History of Origin of Some Clans in India/Jat From Jutland
History of Origin of Some Clans in India
(with special Reference to Jats)
By Mangal Sen Jindal (1992)
Publisher - Sarup & Sons, 4378/4B, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-110002, ISBN 81-85431-08-6
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Chapter 1: Jat From Jutland
Jats, their Different Names
Jats, their Different Names and Spellings in Various Countries and Languages in Eurasia:
Jats according to the language and philosophy of various countries in Eurasia and their dialect are known by different names with different spellings, having almost the same pronunciation though with different accent. They are called Jats in Haryana, U.P. and some other parts of India. They are called Juts in Punjab and Jits in Rajasthan (India).
- In Germany they are called Gotas.
- In Jutland (Denmark) they are Juts;
- in Sweden Gots;
- in Gothland (an island in Baltic sea) they are Goths;
- in Persia and Uzbekistan and the rest of USSR, they are known as Jats;
- in Greece Jaiti;
- in Arabia Jott ;
- in Latin they were called Giate ;
- in Mongolia Jatah;
- in Turkey and Egypt Jatt ;
- in China they were known as Uchi etc. etc.
Please refer to the following authorities in this connection as also reference will be found in other chapters of this work.
The Jat Itihas on page 42 refers to Cunningham, Herodotus and Strabo who said that "Jats in India are descendants of Gaths, Jaiti, Gatti, Juti, Schuchi, are European tribes." Page 44 says that in Persia there were Jut (जत), in Greece Jaiti, in Latin Giate, in China Uchi (यूती) in Rome Geoth. The book at
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page 44 further refers to a research work viz., 'Portholan' by Ch. Dhanraj Singh B.A., P.C.S., Banda page 108 to his works where the scholar has referred to cities established by Jats in European Countries, e.g.,
- (1) Jata (Jativa) in Spain,
- (2) Jatendal in Sweden,
- (3) Jatingan in Persia,
- (4) The land of Jata in Greece,
- (5) Jaton in Dalmatia,
- (6) The Jathingilanbs in Germany.
Longman's Senior Atlas for India 1934 Edition on page 33 names the Southern portion of Sweden as 'Gotland' wherein the name of a city is 'Goteborg'. In Baltic Sea, there is a big island which used to be a trade centre of importance sometime back is named 'Gothland', The words are definitely connected with Jats or Goths.
'Jat' is a modern pronunciation of 'Jut'. The original word is 'Jut' which is so pronounced in majority of the clan'. Refer to page 43 of Jat Kshatria Itihas. We hear such terms as 'Jut Devta' and 'Jut Brain'. In Punjab and amongst Sikhs, the word used is 'Jut'. Jat is primarily a martial race who later on adopted to agriculture in India and elsewhere.
Jutland (Jatisthan) must necessarily be the 'home' of Juts. It is the same as England is home of English people. You may find English men anywhere in the world and can authentically say that he has got blood relations with England. So is the case with Bilauchistan, the land of Bilauchs: Hindustan, the land of Hindus; Uzbekistan, the land of Uzbeks ; Gothland, the land of Goths ; Finland, the land of Fins; Mangolia, the land of Mangols ; Zulu-land, the land of Zulus; Ghoristan, the land of Ghors ; etc.
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Therefore the Jats of the whole world, by whatever name they are known in their respective countries bear blood ties with the people of Jutland. The peninsula of Denmark was named as Jutland at pages 27 and 33 of Longmens Senior Atlas for India, 1934 Edition. This name finds mention at more than dozens of places in 'Denmark Official Handbook'. It is sometimes after 1935 that the name has been respelt as Jy-land.
Shri Desraj quotes religious book of Scandinavia namely Aidda (एढ़डा) saying that ancient inhabitants of Scandinavia were Jttas (जटैस) and Jits (जिट्स) who were called Aryans and they were originally residents of Asigarh which is situated in district Neemar in Malwa, Jat Itihas page 61.
Pronunciation of a word in various forms is corroborated by the following quotations:
"There is no greater improbability in deriving Jat, Jaat or Jut, as the tribal name is pronounced in various forms in the different provinces from the Indian Yadava than from the Chinese Yuti of Ye-ta-ll-to" History of Jats by Qanungo, page 19.
"The race is variously designated. It is called Yati, Get, Jaut, Jhat, Jit, Jaat and Jat. It is very numerous in the Punjab and Rajasthan and in both places is known as 'Jit'. Its traditions state that its ancient home was to the west of the Indus." Hindu Tribes, Castes, Vol. 1, page 233.
Different spellings and different accent of a noun by different languages speaking people is not uncommon. Only 150 years ago, the Britishers on a Zero mile stone in front of St. Josephs Inter College, Meerut spelt the following nouns as under:
Muzoforonagar = Muzaffarnagar
Alyiagarhya = Aligarh
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Only in past one decade the following names and spellings. have changed from: Cawnpore to Kanpur Panjab to Punjab Banaras to Varanasi Poona to Pune United Provinces to Uttar Pradesh
There are other examples of this kind such as :
The Jakhars are a clan of the same tribe.
Hindu Tribes and Castes, page 235 Vol. I.
"Jit-In all the ancient catalogues of the thirty-six royal races of India, the Jit has a place, though by none is he ever styled "Rajpoot".
In the Punjab they still retain their ancient name of jit. On the Jumna and Gangas they are styled Jats, of whom the chief of Bharatpur is the most conspicuous. On the Indus and in the Saurashtra they are termed Juts.
The kingdom of the great Gete, whose capital was on the Jaxartes, preserved its integrity and name from the period of Cyrus of the fourteenth Century, when it was converted from idolatry to the faith of Islam. Herodotos informs us that the Getes were theists and held the tenet of the souls immortality and De Gui Gnes from Chinese authorities asserts that at a very early period they had embraced the religion of Fo or Boodha .... Of the first migration from central Asia of this race within the Indus, we have no record; it must have been simultaneous with the Takshac,
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"The Getes had long maintained their independence when Tomyris depended their liberty against Cyrus. Driven in successive wars across the Sutledge, we shall elsewhere show them preserving their ancient habits, as desultory cavaliers, under the Jit leader of Lahore, in pastoral communities, in Bikaner, the Indian desert and elsewhere, though they have lost sight of their early history. The transition from pastoral to agricultural pursuits is but short, and descendant of the nomadic Gete of Transoxana is now the best husband man on the plains of Hindustan." Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan Vol. I, page 53.
"Darius (Dara) had an ambition to conquer Europe, as Cyrus had subdued Asia and Cambyses Africa; but the Scythians and other war-like races there were more powerful than any brabaric tribes whom the Persians had already encountered. There were numerous people, whose half savage habits are described by contemporary historians, including the Getae in modern Bulgaria, the Sauromatae (men of the north) to the west of the Caspian; and between to Don and Volga, the Budini, 'a numerous race with blue eyes and red hair', according to Herodotus. The last were celebrated for their religious rites, and lived by herding and farming; and some ethnologists find them to be the ancestors of the Norse race who afterwards settled in Scandinavia, and in due time had a good share in making up the early English and Scottish population. The name of this Aryan race suggests, Woden or Odin, the great Gods of our forefathers. Having crossed the Bosphorus by a bridge of boats, Darius and his Persians Overran Thrace, conquered the Getae, and then passed to the left bank of the Danube."....The story of Extinct Civilization of the East, page 187."
"The population of Jats in India according to Shri Qanoongo in 1925 was about nine million souls. Shri Qanoongo refers to Asia by A.H. Keena ed. Shri Richard Temple, pp. 210, 218 to support to saying that,
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"Beyond the Indus there is also a sprinking of the Jat population in Peshawar, Baluchistan and even to the west of the Sulaiman range," because referred pages of the book contain the fact that "In Karman (Persia near Sistan) and Irak, there is a mixed Jat and Gipsy population of about 20,000 souls, and in Makran (Afghanistan) about 50,000. This race forms the backbone of the agricultural community in the Panjab, Sindh, Rajasthan and the western portion of the Gangetic Doab." History of Jats by Qanungo, page 2.
"They (Jats) are indeed bold peasantry, their country's pride, accustomed to guide the ploughs and wield the sword with equal readiness and success." History of Jats by Qanungo, Page 2.
Amongst Hindus, all high born castes have got their own 'Gotras' Vaish Agarwal have 18 Gotras and Brahmans also a few. Likewise, other castes also have their own Gotras. The significance is that males and females born of the same Gotra are considered to be the brothers and sisters, being descendents of a common ancestor. Marriage between the males and females of the same Gotra is forbidden by Hindu Shastras. I have found greatest number of Gotras in the Jats. I have already counted one hundred and there are still many more not listed hereinafter. This fact proves that in times bygone, Jats migrated into India in waves, one after the other in large numbers. The descendents from one head of the family who migrated, adopted the name of the head as his Gotra. Sometimes the name of the place from where they migrated was also adopted as a Gotra.
