Bharatpur

From Jatland Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क
Maharaja Suraj Mal
Flag of Bharatpur State
Coat of arms of Bharatpur State

Bharatpur (भरतपुर) is a city in Rajasthan state of India. It was founded by Jat Maharaja Suraj Mal in 1733. Located in Mewat region, Bharatpur was once an impregnable, well-fortified city, and the capital of a kingdom ruled by Jat Maharajas. The trio of Bharatpur, Deeg and Dholpur has played an important part not only in the Jat history of Rajasthan but also the history of India.

Contents

Founder

Bharatpur was founded by Maharaja Surajmal (Sinsinwar) in 1733 after Bharat, brother of Rama.

Geography

Map of Bharatpur District

Located 50 km west of the city of Agra (the city of the Taj Mahal), it is also the administrative headquarters of Bharatpur District. Bharatpur is located at 27.22|N|77.48|E|[1]. It has an average elevation of 183 metres (600 foot).

Tahsils in Bharatpur district

Demographics

As of 2001 India census, Bharatpur had a population of 2,04,560. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Bharatpur has an average literacy rate of 66%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with male literacy of 75% and female literacy of 56%. 15% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Jat Gotras

Villages in Bharatpur tahsil

Bird Sanctuary Bharatpur

Achalpura, Adda, Addi, Aghapur, Ajan, Anipur, Araji Salga, Athaira, Bachhamandi, Bagdhari, Baghai, Bahnera, Bajhera, Banji, Bansi Birahna, Bansi Kalan, Bansi Khurd, Barakhur, Barso ( Rural ), Basua, Bhandor, Bharangarpur, Bharatpur, (M) Bilauthi, Birawai, Bisda, Chak Bahnera, Chak Baltikari, Chak Bhandor, Chak Choba, Chak Darapur No. 1, Chak Darapur No. 2, Chak Daulatpur, Chak Ekta, Chak Hathkauli, Chak Kazi, Chak Kurka, Chak Mahroli Mafi, Chak Nagla Phatiyar, Chak Nagla Teeketa, Chak Nashwariya, Chak Ramnagar, Chak Shyorawali, Chak Shyosingh, Chak Unchagaon, Chak Undra, Charliganj, Chichana, Chiksana, Chitokhari, Chokipura, Darapur, Dayopura, Dhadholi, Dhanagarh, Dhanota, Dharmpura, Dhaur, Dhormui, Ekta, Gaonri, Garhi Zalimsingh, Ghana Bhandor, Ghasaula, Ghehari, Ghusyari, Girdharpur, Gundwa, Habeebpur, Hathaini, Hindola, Ikaran, Jagheena ( Rural ), Jatoli Ghana ( Rural ), Jatoli Rathman, Jharoli, Jheelara ( Rural ), Jiroli, Kakalpura, Kalyanpur, Kanjoli, Kaprola, Kaproli, Karoth, Kasoda, Khadera, Kharera, Khemra, Khokhar, Kolipura Bharatpur, Koomha, Ludhabai, Madarpur, Madhoni, Madoli, Mahchauli, Mahganwa, Mahua, Maigoojar, Malah, Maloni, Mehtoli, Moondota, Moroli Kalan, Moroli Khurd, Murwara, Nagla Abhairam, Nagla Bandh, Nagla Bhat, Nagla Churaman, Nagla Dharm Singh, Nagla Dulheram, Nagla Gopal ( Rural ), Nagla Gulabi, Nagla Harchand, Nagla Hathaini, Nagla Hatheepura, Nagla Kalyanpur, Nagla Karansingh, Nagla Kesariya, Nagla Lodha, Nagla Nathu Ram, Nagla Parsuram, Nagla Pema, Nagla Phatiyar, Nagla Raoji, Nagla Seekham, Nagla Taroda, Nagla Teeketa, Nauganwa, Noorpur, Par, Peepla, Peernagar, Phulwara, Pilua, Piryani, Ramnagar, Rundh Ikaran, Sahnawali, Samaspur Khurd, Sanhooli, Senthra, Shreenagar ( Rural ), Shyorana, Sinpini, Sooti, Sukhawali, Sunari, Taharki, Tanda, Tatamar, Tehra Lodha, Thei, Tontpur ( Rural ), Tuhiya, Unchagaon, Undra, Vamanpura,

