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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क
Map of Barmer District
Barmer district map

Barmer (बाड़मेर) is a city and district in the Marwar region of Rajasthan, India. Its ancient name was Bahadameru (बाहड़मेरु)[1] or Vagbhatameru (वाग्भटमेरू).

According to Alexander Cunningham[2] the capital of ancient Gurjjara country mentioned by Xuanzang was named Pi-lo-mi-lo or Balmer or Barmer.

Barmer is famous for sand dunes of Thar desert, its carved wooden furniture and hand block printing industry, woolen industries, gaur industries, oil.


The name Barmer is derived from the ruler Bahada Rao Parmar (Panwar) or Bar Rao Parmar (Panwar). Imperial Gazetteer of India tells us that that the present town is said to have been founded in the 13th century, by Rājā Bāhada and to have been called after him Bāhadamer meaning “The Hill Fort of Bahada”. It is substantially built on the side of a rocky hill, on the summit of which are remains of an old fort. [3]

James Todd [4] writes that Barmer, the ancient name of which is said to be Bahadamer, ' hill fort of Bahada'. Mallinath was son of Rao Salkha, eighth in descent from Siahji, founder of Marwar State.

Kiradu is a site of Shiva tempe in tahsil Ramsar in District Barmer in Rajasthan. The Kiradu group of temples is situated near the village Hathma about 43 km away from the Barmer region in Rajasthan. The inscriptions dating back to 1161 AD reveal that the ancient name of this place was Kiratakupa and was once the capital of the Panwars. The temples were built around c. 1000 AD and later.

Kiradu Inscription of 1178 AD in the Shiva temple of the period od Maharaja Madanabrahmadeva Chauhan (Shakambhari reveals that the area was ruled by Tejapala and the wife of Tejapla restablished a new statue when she found that the temple was destroyed by the turuks. [5]

There are number of festivals held in Barmer, the most famous of which is a cattle fair held every year at Tilwara village situated on the banks of the Luni river. The fair goes on for a fortnight in the months of March and April. The other major festival is the Barmer Thar Festival, started as a practice to enhance the tourism potential of this town. During the annual Barmer festival in March, the town is at its colourful best and that is the best time to visit Barmer. Siwana fort is a very old fort. it is at about 1000 years old.In local language it's name 'Gadh Siwana'.

Mention by Alexander Cunningham

Alexander Cunningham[6]writes that Hwen Thsang places the second kingdom of Western India, named Kiu-che-lo or Gurjjara, at about 1800 li, or 300 miles, to the north of Balabhi, and 2800 li, or 467 miles, to the north-west of Ujain. The capital was named Pi-lo-mi-lo or Balmer[7], which is exactly 300 miles to the north of the ruins of Balabhi. From Ujain in a straight line it is not more than 350 miles ; but the actual road distance is between 400 and 500 miles, as the traveller has to turn the Aravali mountains, either by Ajmer on the north, or by Analwara on the south. The kingdom was 5000 li, or 833 miles, in circuit. It must, therefore, have comprised the greater part of the present chiefships of Bikaner, Jesalmer, and Jodhpur. Its boundaries can only be described approximately, as extending about 130 miles on the north from Balar or Sirdarkot to Junjhnu ; 250 miles on the east from Junjhnu to near Mount Abu ; 170 miles on the south from Abu to near Umarkot ; and 310 miles on the west from Umarkot to Balar. These figures give a total circuit of 860 miles, which is as close an approximation to the measurement of Hwen Thsang as can be reasonably expected.

All the early Arab geographers speak of a kingdom named Jurz or Juzr, which from its position would appear to be the same as the Kiu-che-lo of Hwen Thsang. The name of the country is somewhat doubtful, as the unpointed Arabic characters may be read as Haraz or Hazar, and Kharaz or Khazar as well as Jurz or Juzr. But fortunately there is no uncertainty about its position, which is determined to be Rajputana by several concurring circumstances.

[p.313]: Thus the merchant Suliman, in A.D. 851,[8] states that Haraz was bounded on one side by Tafek or Takin, which, as I have already shown, was the old name of the Panjab. It possessed silver mines, and could muster a larger force of cavalry than any other kingdom of India. All these details point unmistakably to Rajputana, which lies to the south-east of the Panjab, possesses the only silver mines known in India, and has always been famous for its large bodies of cavalry.