List of Some of Jat Gotras in India
Some of the Gotras in the Jats of India are :-
(1) Hala, (2) Budhwar, (3) Atri, (4) Kherey, (5) Dagur, (6) Nawnar, (7) Kakran, (1) Ahlawat, (9) Sahrawat or Solonki, (10) Maan, (11) Bhullar, (12) Haiir, (13) Dalal, (14) Deswal, (15) Seewag, (16) Balhare, (17) Kushan, (18) Tanwar, (19) Thanuwa, (20) Rawat, (21) Rao or Sarao, (22) Sahrawat, (23) Bhind Tanwar, (24) Anntal, (25) Jutran, (26) Janghara, (27) Saran, (28) Sikarwar, (29) Lamba, (30) Deihya, (31 Dwas Deihya, (32) Rana, (33) Nehra, (34) Balan, (35) Godara, (36) Godha, (37) Faur, (38) Gulia, (39) Tatran, (40) More. (41) Maurya, (42) Dahima, (43) Sindhu, (44) Sundhud, (45) Dharan-Dhariwal, (46) Dhankad, (47) Panwar, (48) Dhillo, (49) Bams, (50) Mehla, (51) Mawla, (52) Grewal, (53) Gurlwar, (54) Gazwa, (55) Rathi, (56) Mirdha, (57) Janwaar, (58) Aujlan, (59) Sidhh, (60) Chattha, (61) Adhraan, (62) Lathar, (63) Loohana, (64) Nadariay Bhohrey, (65) Bana, (66) Chhikara, (67) Paraswal, (68) Johiya, (69) Madhan, (70) Vahik, (71) Phoghaat, (72) Fhor, (73) ChohalI, (74) Hoodda, (75) Lall-Tiwana, (76) Malik, (77) Salkalan, (78) Narwal, (79) Lohaar, (80 Dahima, (81) Kadyan, (82) Belari, (83) Godha, (84) Mund Tod-Gahilawat, (85) Gauarya, (86) Tatran, (87) Sondhad, (88) Dharoyai, (89) Naubar, (90) Chebuk, (91) Randhawa, (92) Tavatia, (93) Rohal, (94) Baniwal, (95) Sirohi]], (96) Poonia, (97) Kinnoo, (98) Dabbas, (99) Chahar, (100) Kairan etc. etc.
The nature of some of their surnames indicate their connection with Europe. Some of the surnames are:
Jats, their Origin and Early Home, Whether Aryans
The original home of Jats is certainly connected with original home of Aryans; since Jat is definitely a tribe of Aryan race as will be found in succeeding pages. It is not the object of my work to trace the original home of Aryans since much research has been done on the subject and has been a matter of discussion since long. Regarding Aryans there are two different opinions which are given hereinafter. Some scholars hold the area of Baltic Sea to be their original land while others hold the same to be central Asia i.e., area now occupied by Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Iran and to the south of Caucasian mountains. In case, I adopt for former view the Jats migrated in Eurasia from Jutland and area to the north-east of it. If the later view is taken to be correct, then the conclusion would be that some families of the tribe migrated towards north-west India through Bolan. pass and other families moved westward
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to reach the jungles now comprised by Germany. From there, they moved northward to live in peace and established their home in peninsula of what is now known as Denmark and named the homeland as 'Jutland' and from there spread to Sweden, Gothland Island and U. S. S. R. Afterwards during the course of invasions and battles (described in later pages of this work), they established invasions countries of Asia and Europe as conquerors. It shall be seen that at a time, the Kingdom of Denmark which comprised of Sweden, Norway and Gothland was an important kingdom of Europe. It exercised influence on Germany, France and later on Roman Empire.
"The Aryans, at a prehistoric period, swarmed off, group after group, to found the early European nations, afterwards known as Celts, Greeks, Romans, Germans, Slavonians ; ;but a large section remained in Asia. The latter section split into two groups, one to descend on the plains of Hindustan, the other to, take possession finally of the great table-land of Iran" ....Story of extinct civilization of the East, page 149.
In India, they migrated in waves at intervals from the west. They at times and often immigrated from India to the west and Khyber passes.I have quoted at least one instance afterwards. The following quotations be studied regarding their home:
"The facts that there are conflicting traditions about the origin of the different Jat, Gotras and that even the Babbars of Dera Ghazi Khan claim to be Jats, clearly illustrate this." History of Jats by Qanungo, page 21.
"Much curious speculation has been expended on the origin of the Jats, which is not the object of this work to discuss, much less to argument." Vol. I, page 233 of Hindu Tribes and Castes.
"How perfectly in unison is all this of the Jits of Jutland and the Jits of Rajasthan. In each case hair is the chief object of admiration ; of Balnorth as Balder and the magical effect of the Runes is not more powerful than that attached by the chief or the Scalders of our Gete prince at the end of this inscription,
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best evidences in support of my hypothesis, that many of the Rajpoot races and Scandinavians have a common origin-that origin, Central Asia." Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. I, page 623.
"But the primary significance attached to the term Aryan, by Penka is the physical type represented by the Scandinavians, It is not to be wondered, therefore, that starting with this assumption Penka succeeded in proving, at least to his own satisfaction, that Scandinavia was the cradle land of the Indo-Europeans." Indian People Vol. I, page 209.
"It is curious to note that both Penka (op. cit. p. 56) and Tilak (See his artic home in the Vedas) independently of each other, arrived at the conclusion that the original home of the Aryans was situated in the Polar region. Penka depended on the evidence of Odyssey X-81.6, where short nights are spoken of. In the Vedic literature there are indeed passages which may suggest that the Vedic Aryans actually knew of the never-setting polar sun." (See Aitaerya Brahmana III 4.6).
Thus western Baltik coast has been regarded as the home of the Aryans chiefly on the ground that the oldest and simplest artifacts of the period following the palaeolithic age, as well as tasteful and technically perfected stone implements are found there in abundance (Much, Cie Heimat Der Indogeritanen Im Lichte Der Urgeschichtlichen Forschung," Second edition 1904 Indian People Vol. I., page 209.
"The origin of this interesting people (Jat) is enveloped in the mist of obscurity, which in the light of scientific research has yet to dispel. In physical features, language, character, sentiments. Ideas of government, and social institutions, the present day Jat is undeniably a better representative of the ancient Vedic Aryan than any member of the three higher castes of the Hindus, who have certainly lost much of their original character in the course of evolution through many centuries. But the Jat's tribal designation, is supposed to point to a foreign and less exalted origin. viz" Indo-Scythian. The European pioneers of Indian antiquities and ethnology apparently started with the presumption that fine and energetic martial peoples like the Rajput and the Jat must have been
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comparatively new corners from the north-west into India who overcame the effete descendants of the Vedic Aryans and pushed them eastward; and southward, because within the known historic period from Alexander to Ahmad Shah Durrani the foreign immigrants have invariably imposed their rule upon the children of the soil. Besides, it is known fact tbat several foreign hordes, such as the Sakas, Yueschis, Kushans and Hunas from Central Asia, the reputed home of the Parthian races, entered India successively during the period 100 B.C.- 600 A.D. and where absorbed by Hindu society. If so, where are their modern representatives? The Rajput and the Jat with their war-like habits, unortbodox customs, and confused traditions about their origin, tempted the ingenuity of the scholars, who at once identified them with the Sakas and Hunas. The fanciful theory of Col. Tod, who suggested kinship among the Indian Jats, the Goths of the Roman Empire, and the Juts of Jutland, cast a mighty spell upon several generation of scholars. The Jat tribes name sounded in the scholarly era like that of the Gaete, Yuti and Yetha of the Oxus region. The philologist for the first time raised his note of protest against this. Dr. Trumpp and Beames very strongly claimed a pure Indo-Aryan descent for them both in consideration of their physical type and language, which has been authoritatively pronounced as a pure dialect of Hindi, with out the slightest trace of Scythian. But they were silence, by the progressing science, which established the unassailable dictum. "Language is no proof of race." History of Jats by Qanungo, pages 5 to 7.
He Remarks -"The theory of the Aryan origin of the Jats, if it is to be overthrown at all, must have stronger arguments directed against it than any that have yet been adduced. Physical type and language are considerations which are not to be set aside by mere verbal resemblance, especially when the words come to us mingled beyond recognition by Greek and Chinese. (Eliot's Memories Of the Races of North- Western Provinces of India, i, 135, 137)." History of Jats by Qanungo, pages 6 and 7.