The Jat Uprising of 1669

Read in details in The Jat Uprising of 1669
Vir Var Gokula


Paradoxical though it might appear and strange though it might seem, The Jat Uprising of 1669 under Gokula occurred at a time when the Mughal government was by no means weak or imbecile. [2] In fact this period of Aurangzeb’s reign witnessed the climax of the Mughal Empire.[3], [4] during the early medieval period frequent breakdown of law and order often induced the Jats to adopt a refractory course. [5] But, with the establishment of the Mughal rule, law and order was effectively established and we do not come across any major Jat revolt during the century and a half proceeding the reign of Aurangzeb. [6] Though in 1638 Murshid Quli Khan, the Mughal faujdar of Mathura was killed during an operation against Jats. During the reign of Aurangzeb, the faujdar of Mathura in 1669 was none other than Abdun Nabi who incurred the wrath of people.[7]

History

Coat of arms of Bharatpur rulers
The young Maharaja of Bharatpur Jaswunt Singh, aged about eleven, in his durbar or court in 1862. The young prince sits in the centre of his guddee or royal seat, which is of velvet richly embroidered with gold. Behind him are four servants, two of whom hold merchauls of peacocks' feathers, and the chouree of yak's tail hair.In two rows on either side of the Rajah, the nobles and sirdars of the state are seated, who may be relatives, or officers in various parts of the state services.

The town was named Bharatpur after Bharata, a brother of Lord Rama, whose other brother Laxman is the family deity of the erstwhile royal family of Bharatpur. The name 'Laxman' was engraved on the arms, seals and other emblems of the state.

Rustam, a Jat chieftain belonging to the Sogariya clan founded Chau Burj. With the decline of the mughal empire in the early 17th century, the Jats established a state in the Mewat region south of Delhi, with its capital at Deeg. Leaders like Gokula, Raja Ram, Churaman and Badan Singh brought the Jats together and moulded them into a force to be reckoned with.

Map of Bharatpur state at the time of Maharaja Suraj Mal

Maharaja Suraj Mal was the state's greatest ruler; he made the state a formidable force in the region. Suraj Mal took over the site of Chau Burj from Khemkaran, a son of Rustam, and established it as the capital of his state, founding the city and the fort of Bharatpur. He fortified the city by building a massive wall around it.

During the British Raj, the state covered an area of 5,123 km².; its rulers enjoyed a salute of 17 guns. The state acceded unto the dominion of India in 1947. It was merged with three nearby princely states to form the 'Matsya Union', which in turn was merged with other adjoining territories to create the present-day state of Rajasthan.

In the early 17th century, the peasant folk of Bharatpur in Rajasthan were being terrorised and ill treated by the Mughals. At this point of time Churaman, a powerful Jat village headman rose against this tyranny but was defeated harshly by the Mughals. This did not remain for long, since the Jats once again came together under the leadership of Badan Singh, and controlled a vast expanse of territory. He was recognized by the Mughal emperor and the title of "Raja" (king) was conferred upon him in 1724.

Deeg was the first capital of the Bharatpur state with Badan Singh being proclaimed its ruler in 1722. He was responsible for conceiving and constructing the royal palace on the southern side of the garden, now called Purana Mahal or old palace. Because of its strategic location and proximity to Mathura and Agra, Deeg was vulnerable to repeated attacks by invaders. In 1730, crown prince Surajmal is reported to have erected the strong fortress with towering walls and a deepwater moat with high ramparts about 20 feet wide in the southern portion of the town.

His heir, Raja Surajmal, was the most famous of the Bharatpur rulers, ruling at a time of constant upheaval around him. Raja Surajmal used all his power and wealth to a good cause, and built numerous forts and palaces across his kingdom, one of them being the Lohagarh Fort, which was one of the strongest ever built in Indian history.

