Garhmukteshwar (गढ़मुक्तेश्वर) is an ancient city and tahsil in Ghaziabad district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It was founded by Garhwal gotra Jats. About five kilometres from Garhmukteshwar town, flows the holy river GANGA.
Villages in Garhmukteshwar tahsil
Abdullapur, Abidpur Kadi, Ahasanpur, Aidalpur Parsadipur, Akbarpur Buklana, Akkhapur Urf Akhtyarpur, Alam Bhagwantpur, Alamgirpur, Alampur, Alapur, Allabuxpur, Alladadpur Urf Kulpur, Allipur, Anuppur Divae, Athsaini, Badarkha, Bagadpur, Bahadur Garh, Bangoli, Bhadsyana, Bhagwanpur, Bhagwati Urf Lisdi, Bhaina Sadarpur, Bharna, Bhowapur, Bhowapur Mastan Nagar, Bihooni, Bilhara, Birampur, Buddha, Buxer, Chandener, Chittauda Mahiuddinpur, Dahra, Dariapur Khurd, Dariyapur, Dattyana, Dautai, Deoli, Dhana, Dhanpura, Dholpur, Faridpur Gusai, Faridpur Simbhavali, Fattapur, Gadawali, Gandhu Nagla (Mandhunagla), Garhmukteshwar (MB), Haiderpur, Hakimpur Gavadi, Haroda, Hasupura, Himmatpur, Inayatpur, Jakhera Rahmatpur, Jamalpur, Jhadina, Kalyanpur, Kanaur, Karimpur, Kataura Zafarabad, Kati Urf Shankara Teela, Kazamabad Urf Jamalpur, Khadakpur, Khagoi, Khanpur Makhanpur, Kheda, Khilwai, Khurana Jahangirabad, Kirawali, Kopla, Kutubpur, Ladpura, Lahadara, Lathira, Lodipur Chhapka, Lodipur Soban, Luhari, Manak Chauk, Mohammadpur Khudalia, Mohammadpur Muradpur, Mohammadpur Rustampur, Mohd Shakarpur, Mukimpur, Muradpur, Muradpur Janupura, Nagla Bar, Nagli, Nawada Kalan, Nawada Khurd, Neknampur Fuldi, Neknampur Nanai, Niyaypur Khayya, Nizampur Urf Mahiranpur, Palwada, Paswada, Paupai, Pavati, Peer Nagar, Phuldahara, Pooth, Raharwa, Rajapur, Rajheda, Rajheti, Rajpur, Rampur Nyamatpur, Rasoolabad Nanpur, Ratupura, Rawasan Urf Shaugadh, Sadullapur Lodi, Sahaspur, Saidpur, Saina, Salarpur, Salhabad, Saloni, Saroorpur, Sehal, Shahpur Chaudhri, Sharifabad, Sharifpur, Sherpur, Sikandarpur, Sikhauda Muradabad, Singanpur, Todarpur, Vait, Wahabpur Thera Ideva,
As of 2001 India census, Garhmukteshwar had a population of 33,432. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Garhmukteshwar has an average literacy rate of 50%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 58%, and female literacy is 41%. In Garhmukteshwar, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age.
According to Thakur Deshraj, during the period of Anangpal Garhwals were the rulers of Garhmukteshwar. One ancestor of Rajpal was Jat chieftain named Mukta Singh, who constructed the Garhmukteshwar fort. When Prithvi Raj Chauhan became the ruler of Delhi he attacked Garhmukteshwar. There was a severe war and Garhwals were able to repel the army of Prithvi Raj Chauhan but the circumstances of the time forced them to move out from there and to migrate to Rajasthan.
At Talawdi when there was war between Muhammad Ghori and Prithvi Raj, Jats attacked the army of Afghans but they did not support Prithvi Raj Chauhan also. This was so, because he had occupied their ancestral state. One Jat warrior Puran Singh became General of the Army of Malkhan. Malkhan had become popular due to support of Puran Singh.
When Garhwals lost Garhmukteshwar, they came to Rajasthan and occupied Ker, Bhatiwar, Chhawsari etc near Jhunjhunu in 13th century. As per their bards when these people came to this place, Johiya, Mohiya Jats were the rulers of this area. Bhats have mentioned them as Tomars. When influence of Islam increased in this area they had to wage wars with them But they were compelled to leave this place too. As a result they started to scatter in various directions from there. One of their groups moved to Kuloth, which was ruled by Chauhans. After a war they occupied Kuloth. Sardar Kurdaram who was a descendant of Garhwals of Kuloth had been tehsildar of Nawalgarh.