"The Jat has been declared by all eminent authorities, to
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pass successfully the combined test of the physical type and language of a true Aryan.
"At the opening of the fifth century there were no separate, independent states in Western Europe such as we find on the map today. The whole territory now occupied by England, France, Spain and Italy formed at that time only a part of the vast realms ruled over by the Roman emperor and his host of officials. As for Germany, it was still a region of forests, familiar only to the barbarous and half-savage tribes who inbabited them. The Romans tried in vain to conquer this part of Europe, and finally had to content themselves with keeping the German hordes out of the Empire by means of fortifications and guards along the Rhine and Danube rivers," History of Western Europe, page 8.
"In order to replenish the population great numbers of the Germans were encouraged to settle within the Empire, where they became colonial. Constantine is said to have called in three hundred thousand of a single people. Barbarians were enlisted in the Roman legions to keep out their fellow-Germans. Julius Caesar was the first to give them a place among his soldiers. The expedient became more and more common, until, finally, whole armies were German, entire tribes being enlisted under their own chiefs. Some of the Germans rose to be distinguished generals; other attained important positions among the officials of the government. In this way it came about that a great many of the inhabitants of the Roman Empire were Germans before the great invasions. The line dividing the Roman and the barbarian was growing indistinct. It is not unreasonable to suppose that the influx of barbarians smoothed the way for the break-up of the western part of the Empire. Although these barbarians had a great respect for the Roman state, they must have kept some of their love of individual liberty and could have had little sympathy for the despotism under which they lived," History of Western Europe, page 17.
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"Elam, the home of the earliest civilization of Persia.... in the whole of the vast area of Iran there is, as we have seen, but one navigable river, the Karun, and it is in its valley that we find the earliest civilization in what was generally known as the kingdom of Elam." page 38, Vol. 1. "Elam as a Kingdom had fallen and even if there still remained independent hill tribes, her memory passed away and was lost in a mist of fable and legend." Page 93, Vol. I, of History of Persia.
Mesopotania - Babylonia - Akkad and Sumer
"It was watered by Tigris and Euphrates rivers, known in ancient days as Mesopotamia (Greek for 'between the rivers'), the lower reaches of this plain beginning near the point where the two rivers nearly converge, was called Babylonia. Babylonia in turn encamped two geographical area- Akkad in the north and Sumer, the delta of this river Selfstem, in the south." Civilization past and present, page 15.-American Library, New Delhi.
"The great event in this period both for Assyria and for Babylonia was the immigration of the Aramaean horders which issuing from Arabia, had already overrun the country as early as 1300 B.C. They now swept across Mesopotamia down the Tigris." Page 84, Vol. I-History of Persia.
"Now we know that the Aryans came from the north and as Nomads range widely, it is the view of some that their home may be sought in the vast region of the steppes to the far north of Khorasan-then, in all probability, more fertile-and in the adjacent and similar, but better watered, plains of southern Russia." Page 96, Vol. I of History of Persia " They (Aryans of Persia) possessed a tradition that they quitted their ancient home because the power of Evil made it ice bound un- habitable. Perhaps this may mean that they were irresistibly urged forward by a change of climate, just as aridity possibly caused the hordes of Mongolia to Swarm Westwards and
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incidentally to blast the civilization of the countries they overran," page 97, Vol. I of History of Persia ..... "It is believed that the Medes migrated into Persia from Southern Russia." Page 98 Vol. 1 of History of Persia ..... "A third migration took a south-easternly direction from Asia or Bactria,the invaders crossing the Hindu Kush and conquering the Punjab." Page 98, Vol. I of History of Persia.
Amongst the Aryans of India and Iran "similar terms were employed for a God, indicating as Edwards points out, that the character of objects of worship was similar. One name was Asura (Sanscrit, (Asura, Avesta, Ahura) signifying to Lord; another was Daiva, (Sanscrit Deva, Avesta, Daeva),from the Indian European word devoting 'heavenly ones." Page 103, Vol. 1 History of Persia. "This great movement, which reacted on the whole Greece, is believed to have occurred about 1000 B.C. Its result was to set in motion a wave of immigration, which broke not only on the Islands, but, also on the Asiatic Coasts of the Aegean Sea." Page 148, Vol. I of History of Persia.
"In 512 B.C. the conquering Persians, like their predecessors the Aryans of India, looked down from the eastern edge of the Iranian plateau on to the vast plain of the Punjab and annexed large districts of it and of Sind. Scylax, the Greek admiral, descended the Indus and undismayed by the tides, launched out on Indian Ocean and explored the coasts of Arabia and Makran." PageI68, Vol. I of History of Persia.
"By the conquest of the Greek cities and islands of Asia Minor, and the later annexation of Thrace and Macedonia, the Persians had acquired control over at least one-third of the entire race of the Greeks." Page 186, Vol. I of History of Persia. "I "Recrossing the Hindu Kush to the Alexandra of the Indian Caucasus, the Mecedonia army (Alexenders army), now 1,20,000 strong, marched thence to Nicaia (Kabul) where king Taxilas made bis submission. The main body was then despatched under Hephoestion north of the Khyber pass." (327 B.C.) page 270, Vol. of History of Persia .
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"Porus meanwhile leaving a few elephants and a small force to contain the Macedonian (Greek troops who had been left in camp, formed a line of battle with his main body in the immediate neighbourhood of Chillianwala, where in 1849 A.D. British troops met valiant Sikhs, many of whom were probably the descendants of the soldiers of Porus." Page 271, Vol. 1 of History of Persia.
"Antiochus (a Parthia king -Parthia was near about Khorasan) (204 B.C.) following still in Alexandra's footsteps, crossed the Hindu Kush and moving down the Kobul valley past Alexandria and Caucasum, marched through the Khybar pass into the Punjab. The successors of Ashoka wisely bought off the invader with rich gifts of elephants and money." Page 313, Vol. I History of Persia.
"Jats do not seem to be out of Sakas who in 163 B.C. by Yue-chi (Chinese) were dispossessed from their habitat in the Tarim basin. In 120 B.C. the Yue-chi drove the Sakae out of Bactaria which they occupied and which remained their centre for many generations. They also are not out of Kushans, one of whose tribe was Kwei-Shang. They are not the same as Yetha or white Huns because they are called new comers." page 433, Vol. 1 of History of Persia. "It is believed by best authorities that the Mongols were descended from the Huns and that the descendents of the Yue-Chi were known as the Uighurs:" Page 71, Vol. II of History of Persia.
"The advance to the Indus A.H. 89-96 (707 to 714)-During the reign of Walid the Moslem Hosts, under Mohamed Ibn- Kasim, the first Moslem to make his mark in India, marched into Sind from Makran and captured Multan, where the value of the spoil was estimated at 120,010,000 pieces the Moslem remained in Sind permanently." Page 551, Vol. I of History of Persia.
"The Revolt of the Jatt of Gypsies: Under the orders of Walid I, at the beginning of the eighth century of our era, a large number of Jatt, termed Zott by the Arabs had been transported with their buffaloes from the lower Indus to the marshes of the Tigris. As soon as they were firmly established there
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they began to rob and to kill. By closing the Basra-Baghbad road they raised the cost of food in the capital and compelled successive Caliphs to send armies to subdue them. Their insolence is expressed in the following poem, preserved in the pages of Taban :
O! Inhabitants of Baghbad die! May your dismay last long! It is we who have defeated you, after having forced you to fight us in the open country.
It is we who have driven you in front of us like a flock of weaklings.
Marrun's generals were unsuccessful in dealing with the elusive scourge, and Motasim's First care was to send Ojayf, a trusted Arab general, to subdue this alien people. Ultimately, in A.H. 220 (834), Ojayf succeeded in his task by cutting their communications. The Zott surrendered, and after being exhibited in boats to the delighted citizens of Baghdad, wearing their national grab and playing their musical instruments, were exiled to Khanikin on the Turkish frontier-now a stage on the Tehran road-and to the frontiers of Syria, whither they proceeded, taking wint them their buffaloes. These useful animals they can claim to have introduced into the Near East and into Europe." History of Persia, Vol. 11.
"In Europe the Mongols carried fire and the sword across Russia to Poland and Hungary from A.D. 1236 to 1241 A.D. and so widespread was the alarm that, according to Matthew Paris, in A.D. 1238," the people of Gothland and Friesland did not dare to come to Yarmouth for the herring fishery." History of Persia, Vol. H. page 87.
