sasanka, Pulakesin I Land Mahendra I. His information of the period is detailed and accurate for the whole of India North, South, West and East.
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The religious information that Kartikeya was worshipped in the South at the time is borne out by inscriptions. At Sri Parvata, Mahasena's worship is found after the Satavahanas. It is attested by the Radamba inscriptions for the succeeding centuries.
22.The Dvipas in the Southern Sea, (Indian Archipelago) and further India
The Indian Archipelago with Further India has been included as a part of Southern India in the survey of the AMMK.
The text on the Dvipas (verses 636 640) says: Everywhere the Dvipas too, in the Kalinga seas [? Kalingodreshu], (Kartikeya will be worshipped) . The Traigunyas [will be] in the Mlechchha countries all around. In the bays of the sea, on their coasts, there will be numerous kings; the Kama-rupa-kala [Kama-rupa-kula? Kings of the family of Kama-rupa?] in the valleys of snowy mountains ('in Himadri'). Many kings are stated to have been between the meetings of the Seas (udra-sandhishu] , Many gana chiefs of the Mlechchhas, worshippers of the Buddha: I n d r a and Suchandr a-M a h e n d r a, inhabitants amongst the Mlechchhas will be kings. [These two kings will be Buddhists.]
The name of the seas 'Kalinga Seas' (Kalingodreshu, cf. udrasandhishu) is important. The Archipelago was intimately connected with Kalinga. In the seventh century (637-649) just about the period when the AMMK is full of contemporary details a Kalinga dynasty was ruling in Java. King Kalinga sent an embassy to China from Central Java. There was a Khmar king Mahendr a(varman) whose ambassador Simhadeva was at the court of Sambhuvarman, king of Champa about 625 A.D. The Mahendra of the AMMK was a Mlechchha, that is, he did not belong to one of the Hindu dynasties of Further India who were all non-Buddhists at the time. I n d r a too of our text was a Mlechchha and Buddhist.
The Kamarupa branch was probably ruling in Upper Burma, where a Hindu king Samuda established his kingdom very early (Gait, History of Assam, p. 8).
It is significant that the Dvipas or the Indian Archipelago and Further India (the countries on the bays of the Sea ambhodheh kukshi- tirantah) are treated here as part of the South and as being in the Lavana Ocean (633). They were included in the Greater India of Samudra Gupta (JBORS. XIX. 154).
We seem to recover the Hindu name for the narrow seas of Java and Sumatra in the expression "Kalinga Waters".
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