According to Ibn Khordadbeh,[9] who died about A.D. 912, the Tatariya dirhems were current in the country of Hazar ; and according to Ibn Haukal, who wrote about A.D. 977,[10] these dirhems were also current in the kingdom of Gandhara, which at that time included the Panjab. Suliman says the same thing of the kingdom of the Balhara, or the present Gujarat ; and we learn incidentally that the same dirhems were also current in Sindh, as in a.h. 107, or A.D. 725, the public treasury contained no less than eighteen millions of Tatariya dirhems.[11] The value of these coins is variously stated at from 1-1/8 dirhem to 1½ or from 54 to 72 grains in weight. From these data I conclude that the Titariya dirhems are the rude silver pieces generally known as Indo-Sassanian, because they combine Indian letters with Sassanian types. They would appear to have been first introduced by the Scythic or Tatar princes, who ruled in Kabul and north-western India, as they are now found throughout the Kabul valley and Panjab, as well as in Sindh,

[p.314]: Rajputana, and Gujarat. Colonel Stacy's specimens were chiefly obtained from the last two countries, while my own specimens have been procured in all of them. In weight they vary from 50 to 68 grains ; and in age they range from the fifth or sixth century down to the period of Mahmud of Ghazni. They are frequently found in company with the silver pieces of the Brahman kings of Kabul, which agrees with the statement of Masudi that the Tatariya dirhems were current along with other pieces which were stamped at Gandhara.[12] The latter I take to be the silver coins of the Brahman kings of Kabul, whose dynasty began to reign about A.D. 850, or shortly before the time of Masudi, who flourished from A.D. 915 to 956. I have also found some of the Indo-Sassanian or Tatar dirhems in central India to the east of the Aravali range, as well as in the Upper Gangetic Doab ; but in these provinces they are extremely scarce, as the common coin of Northern India in the mediaeval period was the Vardha, with the figure of the Boar incarnation of Vishnu, varying from 55 to 65 grains in weight. From this examination of the coins I conclude that the kingdom named Hazar or Juzr by the early Arab geographers, is represented as nearly as possible by Western Rajputana.

Edrisi,[13] quoting Ibn Khordadbeh, states that Juzr or Huzr was the hereditary title of the king, as well as the name of the country. This statement confirms my identification of Juzr with Guzr or Gujar, which is a very numerous tribe, whose name is attached to

[p.315]: many important places in north-west India and the Panjab, and more especially to the great peninsula of Gujarat. It is not known when this name was first applied to the peninsula. In early times it was called Saurashtra, which is the Surastrene of Ptolemy ; and it continued to bear this name as late as A.D. 812, as we learn from a copper-plate inscription found at Baroda.[14] In this record of the Saurashtra kings, Gurjjara is twice mentioned as an independent kingdom.

About A.D. 770 the king of Grurjjara was conquered by Indra Raja of Saurashtra, but was after-wards reinstated; and about A.D. 800 Indra's son Karka assisted the ruler of Malwa against the king of Gurjjara. These statements show most clearly that Gurjjara still existed as a powerful kingdom, quite distinct from Saurashtra, nearly two centuries after Hwen Thsang's visit in A.D. 640. They show also that Gurjjara must have been adjacent to Malwa, as well as to Saurashtra, a position which clearly identifies it with Rajputana, as I have already determined from Hwen Thsang's narrative.

Juna Adinath Temple

To the immediate west of the city lie the remains of Juna or Juna Barmer and to the south are the ruins of three Jain temples. There is an inscription dated 1295 AD on one of the pillars of the hall of the largest temple at Juna. This mentions Maharajakula Sri Samanta Sinha Deva ruling Barmer at the time. This Inscription reveals that Barmer was an important trade cantre at that time. There used to pass from this area caravans of camels, horses, oxen etc. carrying trade items . The Mahajanas had accepted tax (lāga) for temple management. This Inscription uses terms like sārtha, pāilā, bhīmapriya, vishopaka, lāga etc. Here is the text of the Inscription:

XXII Juna Barmer Stone Inscription of V.S. 1352 (1295 AD)