"When Ghazan Khan came to the throne (1205 A.D.) he found the revenue (in Persia) so corruptly administered that practically nothing reached the Central Government, with the result that he was unable to give pay, much less presents, to his army. At the same time the peasantry were so ground down by illegal and semi-illegal exactions that they were deserting their villages, and whenever, an official appeared they took refuge in underground hiding places." Page 113, Vol. II of History of Persia. It seems in this period that flocks of Jat
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"The Governor of Mongolia, or Jatah, at this period was Tughluk Timur Khan who, on seeing the state of anarchy into which Transoxiana had fallen, determined to annex it. He started on an expedition for this purpose in A.H. 761 (1360 A.D.) and marched on Kesh; Haji Barlas, deeming the odds too great, attempted no defence and fled to Khorasan, (Persia) where he was afterwards killed by brigands." Page 119. Vol. II of History of Persia.
"To save the situation, Tamerlane decided to tender his submission to Tughluk Timur Khan, by whom he was received with much distinction and appointed Governor of Transoxiana. In the following year the Khan of Jatah (it seems to mean the land of the Jats) obtained possession of Samarcand and appointed his son Khoja Illias Oghlan to the governorship of Transoxiana with the young Tameriane as his councillor." PageT20, Vo!. II of History of Persia.
"(1369-1380) The successful issue of the contest with Amir Husayn gave Tamerlane complete control of Transoxiana, and for a full decade he was busily engaged in conquering the neighbouring states of Jatah to the east and of Khawarazm to the west." Page 123, Vol. II of History of Persia.
"Afghanistan, owing to its physical characteristics, have been the heaven of refuge of aboriginal clans driven off the fertile plains. Moreover being situated at the north-west gates of India, it has heard the tramp of armies from the invasion by Alexander the great down through the centuries, until the doubling of the cape of Good Hope opened a way for Western nations to invade India by its sea gates." Page 216, Vol.II - History of Persia.
Sir Herburt Risley divided the people of India into seven broad groups, "labelled as
- (i) Mongoloid,
- (ii) Indo-Aryan,
- (iii) Dravidian,
- (iv) Mongolo-Dravidian,
- (v) Aryo-Dravidian,
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- (vi) Scytho-Dravidian,
- (vii ) Turko-Iranian." Page 141 of Indian People, Vol. 1.
"The third Mediterranean strain, the so called 'Oriental' one, commonly rniscalled the Semitic or Jewish, with a pronouncedly longish nose and fair in skin, is found in the Punjab, in Sind, in Rajasthan and in Western U.P., and it occurs also not unusually enough in other parts of India." The Jats of India probably belong to this race.Page 144 of Indian People, Vol.I.
The Jat Itihas refers to "The History of Aryan rule in India, page 32" that "Ethnographic investigation show that The Indo-Aryan type described in the Hindu Epic-a tall, fair Complexioned, long headed race, with narrow prominent noses, broad shoulders, long arms, thin waists like lion and thin legs like a deer is now most confined to Kashmere, the Punjab and Rajasthan represented by the Jats, Khatris and Rajputs" The Jat Itihas page 120 further refers to Mr.Nesfield who said "if appearance goes for anything the Jat could not but be Aryans."
The Jat Itihas further refers to distribution of races of the North Western Provinces of India where it has been said that "the arguments derived from language is strongly in favour of the pure Aryan origin of the Jats. If they were Scythian conquerors where there Scythian language gone to and how came it that they now speak and have for centuries spoken an Aryan language, a dialect of Hindi."- Jat Itihas, page 122.
"'Jat' approaches closely to that ascribed to the traditional Aryan colonies of India. The stature- is mostly tall, complexion fair, eyes dark, hair on face plentiful, head long, nose narrow and prominent but not very long (page 2 Risleys' " People of Indla)" Page 8-History of Jats by Qanungo." -
The Migration of Jats
Migration in History
"Mankind has been a wanderer as much, or perhaps
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more so, than a home stayer. It has well been said that 'Man's' history is a story of movement, of the conquest of land from nature and from fellowman, of adaptation to new environment, of the blending of blood and the intermixer of cultures"-Page 623 of Civilization Past and Present by Waiter Wall Bank and others, available in American Library, Delhi.
There has been great upheaval in the past million years as regards the movement of tribes from one place to another, especially in the nomad period. The nomades used to travel far and wide in search of pasture-land and other amenities e.g., rivers for water and suitable climate for themselves and their cattle. It is therefore natural that in old times the Jat tribe migrated into India in prehistoric period either from Central Asia or from the North Lands like Scandinavian countries.
Migration and immigration did not take place once or twice but many a times. It occurred for search of lands to be conquered by big armies of great kings who always were desirous to rule the people of other lands. The Jats also did not migrate or immigrate into or from India, Persia, USSR, Scandinavia, Germany, Roman Empire, Spain etc. only once but this phenomena occurred in waves, one after the other, may be centuries after the former. Various authorities have described different places and era of migration of Jats or Juts from one land to another. The same are quoted hereinafter. They seem to have migrated from Central Asia to Germany and then to Scandinavian countries where from they again migrated through Roman Empire and USSR to Persia and Caucasia. Likewise they moved towards West to settle in Spain and also towards East to settle in North- West India. Whenever population increased, people migrated in search of new lands. Only 300 years back mass population migrated from European countries to the Americas. At present their great grandchildren do not know their home town and even do not remember the name of the country to which their fore-fathers once professed loyalty.
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banks of Oxus river, some from Bactria (both in Persia) and some from Scandinavia. He quotes Major Bingley whose view was that Jats in 1st and 2nd Centuries B.C. migrated from the area of Oxus river through Southern Afganistan into India....Jat Itihas, page 59.
Shri Desraj quotes religion of Scandinavia namely Edda (एड्डा) saying that ancient inhabitants of Scandinavia were Jttas (जटेस) and Jits (जिट्स) who were called Aryans and they were originally residents of Asigarh which is situated in district Neemar in Malwa ..... Jat Itihas; page 61.
"Seleukos Nikator, the great general of Alexander, who had become the emperor of a large part of Western Asia after the conqueror's death, was also dead. While Antiochus his grandson, a worthless man was occupying the throne, the empire was split into pieces by the revolt of the Bactrians and the Parthians, both of which people virtually become independent by 250 B.C.
The Bactrians had adopted Greek civilization, and were probably fused with the Greeks. They were consequently called Greeks (Yavanas). The hero of the Bactrian Revolution Diodatus, conquered some parts of India namely Kabul, Punjab and Sindh. Though victorious in India, he lost his control over Bactria which was wrested from him by his General Eukratides. Soon after this event, Eukratides was murdered and Bactria fell to pieces and into a number of small principalities, Menander was the chief of one of them and his invasion is probably referred to by Patanjali. This king was Budhist and he is identified with king Milinda, so well known in Budhist literature. These Greek princes were fighting amongst themselves in Bactria as well as in the North- western part of India for the mastery of the soil." History of Caste, pages 35 and 36.
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Thus it is evident that Bactrians migrated and settled in north-west India (now Pakistan) where Jat population is in abundance.
"The Shakas or the Scythians, who were a horde of nomads, broke loose on Bactria in the period between 140 and 130 B.C. and extinguished the Greek monarchies north of Hindu Kush. Some of these tribes entered India and made settlements at Taxila and Mathura and ruled there for more than a century seemingly in subordination to the Parthian
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power. Another section of Shaka horde or the Parthians themselves occupied the Peninsula of Surashtra or Kathiawar and established a dynasty of sat raps there, which lasted for centuries. Another of Scythians, cognate with Shakas and called Kushans, entered India by the beginning of the Christian era and conquered Punjab and Kabul. King Kanishka of this tribe in well known. It appears that the Kushan dynasty held its own for a long time, as we hear of them as late as 360 A.D." History of Caste, pages 36 and 37.
"It is believed that the Medas migrated into Persia from Southern Russia." History of Persia Vol. I page 98. As per Chamber's Twentieth Century Dictionary meaning of Meda is "one of an Indo-Gerrnanic people and nation fused with the Persians about 500 B.C."
"In 512 B C. the conquering Persians, like their predecessors, the Aryans of India, looked down from the easterly edge of the Iranian Plateau on the vast plains of the Punjab and annexed large districts of it and of Sind. Scylax, the Greek Admiral, descended the Indus and undismayed by the tides, launched out on the Indian Ocean and explored the coasts of Arabia and Makran." History of Persia Vol. I, page 168.
"Darius (Dara) the great (near about 550 B.C.) conquered parts of the Punjab and the Sind in the east and Thrace in the west. His successor Xerxes invaded and defeated Greece." . Iran Almanac, page 45.
"The plateau (Iran) was the scene of many invasions, but one of the strongest tribe to invade were the Aryans. A branch of these Aryans, the Medes (Indo-Gerrnanic people) settled on the western portion of the plateau making their capital at ancient Ectasana, which was also to become a capital of the Persian Empire." Iran Almanac, page 45.