He was succeeded to the throne by his son, Jawahar Singh. An incident that is very popular about Jawahar Singh relates to the Pushkar Snan(Bath).

Jawahar Singh travelled to Pushkar,along with his troupes, in Samvat 1828 on Kartika Sudi Purnima. On reaching the site Jawahar Singh saw the beautifully constructed bathing enclosures which were meant soleful for the Rajput kings. He was asked to bathe in the kachha (mud) bank on the other side of the lake, known as gawar ghat. But Jawahar Singh and his mother Maharani Kishori not only decided to bathe in the pukka ghat but also constructed a new one, now popular as the Bharatpur ghat.

Incensed by this act of defiance, the Raja of Jaipur attacked Jawahar Singh in December 1767 but was humbled at the battle of Maonda. Thus a triumphant Jawahar Singh returned to Bharatpur.

Later in the 19th century, Bharatpur was under constant attack, when the British invaded India. The British laid siege to the fort in 1825, but after four months and great losses, they had to retreat. This gave the ruler an upper hand against the British, and Bharatpur became the first state to sign to a treaty of Permanent Equal Friendship with the East India Company. This gave Bharatpur a chance to live in peace throughout the rest of the British period, and they continued to rule till 1947.

Chronology of Bharatpur rulers

Rulers of Bharatpur were from Sinsinwar Jat clan. Chronology of Bharatpur rulers is as under:

Flag of Bharatpur State

Flag of Bharatpur State

Bharatpur was as princely state, was the only political entity ever to have a Chartreuse colored flag. [8]

Salutes

Bharatpur's salute is of 17 guns, equal to that of Jaipur, Jodhpur, Tonk, Bikaner, Bundi, Kota and Karauli. In the case of the last, it was raised from 15 for Maharaja Madan Pal for his services during the mutiny of 1857 but as the rule of personal salutes had not till then come in force it continued for his successors also. Udaipur alone in Rajputana has a salute of 19 guns, most of the other States have 15 guns and some even less. For his able administration and loyalty to the Imperial Government Maharaja Jaswant Singh had his personal salute increased to 19 guns in 1890. [9]