Sanskrit Text
1. ओं संवत 1352 वैशाख सुदि 4 श्री बाहड़मेरौ महारा-
2. [ज]कुल श्री सामंतसिंह देव कल्याण विजयराज्ये तन्नियु-
3. [क्त]श्री2करणे [मं.] चीरासेल वेलाउल भा. मिगल प्रभृतयो
4. ध[र्मा]क्षराणि प्रयच्छन्ति यथा । श्री आदिना[थ]मध्ये संति-
5. ष्ठमान श्री विघ्न मर्दन क्षेत्रपाल श्री चाउंडराज देवयो:
6. उभयमार्गीय समायात सार्थ उष्ट्र 10 वृष 20 उभयादीप उर्द्धें
7. सार्थ प्रति द्वयौर्द्व्यो: पाइला [।] पक्षे [भीम]प्रिय दशविंशोपक [10]
8. अर्द्धार्द्धेन ग्रहीतवा । असो लागो महाजनें मानित:।||यथोक्तं [|*]
9. बहुभि[र्व]सुधा युक्ता राजभि: सगरादिभि: | यस्य यस्य यदा भू.
10. मी तस्य तस्य तदा फलं ||1 ||छ||
Juna Barmer Stone Inscription of 1295 AD [15]

This inscription was found at Juna or Juna Badmer, as the full name goes, in the Malani District, Jodhpur State, aboat 12 miles south-west of Badmer, the principal town. It is engraved on a pillar in the porch of a dilapidated Jaina temple and contains 10 lines of writing. The characters are Nagari, The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of the inscription is in prose, excepting the benedictory verse at the end. In respect of orthography, the only points that call for notice are (1) the employment of the sign of v for both v and b, and (2) the use of the number 2 after Sri in L.3 to mark the repetition. As regards rare or unusual words, those that deserve to be noted are paila and vimsopaka in L.7, Paila and Bhimapriya vimsopiika have been already explained. Bhimapriya appears to have been the name of a kind of vomsopaka coin. Attention may also be drawn to the word Laga in L.8, which means a cess, as previously explained (No. XI above.)

The record opens with the date, the 4th of the bright half of Vaisskha in the [Vikrama] year 1352. On the aforesaid day, daring the victorious reign of the Maharajakula, Sri-Samantasimhadeva, the mahamta Chirasila, Velaula, the Bhamdari Migala, and others appointed by the king to draw up documents, made a religions grant at Bahadameru to the gods Vighnamardana-Kshetrapala and Chaumdaraja, in the temple of Adinatha. The grant consisted of a paila from every incoming or outgoing caravan exceeding ten camels and twenty bullocks. In default of this payment in kind, ten Bhimapriya vimsopakas were to be charged. The grant wag to be distributed equally between the two gods. In L.8 is recorded the approval of this cess (laga) by the mahajanas or local bankers. Bahadameru is, of course, Badmer, not the place now known by that name which is comparatively a modern city, but Juna Badmer, the old Badmer where the inscription was found.