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"Salpore is the name of the capital of this Jit prince and his epithet of Sal-indra is merely titular, as the Indra, or lord of Sal Poori, the city of Sal, which the fortunate discovery of an inscription raised by Komarpal, king of Anhulwarra (Nehrwalla of D. Annille) dated S (Samvat) 1207, has enabled me to place at the base of Sewaluk mountains'.' In order to elucidate this point, and to give the full value to this record of the Jit princes of the Punjab, I append (No. V) a translation of the Nehrwalla' conqueror's inscription, which will prove beyond doubt that these Jit princes of Salpoori in the Punjab, were the leaders of that very colony of the Yuti from the Jaxartes, who in the fifth century, as recorded by De Guignes, crossed the Indus and possessed themselves of the Punjab, and strange to say, have again risen to power, for the Sikhs (disciples) of Nanak are almost all of Jit origin" Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. I, page 62 .
"They (Jats) are the most numerous of all the land owning tribes in Meerut and look upon Haryana and Rajasthan as the countries whence their forefathers originally came. They gained their first footing, says Mr. W.A. Forbes, the late collector of Meerut, in the Chhaprauli and Barot parganas of the Meerut Distt. pushing out before them, the Taga occupants of the soil; and thence they spread themselves, though in less compact colonies, over the whole district'- (Report of the Census of the North Western Provinces-India for 1865, Mr. W.A. Forbe's memorandum, pages 12)". Hindu Tribes and Castes Vol I, page 234.
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"The Jats of Bulandshahr came from Haryana, and first of all were cultivators of the soil, but afterwards, on Raja Suraj Mal acquiring possession of the Doab, embraced the opportunity of seizing the villages which they now occupy. They have added the estate of Kocheswar. At the last census they had as many as 195 villages in that district alone". Hindu Tribes and Castes Vol. I, page 234.
"The Jats were among the earliest known inhabitants of tee district of Shahajhanpur. Nearly one half of the Hindu population of the Mathura district consists of members of this tribe.' Hindu Tribes and Castes Vol. 1, page 234.
"He (Brandenstein) draws the reasonable conclusion that the Indo-Iranians were the earliest to separate from the main body of Indo-Europeans, and that the other tribes continued to live together for some time after their departure."....Indian People, Vol. I, page 210.
"Migrating races look back to the land of their origin for centuries. The Parsis in India remember their origin after 800 years. The ancient Egyptians and the Phoenicians remembered the respective lands of origin even though they had forgotten the location:' ..... Indian People Vol. I, page 216. The Jats of Eurasia also seem to have remembered Jutland as their home but have forgotten its "hereabouts.
"It is also quite clear that the Aryan principalities appearing about 1,400 B.C. in Mesopotamia and Syria were the successful creation of a group of Cqndottieri and their troop who had detached themselves from the main body, while the wandering tribes passed through eastern Iran towards India. Indian People, Vol. I, page 218.
"That from the Indo-Iranian common house the pre-Indians and the pre-Iranians expended in two almost opposite directions." Indian People Vol. 1, page 219. The Jats
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being of militant nature, seem to have turned to the west of the common house and conquering Mesopotamia, Syria, Germany reached Baltic Sea to establish permanently in Denmark (Jutland) and near about in Sweden and Gothland Island, which then formed part of Danish Empire. Jut is a name that later grew into Jat, Got, Goth, Zott, Jit etc.
"But it has been fully established that the civilization of the Gathas is a later reformed civilization of Iran, of which a much older phase is reflected in the Yasts, particularly the so called heathenish Yasts i.e., the Yasts which have suffered least from Zarathustrian revision, and the culture reflected in these pre-Zarathustrian heathenish Yasts is essentially that of Vedic India." Indian People Vol. I, page 223.
The name of His Imperial Majesty, Late King of Iran is Shahanshah Aryamehr shows that the king himself is an Aryan.
The tribes here alluded to are the Hya or Aswa, the Takshac, and the Jit or Gete; the similitude of whose theogony, names in their early genealogies, and many other points, with the Chinese, Tatar, Mogul, Hindu and Scythic races, would appear to warrant the assertion of one common origin.
Though the periods of passage of these tribes into India cannot be stated with exactitude, the regions whence they migrated may more easily be ascertained." Annals of Rajasthan Vol. I, page 48.
"When the Yuti migrated from the plains of Scythia, of which the horse is a native, to Yut land (Jutland), of whose mountains the goat was an inhabitant prior to any of the race of Asi." Annals of Rajasthan Vol.1, page 450.
"The region originally occupied by the German peoples in the second millennium B.C. included the coastlands between the lower Rhine and the Oder, the Schlesurg (jutland) Peninsula and inlands, together with Southern Sweden. The homelands of the Germans who formed one branch of the peoples of Indo-European Language had a broad geographical similarity. They had alike undergone glaciation; they consisted
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largely of level plains, covered with wide stretches of sandy soils; they included considerable areas of marsh, peat bog, lakes, and moor and were extensively covered with deciduous forest and undergrowth Scania and the coast west of the oder estuary were alike well embayed and offered river access inland; proximity for the Baltic narrows in the extreme west- the disposition of islands, the many convenient havens and, occasionally, freezing over of the sea, all served to unite Scania, the Schlesurg (jutland) peninsula and the north German plain in close relationship. Jutland, or the Schlesurg peninsula, together with Frisia stretching westwards to the Rhine, presented also broken coastlines to the North Sea. By about 200 B.C. the Germans had moved south as far as the Main into country then occupied by Celts, whilst at the same time they had reached the broad plains between the Oder and the Vistula. It is possible that some stimulus was given to this movement owing to a wet climatic period which conditioned an extension of forest and peat bog." (See Huntington, The Evolution of Climate in North-Western Europe G. R. January 1922)
"Some time before establishment and organization of the frontier of the Roman Empire, in fact as early as 114 B.C. Germanic tribes had reached and crossed the Alps and the Rhine carrying their devastations into the territories of Rome." .... An Historical Geography of Europe, page 50.
"Hence in the first centuries A.D., when they came increasingly into contact with the superior civilization of Rome, the Germans in the West by no means 'Barbarians' who wandered through their endless forests engaged in hunting wild animals or in purely pastoral pursuits." (See.J.B. Bunj, The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians, pages 5 to 11) ...... An Historical Geography of Europe, pages 55 to 57.
"Even so although it is true enough that by the time the Rome frontier system was collapsing agricultural and fixed settlement had become more typical among the West Germans that among their kinsmen beyond the Oder, it is equally clear that the West German had not lost their habit of long distance
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migration. There is good evidence also to show that they had a keen eye to the qualities of arable soils and that these afforded sufficient ground for the movement of large groups made up of federated tribes, together with their flocks and herds." An Historical Geography of Europe, page 57.
"Finally, it may be noted that the underlying cause of the barbarian invasions or, to use a fitter term, the folk, migrations, is believed to have been over-population, although it is obvious that the political weakness of the Empire afforded a stimulus to movements and also that the westward advance of Asiatic immigrants exerted on impulsive force. This explanation savours somewhat of the paradoxical when it is considered in the light of recent estimates of the population numbers of the German peoples. A large nation or people, like the west Goths or Vandals numbered some 80,000 to 1,20,000 ; a small, nation, like the Burgundians, some 25,000 to 50,000." (These are the figures given by Bury, op. cit., pp. 42-43) An Historical Geography of Europe, page 58.
"Further, the seasonal migrations of the East German tribes in their search for good pasture must have served to make this route partially at least familiar, for it was well frequented by them. In the period of the invasions, the Goths, for instance, passed along it down to the Black Sea west lands, and established themselves in the south Russian plain first to the east, and later also to the west. of the river Don." An Historical Geography of Europe, Page 60.
"Dacia, which lay to the north of the lower Danube, formed and exposed outpost of the Empire (Roman) in the east. The incursions of the Goths, the first to threaten this frontier region, may be taken as illustrative of the geography of the invasions on this sector of the frontier. The Goths came from the north German plain by the vistula-Dniester route and settled to the cast of the lower Don; driven across that river in the early third century, they pressed forward to the borderlands of the Empire. They entered Bassarabia and Moldavia, the Wallachian plain, and by the Oitu-z pass advanced into the Transylvanian basin. Their ravages in Dacia began about A.D. 255; the province was wholly abandoned by Aurelian during the
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years 270-275. Vinienacium (Kostolac) a fortress and road centre on the Danube just above the cataracts and gorges, was lost in 256, and the old fortified cities on the south side of the lower Danube were re-garrisoned. This military frontier proved unable to withstand the Goths; the line was long and although a broad belt of marsh stretched along the north bank and in the delta, and although the Roman fortresses occupied the higher southern bank, invaders passed easily across the river either in rafts, in hollowed tree-trunk canoes, or over the ice during the winter months when the river usually freezes over. In A.D. 330 the Emperor Constantine in his campaigns against the Goths actually built a bridge across Danube at Oescus near the modern Bulgarian town of Nikopoli, in order to improve his communications. The bridge lined up the road from Serdica (Sofia) by way of the Isker with the road up the Gltu Valley to the red Tower Pass. (See Bury- History of the Later Roman Empire-I page 97)." ....An Historial Geography of Europe, page 63.