Jat Khaps in Bharatpur district

  • Source: Jat Bandhu, April 1991

PIN Codes of villages in Bharatpur district

Akhaigarh 321614 • Anaha Gate Bharatpur 321001 • Atal Band Mandi 321001 • Bahaj 321208 • Bahtana 321209 • Ballabhgarh 321409 • Band Baretha 321405 • Bansi Paharpur 321403 • Barkhera 321036 • Baroli Bharatpur 321416 • Basan Darwaza 321001 • Bayana Bazariya 321401 • Bayana H O 321401 • Bayana Jain Gali 321401 • Bayana Kutchery 321401 • Bharatpur 321001 • Bharatpur Agency 321001 • Bharatpur City 321001 • Bharatpur H O 321001 • Bhusawar 321406 • Bhusawar Town 321406 • Bilond 321035 • Brahambad 321410 • Bus Stand Kaman 321022 • Bus Stand Kumher 321201 • Bus Stand Nagar 321205 • Chauburja Bharatpur 321001 • Chhonkerwara Kalan 321407 • Collectorate 321001 • Deeg Court 321203 • Deeg H O 321203 • Deeg Laxman Mandir 321203 • Dahra 321034 • Depot 321026 • Dhana Kherli 321427 • Gadoli 321603 • Garhi Bajna 321423 • Ghatri 321412 • Gopalgarh 321211 • Gopalgarh Bharatpur 321001 • Gopinath Mohalla 321022 • Gulpara 321031 • Halena 321601 • Industrial Area Bharatpur 321001 • Isapur Katara 321035 • Itamda 321417 • Jaghina 321021 • Jagjiwanpur 321426 • Jalalpur 321029 • Jeewad 321425 • Jurhera 321023 • Kaithwara 321032 • Kaman 321022 • Kanjoli Lines Bharatpur 321001 • Khan Surajpur 321428 • Khankhera 321430 • Khanwa 321420 • Khareri 321411 • Kherli Gadasia 321028 • Khoh 321206 • Kotwali Bharatpur 321001 • Krishna Colony 321001 • Kumher 321201 • Kumher Gate Bharatpur 321001 • Laxman Mandir Bharatpur 321001 • Ludhawai 321305 • Mahalpur Chura 321424 • Mahila Vidyapeeth 321406 • Mai 321033 • Majajpur 321415 • Marena Bharatpur 321027 • Mathura Darwaza Bharatpur 321001 • Milakpur 321304 • Nadbai 321602 • Nadbai Town 321602 • Nagar Bharatpur 321205 • Narharpur 321418 • Nayagaon Khalsa 321419 • New Mandi Bharatpur 321001 • Nithar 321414 • Pahari 321204 • Pathena 321615 • Penghore 321202 • Pichuna 321301 • Pinghera 321030 • Purani Deeg 321203 • Ranjeet Nagar Bharatpur 321001 • Rareh 321025 • Rudawal 321402 • Rupbas 321404 • Rupbas Town 321404 • Salasar 321506 • Salempur Kalan 321413 • Salempur Khurd 321421 • Samraya 321422 • Sawai 321207 • Sawai Kheda 321207 • Sewar 321303 • Sikri 321024 • Siras 321429 • Thoon 321210 • Uchain 321302 • Wagon Factory Bharatpur 321001 • Weir 321408 • Weir Town 321408 • Adda 321411 • Aghapur 321001 • Ajan 321025 • Ajau 321303 • Anahgatebharatpur Ndtso 321001 • Andhiyari 321302 • Aroda 321411 • Atari 321028 • Baben 321026 • Bachhamdi 321302 • Bachhamdi Noh 321001 • Bagren 321411 • Bajhera Kalan 321408 • Band Baretha So 321405 • Banshi Paharpur So 321403 • Bansi Khurd 321303 • Barakhur 321021 • Bareh Mafi 321301 • Bargha 321301 • Barkheda 321028 • Baroda 321402 • Barso 321001 • Bayana Mdg 321401 • Bazariya Bayana Ndtso 321401 • Behnera 321001 • Bhainsa 321301 • Bhandore 321026 • Bharatpur Agency Ndtso 321001 • Bharatpur City Nd Mdg 321001 • Bhawanpura 321405 • Bhont 321303 • Bidiyari 321401 • Bilothi 321025 • Borai 321026 • Brahmbad So 321410 • Chak Samri 321404 • Chauburja Bharatpurndtso 321001 • Chenkora 321404 • Chichana 321001 • Chiksana 321001 • Collectorate Btp Ndtso 321001 • Dahgaon 321401 • Dahina Gaon 321402 • Damdama 321401 • Dana Khedli 321403 • Daulat Garh 321404 • Dhadhren 321411 • Dhanota 321303 • Dharsoni 321028 • Dhormui 321025 • Dorda 321404 • Dumaria 321405 • Ekta 321302 • Farso 321401 • Forest Lodge 321001 • Gajipur 321411 • Gaomdi 321021 • Ghusiyari 321001 • Gobra 321401 • Gopalgarh Btp Ndtso 321001 • Hatheni 321021 • Hatizar 321028 • Helak 321303 • Hishamada 321408 • Ibrahimpur 321404 • Ikran 321001 • Ind.area Btp Gds Ndso 321001 • Jaghina Dso 321021 • Jahangirpur 321028 • Jain Gali Bayana Ndtso 321401 • Jatmasi 321403 • Jatoli Rathbhan 321025 • Jharoli 321303 • Jotroli 321403 • K.u.m.bharatpur Ndtso 321001 • Kachahri Bayana 321401 • Kakraua 321402 • Kanavar 321401 • Kanjoli Line Btp Dso 321026 • Kapoora Malooka 321411 • Karwari 321411 • Kasoda 321026 • Keir 321411 • Khan Kheda 321411 • Khan Surjapur 321404 • Khareri So 321411 • Khera Thakur 321402 • Kherli Gadasia Dso 321028 • Khohra 321401 • Khunt Kheda 321411 • Kot 321405 • Kotwalibharatpur Ndtso 321001 • Krishna Colony Btp Ndtso 321001 • Kumha 321303 • Kumhergate Btp Ndtso 321001 • Kurka 321301 • Lakhanpur 321408 • Lehchora Kalan 321401 • Ludhawai Gds So 321305 • Madanpur 321411 • Madha Pura 321402 • Madhoni 321026 • Mahaloni 321401 • Mahalpur Choora 321403 • Mahmadpura 321405 • Mahua 321303 • Malah 321001 • Maloni 321404 • Mandoli 321402 • Mathura Gate Btp Ndtso 321001 • Mehrawar 321411 • Mertha 321404 • Milsama 321404 • Moroli Dang 321402 • Moroli Kalan 321025 • Mudhera 321302 • Mudota 321303 • Muhari 321408 • Murwara 321026