Notes by Wiki editor

  • Bahadameru (बाहड़मेरौ) = Barmer Rajasthan

Tahsils in Barmer

Barmer, Baytoo, Chohtan, Gudha Malani, Pachpadra, Ramsar, Sheo, Siwana,

Villages in Barmer tahsil

Abhaniyon Ka Sara, Adarsh Basti Bishala, Adarsh Basti Nand, Adarsh Chawa, Adarsh Undkha, Akal, Alaniyon Ki Dhani, Alika Tala, Andaniyon Ka Tala, Andeka Tala, Asara Ki Beri, Asuon Ki Dhani, Ati, Bakaniyon Ka Was, Bakhse Ka Tala, Balau, Balera, Bandra, Bankana, Bankasar, Barmer (M), Barmer (Rural), Barmer Adrash Agoor, Barmer Agor, Barmer Gadan, Barmer Magra, Beebara, Berdho Ki Dhani, Beriwala Gaon, Beriwala Tala, Bhadarwa, Bhadarwa Purohitan, Bhadres Gandhau, Bhadres Punasiya, Bhation Ka Der, Bhurtiya, Bidasar, Bola Barmer, Boliya Jageer, Bothiya Purohitan, Chak Dholka, Chaklani, Chandoniyon Ki Dhani, Chawa, Chhapari, Chokhoniyon Ki Dhani, Chooli, Dablisara, Danta, Daroora, Daukiyon Ki Dhani, Daulaniyonka Tala, Dewaniyon Ki Dhani, Dhandhu Pura, Dhiraniyon Ki Dhani, Dholaniyon Ki Dhani, Dhoondha, Doodaberi, Doongeron Ka Tala, Dudiyo Ki Dhani, East Matasar, Galaberi, Gangasara, Garal, Garal Sujan Singh, Gehoon, Ghane Ka Tala, Gorasiyon Ka Tala, Gule Ka Nadiya, Gurisar, Hajhaniyon Ki Dhani, Hanuman Sagar, Hapon Ki Dhani, Hariyali, Harsana, Harupechiyon Ki Dhani, Hathitala, Hathitala Station, Indra Colony, Ishwer Pura, Jaduon Ki Nadi, Jaitaniyon Ki Dhani, Jakhdon Ki Dhani, Jalipa, Jalipa Agor, Janiyawas, Jasai, Jasontaniyon Ki Dhani, Jatiya Kumaharon Ki Basti, Jharwa, Jogesar Kua, Joona Patrasar, Juneja Mehron Ki Basti, Kadwasron Ki Dhani, Kagau, Kamoipura, Kanora, Kapoordi, Kerawa, Kerli, Kharinga Kua, Khariya Tala, Kharthasar Nadi, Khudasa, Kudla, Kumharon Ka Tala, Kurja, Lakhetali, Lalaniyon Ki Dhani, Langera, Lani Kantha, Legon Ki Dhani, Lolti Hight Bara, Lookhon Ka Tala, Loonoo Khurd, Lopali Nadi, Lunu Agor, Lunu Kalan, Madpura Sani, Magnaniyon Ki Dhani, Magne Ki Dhani, Mahabar, Malwa, Mando Ka Tala, Maroodi, Matasar, Maylon Ka Der, Meethari Khurd, Meethra, Megwalon Ka Tala, Megwalon Ki Dhani, Mhabar Peethal, Mithisar, Moodhnon Ki Dhani, Moodhon Ka Tala, Moodhonki Dhani, Motiyoniyon Ka Tala, Naguesiyan Dhoondha, Nand, Nangana, Naraniyon Ki Dhani, Nathaniyon Ka Was, Naukh, Navji Ka Pana, Naya Bhurtiya, Nimbasar Nadi, Panchaniyon Ki Dhani, Para, Phoosaniyon Ka Tala, Pindiyon Ka Tala, Pokar Bhadu Ki Dhani, Pooniyon Ki Basti, Poulaniyon Ki Dhani, Pragniyon Ki Dhani, Prajawaton Ki Dhani, Pumdro Ki Basti, Purohition Ki Basti, Radwa, Raiko Ki Dhani, Ramderiya, Rampura Garal, Ramsar Ka Kua, Rani Gaon, Ranigaon Kalan, Rauji Ki Dhani, Rawatsar, Ridmlaniyon Ki Dhani, Rohili, Sadulaniyon Ka Tala, Samon Ki Dhani, Sanawara, Sangana Kua, Sanjata, Sansiyon Ka Tala, Sansiyon Ki Basti, Sar Ka Par, Sarli, Sarli Kalan, Sarnon Ka Tala, Sarnoo Bhimji, Sarnoo Chimanji, Sarnoo Panji, Satal Bhakhri, Sauonki Dhani, Segari, Sejuon Ki Dhani, Sesau, Shiv Bhakhri, Shivkar, Sidhaniyon Ki Dhani, Sindhiyon Ki Dhani, Siyagon Ki Dhani, Sokhru, Somaniyon Ki Dhani, Sonari, South Matasar, Sura Charnan, Sura Jageer, Sura Narpatan, Sutharon Ka Tala, Sutharon Ki Dhani, Sutharonka Kua, Tirsingra, Tirsingri, Undkha, Utarlai, Vishala, Vishala Agor,

Jat Gotras in Barmer district

Barmer is the western part of Marwar region and is important Jat belt. We do not have any combined report which can give details about the distribution of Jat gotras in Marwar region. Jatlandland has compiled information which can bee seen here -

See Complete list of Jat Gotras in Barmer District

Migration of Jats to Barmer district

The settlements and Migrations of Jats (c.5 - 12 century) from Sindh

Dr S.Jabir Raza writes that Jats and Meds have been the oldest occupants of Sind. The first Persian account of the 11th century Mujmat ut-Tawarikh (1026), originally an ancient work in Sanskrit, mentions Jats and Meds as the ancient tribe of Sind and calls them the descendants of Ham, the son of Noah. [16] [17]