"Thus it is known that in some cases, alike in the Middle Ages and in later times, originally nucleated settlements broke up into smaller diffused groups; in Denmark and Southern Sweden, for example, as Professor Vahl pointed out for the former, nucleated villages, which were typical as late as 1800, gave place to scattered farms which moved out to the fields. (In Comtes Rendus du congies international de Geographic, Paris, 1931 Vol. ll l)" An Historical Geography of Europe, page 90.
"Moreover, considerable finds of Roman coins and other objects attest the extension of Roman trade relations; e.g., into Hanover, up the Main Valley, to the islands of the Netherlands and even to those of the Baltic, where in the island of Gothland alone over 4,000 Roman coins have been found. A much frequented trade route occupied the depressed zone from Thuringia southwards through Hesse to the lower Main and middle Rhine, and the spread of Roman coins extends as far as east as the Vistula, which it may be added, was the limit to 'Germania' given by Ptolemy. Such tokens of trade activity suggest the presence of trading settlements at fixed points
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Moreover the Gau organization of the German People involved. within each Gau a number of settlements or 'Vici' whichplayt ed a definitely regional role as centres of military defence, -O worship, of Government of communications and trade." And Historical Geography of Europe, page 127.
"Dahia - This is an ancient tribe, whose residence was the banks of the Indus, near its confluence with the Sutledge, and although they retain a place amongst the thirty-six royal races, we have not the knowledge of any as now existing. They are mentioned in the annals of the Bhattis of Jessulmer and from name as well as from locals, we may infer that they were the Dahae of Alexender." Annals of Rajasthan Vol. 1, page 98.
"In Khurasan and the bordering countries, more especially, such a dreadful famine prevailed, that it is recorded in history, and the account of it is given many historical works. In short, the government assessment upon the lands was not at all realised, and the majority of the people emigrated from the country." History of Ghazni, page 71. It seems that during this period many families migrated into India.
"A power of assimilation and synthesis has throughout the ages characterised the Indian culture. It has worked not only in the religious thoughts and social institutions of ancient India but also manifested in the persisting efforts at the conciliation of conflicting tendencies during the medivial period and it continues even today where now and strange ingredients are being introduced from the West." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 3.
"The present name India and Hindustan can be traced back to the early invaders of the country, the Persians and the Greeks. Their progress towards this country usually stopped short at the Indus or the Sindhu. Hence they called the country 'the land of the Sindhu!' Since the Persians pronounce the letter 's' as 'h' they pronounced the word Sindhu as Hindu." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 2.
"Consequently the material races of India have been chiefly bred in the dry, hilly districts of the North-West, Maharashtra and the deserts of Rajasthan, where a livelihood can only be wrested from the soil by intense efforts, and even though has to be supplemented by raids upon more favoured neighbouring regions." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 10.
"When northern India came into existence physically, men inhabited it too, and with the lapse of centuries various peoples- Dravidians, Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Sakyas, Yuchchis, Huns, Muslims and Europeans poured into India one after the other." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 27.
"The Jats of India seem to belong to "the Indo-Aryan type occupies the Punjab, Rajasthan and Kashmir. Their stature is mostly tall, complexion fair, eyes dark, hair on face plentiful, head long, nose narrow and prominent but not specially long. The Indo-Aryan race has so profoundly mixed with other races in India that it is difficult to trace it out." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 27.
"They (Jats) are not Mongoloids who are with strong feaures, beardless, yellow in colour, short in stature, sunb-nosed with flat faces and prominent Cheek Bones." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 29.
"The geographical area occupied by the Rigvedic tribes is clearly shown by the mention of certain rivers which can easily be identified. The most important among these include those of Afghanistan and the Punjab. It may therefore be safely inferred that in the Rigvedic age, the Aryans had not yet established settlements in the Southern direction nor had they yet advanced towards the East beyond a part of the Jamuna Doab. Only in the later age they occupied the East and the South." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 50.
"The lowest unit of the political and social organization of the Rigvedic people was the patriarchal family. The higher units were known Grama, vis and Jana, ...The grama (village) consisted of several families. Each had agricultural lands
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attached to it. It was a definite political unit under the headman (Gramani). He used to lead the villagers during the war or battle and attended the meetings of the Sabha or Samiti.'.... Evolution of Indian Culture, page 50. From this it has to be inferred the Germany was populated by pure Aryans of the Rigvedic people and colony was established and named after the headman of the village or gram and thus named as Gramani or Gramany or Germany.
"He (King) was expected to rule according to the customary law and was helped in the administration by a number of functionaries of whom pretty frequently mentioned in the Rigvedic are the Senani, the Gramani (Gramany) and (Purohita). The Sanani was the military commander appointed by the King; Gramany or the leader of a village seems to have been a village officer. He exercised both civil and military functions and the Purohita or the chaplain was the most important State Official of great dignity. He was the Brahman advisor of the King. He composed Hymns in praise of his patorn's exploits, invoking the favour of Gods upon him for which he was magnificently rewarded." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 52.
"Gramani (Gramany) in the Rigvedic period, was chiefly a military officer, but in the late vedic period he was both a military and civil official. He presided over the city or village where the court was held. The post of Germany was the submit of the ambition of the Vaisyas. In later years, the Gramani formed the Channel through which the Royal power was exercised in the village. (Cambridge History of India, Vol. I, page 131) Gramany and Suta were known as Rajakartri or King makers." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 76.
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"Reference in the Rigveda shows that agriculture was the main industry of the Aryans. It was principal occupation of the village folk. They ploughed the fields by means of a pair of oxen bound to the yoke." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 58.
"In the Rigvedic Age, the Aryan Tribes had spread over the regions from Kabul to the upper Ganges and had built up small kingdoms mostly under hereditary kings." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 71.
"In the words of V. A. Smith a caste is a group of families internally united by peculiar rules for the observance of ceremonial purity especially in matters of diet and marriage. But this definition does not hold good today." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 102.
"Later on, the foreigners like the Greeks, the Sakas, the Parthians, the Huns who joined the Hindu fold and embraced Hinduism were assigned new castes such as Gujjars of the Hindu Society." .... Evolution of Indian Culture, page 105.
"For a period of about a thousand years-from the invasion of Darius to the sack of Rome by the Goths-India was in more or less constant communication with the West." ...... Evolution of Indian Culture, page 285.
"Darius annexed the Indus Valley and made it the 20th province of the Persian Empire. This new province paid to the Great King the enormous annual tribute of 360 talent of gold dust (f 1078272) and supplied a light division to the Persian forces." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 288.
"But Alexender's invasion established close contacts between East and West-more precisely between India and Greece. Besides considerable bodies of Greek settlers who remained behind Alexender in the Punjab, there was a great Greek colony at Baktra, once capital of the Eastern Iran, on highroad to India." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 289.
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trade." ..... Evolution of Indian Culture page 295.
"In 364 A.D. the first fatal step in the downfall of the Roman Empire had been taken when it was divided. In 410 came the Goths, and fifty years later the mightiest kingdom of Europe had ceased to exist." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 297.
"There is no authentic history of how the Jats migrated to the North-West, beyond the boundary of India; because even at the dawn of Indian History, they were found in occupation of the country between Kirman and Mansura, and other tracts, bordering on Persia by the early Arab geographers and historians. They were the first Hindu people with whom the Arabs came came into contact, and all the Hindus were known to the Arabs by the name jut only. They formed the rear of the far-flung Hindu dominion then beginning to retire to the east of the Indus before the impetuous on-set of Islam. This eastward retreat of a section of the Jats has to a great extent lent colour to the theory that they were barbarian invaders of India. It is likely that the Jats, always enterprising and eager for military service, migrated beyond the Indus as mercenaries of the Persian and Maurya Emperors. They suffered a good deal in the subsequent ages for their heresy (heterodoxy=an opinion opposed to the usual or conventional belief) against orthodox Brahmanism. In Sindh they were reduced from the status of rulers to that of helots (deliberately humiliated and liable to massacre) by the Brahman usurper. And this defiance of orthodoxy was greatly responsible for the social degradation of the Jats during the Middle Ages." History of Jats by Qanungo, pages 23 & 24.