 Nagla Nathu Ram  321406

Nagla Tehriyan 321302 • Nagla Tula 321405 • Nahroli 321401 • Naroli 321410 • Navali 321401 • Nayagaon 321404 • Nekpur 321302 • New Mandi Btp Ndtso 321001 • Nibhera 321402 • Noharda 321404 • Ondelgaddi 321404 • Pali Dang 321405 • Par 321303 • Paraswara 321028 • Paraua 321405 • Phulwara 321021 • Pichuna Dso 321301 • Pingora 321028 • Pipla 321021 • Purabai Kheda 321410 • Rahimgarh 321408 • Ranjeet Nagar Btp Ndtso 321001 • Rareh Dso 321025 • Raroda 321411 • Rasilpur 321402 • Roopbas So 321404 • Roopbas Town Ndtso 321404 • Rudawal So 321402 • Rundh 321404 • Sadpura 321410 • Salabad 321401 • Samogar 321411 • Samri 321405 • Santruk 321025 • Sehna 321302 • Sewar Dso 321303 • Shahpur Dang 321401 • Shekhpur 321028 • Sikandara 321401 • Singhada 321410 • Singhania 321405 • Sirrond 321403 • Sogar 321001 • Soopa 321410 • Suhans 321408 • Sunari 321001 • Takha 321025 • Tarsuma 321405 • Thana Tang 321401 • Tuhiya 321001 • Turtipura 321405 • Uchain Dso 321302 • Umrend 321408 • Uncha Gaom 321303 • Undra 321001 • Veerampura 321302 • Weir So 321408 • Weir Town Ndtso 321408

'भरतपुर लुट गया’ वाली लोकोक्ति

जगदीश चंद्रिकेश अपनी पुस्तक 'झूठ नहीं बोलता इतिहास' [10] में लिखते हैं कि ‘भरतपुर लुट गया’ वाली लोकोक्ति बहुत समय तक परेशान किए रही कि आखिर यह लोकोक्ति प्रचलन में आई तो आई कैसे ? इसका सूत्र मिला पं. सुंदरलाला की इतिहास पुस्तक ‘भारत में अंगरेजी राज’ पढ़ते समय, जिसमें 'बिटवीन्स द लाइन्स’ पढ़ने वाली लाइने थीं ,

'मुझे यह लिखते दुःख है कि खाई इतनी अधिक चौड़ी और गहरी निकली कि उसे पार करने की जितनी कोशिशे की गईं, सब बेकार गईं....हम पर इतनी देर तक जोर से और ठीक निशानों के साथ फसील की तोपों के गोले बरसते रहे कि हमारा बहुत अधिक नुकसान हुआ।’