Dr S.Jabir Raza further writes that as for the migration of Jats from Sind, it may be assumed that natural calamity and increase in population compelled them to migrate from their original abode in search of livelihood.[18]Hoernle has propounded the 'wedge theory' for the migration of most of the ancient tribes. This wedge theory tends us to believe that the Jats were among the first wave of the Aryans, and their first southeast migration took place from the Nort-West, and established their rule at Sorpur in Multan regions. Further they migrated towards east and stretched their abode from Brahmanabad (Mansura) to Kathiawar. As Jataki, the peculiar dialect of the Jats, also proves that the Jats must have come from the NW Punjab and from other districts (e.g. Multan) dependent upon the great country of the Five rivers.[19] By the end of fifth and the beginning of the sixth century, their southward migration, second in line, took place and they reached Kota in Rajasthan, probably via Bikaner regions. From Kota they migrated further east and established their rule at Malwa under the rule of Salichandra, son of Vira Chandra. Salichandra erected a minster (mindra) on banks of the river Taveli in Malwa.[20] Probably after their defeat by Sultan Mahmud in 1027 AD, and later hard pressed by the Ghaznavi Turkish Commander, the Jats of Sind again migrated to Rajasthan and settled themselves in Bundi regions.The second inscription found at Bundi probably dates from circa samvat 1191 (1135 AD) possibly refers to the Jats as opponents of the Parmara rulers of Rajasthan. [18][21]

When Muhammad bin Qasim attacked Dahlilah, a fortified town in between Roar and Brahmanabad, most of the inhabitants (the Jats) had abandoned the place and migrated to Rajasthan via desert and took shelter in the country of Siru (modern Sirohi) which was then ruled by King Deva Raj, a cousin of Rai Dahir.[22] However, the third migration took place in early eighth century and Jats of lower Sind migrated to Rajasthan, probably via Barmer regions. By the twelfth century, the Jats settled in western Punjab, as the native poet Abul Farj Runi mentions them along with the Afghans.[18]Meanwhile, they also extended their abode in the eastern part of the Punjab (now Haryana), as in the end of the twelfth century they resisted Qutb-ud-din Aybak in the region of Hansi. [18][23]

Role of Barmer in movement for reservation in jobs

See here - Role of Barmer in movement for reservation in jobs

Notable persons from Barmer district

Political leaders

Social workers

The saints

Gallantry Award winners

The Martyrs

Victims of Jagirdars

Before India became free, in Jagir areas of Marwar state all cultivators were really landless. There was no tenancy Law and one could be thrown away from the land one cultivated at the pleasure of Jagirdar, his "malik". In most of the Jagirs a Jagirdar would in the first instance be taking fifty percent of the produce. This would be taken by actual division of the produce on the thrashing floor or by appraisal of the standing crop (kunta). The latter method proved at times more onerous as the appraisal depended on the whims of the Kamdar. Then over and above the share of the produce the farmer had to pay numerous "lags" or cesses. There were 64 kinds of begars (work without pay) prevalent in Marwar. Together with the share of the produce known as "Hasil" these cesses meant that the farmers had to part with more than eighty percent of their produce. The findings of the Sukhdeonarain Committee in the years 1940-42 bear this out. If a farmer had to marry his daughter he had to pay "Chavri Lag" if he held a dinner then a "Kansa Lag"; if members of the family separated then "Dhunwa Lag" and so on. If the Jagirdar had a guest then fodder for his mount had to be supplied. Then there was "begar" that is forced labour, for tilling the personal lands of the Jagirdar. The homestead in which the farmer lived in the Abadi had to be vacated in case he ceased cultivating the land. He could not alienate the plot to anyone. The oppression of the public by traditional Jagirdars (feudatories) of Marwar state made the life of farmers difficult, which led to a sort of class war. Jats were most affected by excesses of Jagirdars. Here is the list of Jat farmers from Barmer district who lost their life in struggle against the Jagirdars.