"The various waves of migration from Central Asia in the early centuries of the Christian era partly submerged, and partly swept the Jats and other Indian races back upon the shores of the Indus. The inaccessible desert of Sindh became the new home of the Jats. They had lost their caste, owning to their intercourse with impure races, their unreformed ways of life, and indifference to the rules of casts and Brabmanical teaching." History of Jats by Qanungo, pages 24 to 25.
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"The author of Mujmal-ut-Twarikh records an interesting legend that a joint embassy was sent by the Jats and Meds of Sindh to the Court of king Duryodhana, asking for a ruler to govern them. The Jats and Meds dwelt in Sindh and on the banks of the river which is Bahar (mouth of the Indus) . The Meds held the ascendancy over the Jats, and put them to great distress, which compelled them to take refuge on the other side of the river Paban (Panjnad river), but being accustomed to the use of boats, they used to cross the river and make attacks on the Meds, who were owners of sheep. It so came to pass that the Jats enfeebled the Meds, killed many of them and plundered their country. The Meds then became subject to the Jats." History of Jats by Qanungo, pages 25 to 26.
"The Jats were Independent possession of the country of Kaikan (supposed to be in south-eastern Afghanistan-Elliot, in 383), which was conquered from them by the Arab General Amran Bin Musa in the reign of the Khalif-Al-Mutasin-bi-IIah, -A.D. 833-811, (Elliot, i. 448). During the same reign another expedition was sent against the Jats who had seized upon the roads of Hajar ..... and spread terror over the road and planted posts in all directions towards the desert. They were overcome after a bloody conflict to twenty-five days. Twenty-seven thousand of them were led in captivity to grace the triumph of the victor. It was a custom among these people to blow their horns when marshalled for battle. (Elliot, ii. 247.)" History of Jats by Qanungo, pages 29 to 30.
"The only scope of these remarks on Soomer is to show that the Hindus themselves do not make India within the Indus, cradle of their race, but west amidst the hills of Causasus whence the sons of Vaivaswata or the sun-born migrated eastward to the Indus and Ganges; and founded first establishment in Kosulya, tbe capital, Ayodia or Oude". Annals of Rajisthan, Vol. I, page 20.
"The grand solstitial (happening at) festival, the Asvamedha, or sacrifice of the horse practised by tbe children of Vaivaswata, the sun-born was probably simultaneously
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introduced from Scythia into the plains of Ind, and West, by the sons of Odin, Woden or Boodha, in to Scandinavia where it became the Hiel or Hi-Ul, the festival of the winter solstice it- sun touches that of Capricorn, about, 21 st December), the grand Jubilee of northerns. 'Hya' or 'Hi' in Sanskrit 'horse'- El 'sun'. Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. I, page 21.
"Of the first migrations of the Indus-Scythic Getes Takshac and Asi into India that of Sehesnag (Takshac) from Sehesnag Des (Tocharisthan) or Sehesnag, six centuries by calculation before Christ, is the first noticed by the Puranas. About this period a grand irruption of the same races conquered Asia Minor and eventually Scandinavia; and not long after the Asi and Tachari overturned the Greek kingdom of Bactria, the Romans felt the power of the Asi, the Calti and Cimbri, from the Baltic Shore." Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. 1, page 51.
"The Gets, Jote or Jit and Takshac races, which occupy places amongst the thirty-six royal races of India, are all from the region of Sakatai (Oxus or Jihoon to Sakatai or Saka-Dwipa-Sakatai, a region at the fountains of the Oxus and Jaxartes, styled Sakita from the Sacae). Regarding their earliest migrations, we shall endeavour to make the Poorans contribute, but of their invasions in more modern times, the histories of Mahmood of Ghazni and Timoor, abundantly acquaint us.
From the mountains of Joud (Jiddoo Ka Dang or the Yadu hills high up in the Punjab) to the shores of Makran and along the Ganges, the Jit is widely spread; while the Takshac name is now confined to inscriptions or old writings." Annals of Rajasthan Vol 1, page 52.
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The Characteristics of Jats
Jats, Their Characteristics and Also as a People Both Martial and Tillers of the Land:
Jats are found at present practically all over the world. In Americas, though very few in number, they migrated from India and Europe. In Australia and Central or South Africa, they may not be available, but history proves that they had reached Egypt with Mohemedan conquerors and in China with Mangol army. In Persia and Uzbekistan, they were the greatest headache to Timer Lung and in India, of course, Moghul Emperors were tired of the Jats. Mohmud Gazni came from the kingdom of Gaur in Persia, for the last time only to take revenge from the Jats as will be found in later portion of this work. Whenever and wherever they may be, their characteristics are common, as we find from the descriptions of various historians.
Characteristics of 'JATS'
Jats are brave, intelligent, hard working and possess capacity to rule. They are less merciful. They want to sub-due other people of their settlements. They form good soldiers and officers in military. There may not be a person in India who has not heard of the chivalry of Jat and Sikh regiments in wars against Pakistan. Most of the Sikhs are 'Jats'. They are the back bone of cultivation in the country and have added to the produce food grain and suarcane to a great extnt. They have proved to be best farmers ind work very hard with the soil. Their women and children go side by side in cultivation. Primarily they formed a martial race and then established to cultivation.
'Jats' up to past 30 years were very fond of horses. Every Chowdhry must possess a good horse to ride on. He took vanity in horse possession. Now the position of conveyance in India has changed from animal to machinery. Still they are fond of good breed bullocks and powerful tractors. There was a time when a Jat without a horse was looked down in his society. Nowadays 'jats' are well read and possess high positions in all branches of academic and technical subjects.
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'Jats' as we find them in India are fair in colour, tall, well-built. They have beautiful features.
The Jat Itihas refers to "The History of Aryan rule in India, page 32" that "Ethnographic investigation show that the Indo-Aryan type described in the Hindu Epic-a tall, fair complexioned, long headed race, with narrow prominent noses, broad shoulders, long arms, thin waists like lion and thin legs like a deer is now (as it was in the earliest times) most confined to Kashmere, the Punjab and Rajasthan represented by the Jats, Khatiris and Rajputs". Jat Itihas, page 120.
It further refers to Mr. Nesfield who said "If appearance goes for anything the Jats could not but be Aryans". It refers to Dr. Britain who has written "Their (Jats) intellectual faculties are not brilliant partaking more of shrewdness and cunning than ability." Jat Itihas, page 121.
They love gardens, Chopal was a necessity in every Jat village, Generally they choose one elderly man to be the head of their village. They are very loyal to the country of their habitation.
They love drinks and are non-vegetarian by nature. They want to clad themselves in shining cloths and desire to possess rarities. They are experts in picking up the trail of thieves or stolen animals which was a necessity in nomads of those days.
The Jat Itihas on pages 63 and 64 refers to Mohmad Bin Kasim who looted India in 712 A.D. and Mahmood of Gazni who also looted India up to Meerut in 1058. Jats had a Kingdom near about Multan where they robbed Mahmood Gazni of nearly half of his loot, while he was on his way back to Gazni. In between Gazni and Herat, there was Bodh religion under Gaur rulers.
"Jat" approaches most closely to that ascribed to the tradifional Aryan colonists of India. The stature is mostly tall, complexion fair, eyes dark, hair on face plentiful, head long, nose narrow and prominent but not very long. Page 2,. see Risley's People of India," History of Jats by Qanungo page 8. ".
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"The Jats were in possession of the North Western division of Rajasthan before the Rajpoots entered the provinces, and there is good ground for believing that they had been there for a long period. Some persons have formed the idea that Jats are a branch of the Indo-Scythian from the bank of the Oxus." Hindu Tribes and Castes, Vol.III, page 73.
"Respecting the physical characteristics of the Jats, Dr. Brereton makes the following remarks: in physique the Jats are generally a fair height, but below the average of Rajputs and other castes. Their chest measurement and weight are in fair proportion to their height; the extremities, especially the lower, are often disproportionate to their abnormal length.
The women are of very strong physique, exceeding the men in this respect, proportionately speaking. They are not remarkable for personal beauty, but some have very fine figures. They are also most industrious and contented, working in the fields , but are said to rule their husbands. The prevailing complexion is a fair, and the colour of the eyes dark; the hair is dark, fine and straight, beard and moustachios scanty, and the former not usually worn. The cravia are of tolerably fair size and shape, often elongated, altogether a lower type than the Brahman skull. Their intellectual faculties are not brilliant, partaking more of shrewdness and cunning than ability. They are said to possess courage and fidelity, are industrious and preserving in their habits, and are of agile and muscular frame (The Rajputana Gazetteer Vol. I, page 162)." Hindu Tribes and Castes, Vol. Ill, page 73.