It is also said that due to war from inside of the fort they were called Garhwals. Those who fought war from out side the fort were called ‘Bahrola’ or ‘Barola’. Those who fought on the gate were called ‘Falsa’ (local name for gate). It shows that this gotra is title based.
It is also possible that Garhwals were Panduvansi or Kuntals. Bhats have mentioned them as Tomars and Tomars were also Panduvansi. Garhmukteshwar has also been mentioned in the Bhagvat Purana and the Mahabharata. It is said that it was a part of the ancient city of Hastinapur (the capital of the Kauravas). There was an ancient fort here, which was repaired by a Maratha leader named Mir Bhawan. The name of the place is derived from the great temple of Mukteshwar Mahadeva, dedicated to the goddess Ganga who is worshipped here in four temples, two situated on a high cliff and two blow it.
Dod Rulers of Garhmukteshwar
H.A. Rose writes that Dod (दोद), is a Rajput tribe found in Hoshiarpur. The Dods are almost entirely confined to the Bit tract in the Siwaliks, their head being the Rana of Manaswal†. The Dods are Jadav or Chandrbansi by origin. Tradition avers that they once fought an enemy 1-1/2 times as numerous as themselves, and so became called Deorha, whence Dod. The clan once ruled in Orissa, whence Deo Chand fought his "way to Delhi, defeated its rulers, the Turs (Tunwars), and then conquered Jaijon : —
- Orisa se charhiya Raja Deo Chand Baryāhan Tika ae.
- Tur Raja auliyān jo thake fauj rachae,
- Tur chhadde nathke jo mil baithe hai,
- Dod Garh Muktesar men jo mile chāre thāon, —
Thus Deo Chand came to Jaijon and ruled the Dodba, His descendant Jai Chand gave his name to Jaijon. The Dod Rdjā was, however, defeated by a Raja of Jaswān, and his four sons separated, one taking Jaijon, the second Kungrat, the third Manaswal Garhi and the fourth Saroa. Jaijon and Saroa were subsequently lost to the Dods, and after their defeat by Jaswān they sank to the status of rānas, losing that of Rajas. Of the 22 villages dependent on Kungrat, none pay talukdāri to the rāna who is a mere co-proprietor in Kungrat, as the family lost its position during the Sikh rule. The Rana of Manaswāl, however, maintained his position under the Sikhs and holds most of the 22 Mdnaswal villages (Bit = 22) in jāgir, his brothers holding the rest.
Another account runs thus : —
Four leaders of the tribe migrated from Udaipur to Garh Mandāl,1100 years ago, and thence to Garh Muktasar. Thence Jodh Chand seized Manaswal, expelling Hira, the Mahton leader, whose tribe held the tract, 40 generations ago. Rana Chacho Chand, the 19th Rana, was attacked by the Katoch ruler, but his brother Tilok Singh (Tillo) defeated him at Mahudpur in Una, and Tillo's shrine at Bhawani is reverenced to this day. In Sambat 1741 Rana Jog Chand repelled a Jaswal invasion. Rana Bakht Chand annexed Bhalan, with 12 dependent villages, in Una. His successor, Ratn Chand, repelled a Jaswal army under
- * Maclagan, § 101. The Diwana Sadhs appear to be a sect of the Malwa with head-quarters at Pi'r-pind in (?)
- † But the Manj Rajputs have a baiya in Bit Manaswal, according to Mr. Coldstream in Punjab Notes and Queries I, § 465.
[Page-244]: Bhagwan Singh Sonkhla who was killed, and in his memory a shrine at Kharali was erected. A treaty now defined the Jaswal and Dod territories. Under Mian Gulab Singh regent during Achal Chand's minority, Nadir Shah is said to have visited the tract and ordered a massacre of the Rasali people, but the Rana obtained from him a grant of Bathri, then a Jaswal village. Rana Jhagar Chand, however, espoused the Jaswals' cause, when they were attacked by Sansar Chand of Kangra in 1804 A.D., and repulsed him. On Ranjit Singh's invasion of the Manaswal plateau, the Rana was confirmed in his possessions, subject to a contingent of 15 horse. The rule of inheritance was primogeniture, mitigated by a system of lopping off villages as fiefs for younger sons, many of whose descendants still hold villages, thus reducing the size of the estate.
- Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihasa (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992, p. 558
- A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/D, p.243-44
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