Jat Officers from Barmer District

Jat monuments and Jat Institutions in Barmer District

  • 1. Kisan Chhatrawas, Barmer: Founded on 30 June 1934. It has Residential Rooms-26, WC-14, Common Halls-3, Office Rooms-4, Kitchen-1, Shopps-50 (For sustained Income), Associated with it is one Girls Hostel under construction.
  • 2. Harlal Siyag Shodh Evam Shikshan Sansthan, Barmer: Founded in memory of Harlal Siyag who was murdered on 2 June 1995 for his struggle and for taking up community cause. It has Residential Rooms-24, Kitchen-1,
  • 3. Baldev Ram Mirdha Kisan Chhatrawas, Chohtan: Founded in memory of Baldev Ram Mirdha in 1991. It has Residential Rooms-34 for accommodating 110 students, WCs, Common Hall capacity 400, Office Rooms-4, Kitchen-1,
  • 4. Kisan Mahila Chhatrawas, Chohtan: Founded on 7 May 1995. It has Residential Rooms-31, WCs, Common Hall, Office Room, Kitchen-1,
  • 5. Chaudhary Charan Singh Chhatrawas, Sindhari: Founded in 1997. It has Residential Rooms-24, WCs, Common Hall-1, Office Rooms-1, Kitchen-1, Shopps-11 (For sustained Income),
  • 6. Ramdan Dookya Chhatrawas, Bheemra
  • 7. Veer Tejaji Vikas Sansthan, Balotra: Founded on 16 June 1997. It has Residential Rooms-24, WC-s, Common Halls-2, Office Rooms-4, Kitchen-1, Shopps-44 (For sustained Income),There is a Girls Hostel in the Campus with 24 rooms.
  • 8. Jat Charitable Trust, Barmer: Founded on 16 Feb. 1987. It has Residential Rooms-30, WCs, Common Hall-1, Office Rooms, Kitchen-1, Shopps-2 (For sustained Income),
  • 9. Ramdan Dookya Chhatrawas, Ramsar: Registered on 15-9-1999/30
  • 10. Kisan Chhatrawas, Dhoromanna:
  • 11. Kisan Chhatrawas, Gudha Malani: Registered in 2004-05
  • 12. Kisan Vikas Samiti Chhatrawas, Gida: Registered in 2005-06
  • 13. Jat Charitable Trust Bhawan - Situated in Nehru Nagar, Barmer, Constructed with a cost of Rs. 70 Lakhs, Inaugurated on 12 July 2009 by Hema Ram Chaudhary, Revenue Minister of Rajasthan.
  • 14. Kisan Boarding House (Girls) - The First Jat Girls Hostel in Barmer was inaugurated on 2 August 2009.

Gallery of martyrs from Barmer district

External Links


  1. Encyclopaedia of Jainism, Volume-1 By Indo-European Jain Research Foundation p.5505
  2. The Ancient Geography of India/Gurjjara,pp. 312-315
  3. Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 7, p. 23.
  4. James Todd Annals/Sketch of the Indian Desert,p.1272,fn-2
  5. डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा: 'राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत', 1983, पृ. 97 -98
  6. The Ancient Geography of India/Gurjjara,pp. 312-315
  7. James Todd Annals/Sketch of the Indian Desert, Vol.III, p.1269, fn-3 says The old name of Bhinmal was Srimal or Bhillamala, which Erskine (iii. A. 194) identifies with Pi-lo-mo-lo of Hiuen Tsiaug. But Beal (Buddhist Records of the Western World, ii. 270) transliterates this name as Balmer or Barmer.
  8. Dowson's Sir Henry Elliot, i. 4.
  9. Dowson's edition of Sir Henry Elliot's Muhamm. Hist., i. 13.
  10. Ibid, i. 35.
  11. Sir Henry Elliot, ' Arabs in Sindh,' p. 36. Dowson's edit. i. 3.
  12. Dowson's edition of Sir Henry Elliot's Muliamm. Hist., i. 24.
  13. Geogr., i. 175, Jaubert's translation.
  14. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, viii. 300.
  15. Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.59-60
  16. Mujmat ut-Tawarikh, Ed. Vol.I p. 104
  17. Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh,p. 55
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh, pp.58-59
  19. Richard F. Burton, op. cit., p.246
  20. Inscription No.1, Tod, op.cit., Vol.II, Appendix pp. 914-917.
  21. Inscription No.II, Tod, op.cit., Vol.II, Appendix, pp. 917-919 and n. 13
  22. Chachnama, p.166
  23. Hasan Nizami, Tajul-ma'asir, Fascimile translation in ED, Vol. II, p.218
  24. Jat Gatha, September-2015,p. 15
  25. Jat Gatha, September-2015,p. 15
  26. Jat Gatha, September-2015,p. 15

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