-ये वे पंक्तियां हैं, जो जनरल लेक ने अपनी विफलता के बारे में गवर्नर जनरल मार्क्विस वेल्जली को लिखी थीं। भरतपुर को हथियाने के लिए अंग्रेजों ने पूरी तैयारी के साथ 21 जनवरी, 1805 को दूसरे हमले में भरतपुर की घेराबंदी कर बारह दिन तक गोलाबारी की, लेकिन पहले हमले की तरह इस बार भी वे भरतपुर का कुछ न बिगाड़ सके। अंततः उन्हें पीछे हटना पड़ा। फिर 20 फरवरी को तीसरा हमला किया गया। वह भी बेकार गया। इस तरह तीन-तीन बार के जबरदस्त हमलों को झेलकर भरतपुर की फसीलों ने अंग्रेजों के घमंड को इस बुरी तरह चूर कर दिया कि अंग्रेजों ने बीस साल तक भरतपुर की ओर आँख उठा कर भी नहीं देखा। फिर भी भरतपुर उनके दिल में काँटे की तरह चुभता रहा, तभी तो इन तीन-तीन हमलों के नौ साल बाद भी लॉर्ड मेटकॉफ को लिखना पड़ा कि,

‘...हमारी सैनिक कीर्ति का अधिकतर भाग भरतपुर में दफन हो गया।’

इसके बाद जाट इतिहास और राजा सूरजमल को पढ़ने पर पूरी तस्वीर उभरकर सामने आई कि भरतपुर के अभेद्य दुर्ग और जाटों की दुर्दम्य जुझारू शक्ति उस कालखंड में अपने सर्वोच्च पर थी और इसने अंग्रेजों को जितना आतंकित किया और सताया था उसी का बदला अंग्रेजों ने भरतपुर को बुरी तरह लूटकर लिया। भरतपुर की आबादी को बेदर्दी से मारा-काटा गया। जिनके पास कुछ भी नहीं था उन लोगों के बाल तक उखाड़ लिए। किसी के पास कुछ नहीं छोड़ा, तभी तो भरतपुर का लुटना लोकोक्ति बन गया।

Notable persons

  • Dalip Singh (Parihar) - X.En. RSEB , Home District : Bharatpur, Date of Birth : 2-May-1951, Address : 20/148, Mansarowar, Jaipur, Phone: 0141-2392293, Mob: 9413335656
  • Jag Mohan Singh (Agre) - RAS, Land Acquisition Officer, Udaipur, Address : Mohalla Gopalgarh,Bharatpur, Phone : 02942430907, Mob:9414072223
  • P. M. Chouhan - Addl. Dir. ( Retd. ) Agriculture, Date of Birth : 30-January-1949, Home District : Bharatpur, Present Address : 1212/A-2, Barakat Nagar, Tonk Phatak, Jaipur, Raj. Mob: 9799496122
  • Satendra Kumar (Sirohi) - X.En. PWD, Date of Birth : 23-September-1961, Permanent Address : 40, Geeta Colony, Agra Road, Bharatpur, Present Address : KR-356, Chambal Garden Road , Kota, Phone: 0744-2501297, Mob: 9829113596

See also

External links

References

  1. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Bharatpur
  2. Girish Chandra Dwivedi, The Jats – Their role in the Mughal empire, Ed by Dr Vir Singh. Delhi, 2003, p. 15
  3. J.N.Sarkar, History of Auranzeb (Calcutta): 1912, I, Introduction, XI-XIII
  4. F.X. Wendel, Memoires des Jats, 10
  5. J.N. Sarkar, History of Auranzeb (Calcutta): 1912, I, Introduction, XXVIII f.
  6. Girish Chandra Dwivedi, The Jats – Their role in the Mughal empire, Ed by Dr Vir Singh. Delhi, 2003, p. 15
  7. Dr P.L. Vishwakarma, The Jats, Vol.I, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2004, p. 113
  8. Baratpur—Indian Princely State—the only political entity ever to have a chartreuse colored flag:
  9. History of Bharatpur/Chapter III, p.54
  10. जगदीश चंद्रिकेश: झूठ नहीं बोलता इतिहास, प्रकाशक : परमेश्वरी प्रकाशन, प्रकाशित जनवरी ०१, २००८

Further reading


Back to History