"The Jats, as well as the tribes of Merwara, permit the remarriage of widows. A man may marry the widow of his elder brother. In all the castes,-a widow who has no sons retains her deceased husband's property till her death or remarriage. The youngest brother has the first claim to marry the widow of a deceased brother. Widow marriage is called Natha. Marriage within the same Gotra of family order, are regarded as incestuous are for bidden." Hindu Tribes and Castes, Vol HI, page 75.
"Or the numerous Jat tribes of the Punjab, more than two-
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fifths-that is one million three hundred and nine thousand- have embraced the creed of Islam. They are most numerous in Gujranwala, in the Gujrat district of Rawalpindi, in Muzaffargarh, in Dera Ghazi Khan and in Sialkote" Hindu Tribes and Castes, Vol. 1I, page 70.
"A very numerous people in the Punjab, from whom (Jats) have proceeded the greatest proportion of adherents to the Sikh religion. But they have spread themselves far beyond the Punjab and are to be found wildly scattered over the country between it and Bharatpur and Agra. This energetic and industrious race had distinguished itself in various ways, especially in agricultural pursuits. The Jats are the chief cultivators in the province (Punjab and Frontier). They are also excellent soldiers, and as such exhibit all that sturdiness and boldness of character which has marked them in times of peace. The Hindu Jats in the Punjab number one million eight hundred and seventy six thousand persons." Hindu Tribes and Castes Vol.II page 74.
Jat of the Bombay Presidency is "a pastoral tribe originally from Aleppo in Turkey. Once they held some parts of Cutch as rulers, but were driven by the Jarejas into Warad and Bajana, where they rule at present. They are in the North. West of Cutch." Hindu Tribes and Castes, Vol. If, page 241.
The Jats are the most important element in the rural population of the Punjab and the western districts of the North Western Provinces. The last Census (near about 1924) gives the following figures as the population of the Jats in the several provinces of Indian where they are found-
|N. W. Provinces||701,259|
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"The Jats do not wear the sacred thread; and have among them Certain customs which are more like those of the Sudras than of the twice- born castes. But in every other respect they are like the Rajputs. Ordinarily;the majority of both the Jats and the Rajputs have by practising agriculture. But when the occasion arises, the Jats can wield the sword as well as the most aristocratic of the military castes. The late lion of the Panjab and many of his leading generals were of the Jat tribe. To the same clan belongs also the Maharaja of Bharatpur, whose ancestors, from the beginning of the last century, played an important part in the politics of Northern India, and at the time of the conquest of the Doab by Lord Lake compelled that great general to raise the siege of Bharatpur which he had undertaken. The present reigning family of Dholpur are also Jats. The Jats them seves claim to be Ksatriyas. But as they do not wear the holy thread, they are usually looked upon as having the status of only clean Sudras. There cannot therefore be inter-marriage between the Jats and the Rajputs. The Jats are like the Rajputs, divided into large number of exogamous groups, and, among them, as among the superior Ksatriyas, marriage is impossible between parties who are members of the same clan. The Jats have been supposed, by some of the best authorities on Indian ethnology and antiquities; to be a Scythic tribe. General Cunninghan identifies them with the Zanthii of Strabo and the Jatii of Pliny and Ptolomy, and fixes their parent country on the banks of the oxus between Bactria, Hyrkania, and Khorasmia. But the sufficiency of the grounds on which this view rests has been questioned, Prichard remarks:
The supposition that the Jats of the Indus are descendants of the Yuetschi does not appear altogether proposterious, but it is supported by no proof except the very trifling one of a slight resemblance of names. The physical characters of the Jats are extremely different from those attributed to the Yuetschi and the kindred tribes by the writers cited by Klaporth and Abel Remusat who say they are of sanguine complexions with blue eyes. Researches IV, 132.
The question cannot possibly be answered in a satisfactory manner so long as the ethnology and history of Russia and
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Central Asia are not carefully investigated by scholars.
The quiet and industrious Jat, so long as he remained a cultivator of the fields, never concerned himself with his neighbours' affairs or prospects; but when he saw a lawless set of Sikh robbers, with numerous followers, and apparently in the enjoyment of every luxury of life, which he found it impossible, with every exertion of himself and his family, to procure, it is no wonder that he was often tempted to renounce his life of oil and trouble for the less irksome pursuits of robber." Hindu Casts and Sects by J.N. Bhattacharya, page 511 Mcgregors' History of the Sikhs Vol. I, page 157.
"The castes the eagerly joined the standard of the Sikh Gurus were the agricultural Jats, the tranding Roras, and the tribe of seavengerscalled Churaha. The Jats like the Marathas, are a fighting nation by instinct. Perhaps the iron rule of the Rajputs repressed the martial ardour of both for ages. But when the Rajputs were subverted by the Mohamedans, and the Mohamedans themselves became too weak to wield the sword with success, the Jats in the north, like Marathas in the south, required only competent leaders at their head to urge them on to "the paths of glory they lead but to the grave." The Jats are looked down upon by the Rajputs, and that was perhaps one of the great motives why the former willingly submitted to the leadership of the Sikh Gurus, and discarded the authority of the Brahmans who supported the pretensions of the 'King's sons.' The Roras were similarly looked down upon by the Kshattris and had a similar motive to attain to a position higher than theirs. Whatever was the cause, the Jats and the Roras formed the backbone of the Sikh brotherhood," Hindu Caste and Sects, By J.N. Bhattacharya, page 512.
"When Muhammad Bin Qasim invaded the territory of Dahir the Jats of the Western border joined the invader, while those of the eastern countries fought for Dahir. (See Chach Name, a Mirza Kalich Beg's translation pp. 124-137.)" [[History of Jats by Qanungo]], page 28.
"There is no distinction among them (fats) of great and small. They have the disposition of savages and always rebelled against their sovereign. They plunder on the roads and within the territory of Debal all join with them in their highway robberies. (Elliot i. I S7). History of Jats by Qanungo, page 29.
"Jats are certainly the most theatrical of the present communities in North India. The Sikh Jats of the Punjab perhaps tops them all. They describe their initiation into the Sikh or Khalsa fold as a highly theatrical more by Guru Gobind Singh"-Article in the Hindustan Times Weekly dated 25th July 1976 under the style "A fondness for Mine" by Sant Singh Sekhon.
Shri M.S. Randhawa in his article 'Farmers Extraordinary' published in Hindustan Times Weekly dated July 25th, 1974 has also described characteristics of Jats, some extracts from which are as follows:
"in forming, Punjabi Jats have proved to be the best in India. They were foremost in embracing Sikh ism which is the faith that brought about a social revolution in North India five centuries ago. It broke the fetters of the caste system and provided equal opportunities to the oppressed and the down-trodden to attain human dignity. They new faith promoted dignity, of labour and exhorted its followers to earn their living by manual work. It gave a new status to agriculture declaring to be the best of professions.
Punjabi Jats form the core of the human element in agriculture. They are the largest in numbers. Sainis, Kambohs, Labanas, Mahtans, Gujjars, and Bishnois come next in order. So numerous and dominant are the Jats that some of their gotras (clans) are larger than the biggest non-Jat farming community.
The Punjabi Jats are more mobile compared with other Indian communities, have spread all over India, and have even emigrated to many foreign countries; Sizable numbers of them
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They have many things in common with the Scots; they work hard, are good fighters, and love alcohol. They also have a sense of humour and considerable self confidence and can enjoy a joke at their own expense. In fact, they have themselves invented most of the jokes current about them. Scholars who have studied in Punjab have praised their qualities of hard work, courage, intelligence and tenacity. They are great-workers and, like the Scots, they have spread all over the globe. In fact, agriculture and service in the army are their main professions. "
Shri Raj Gill has described characteristics of Jats of India in his article "The Sikh Jats-A down-to-earth people" published in Hindustan Times Weekly dated July 25th, 1974. Some extracts of importance are reproduced below:
Many communities in India are perhaps as brave and adventurous as the Sikh Jats of Punjab. But it is debatable whether, like the Jats, they can laugh at themselves, lay down their life for the sake of honour and friendship or carry on a vendetta for generations.
The Jats in Delhi have preserved all these and several other traits that mark them as a distinct entity. This they do without stepping out of the mainstream of like which they have come to influence to no small extent.
Like many other communities, the Jats came to Delhi in search of employment. With the partition of the country in 1947, there was a large exodus from the fertile colonies of West Punjab. But the rural-oriented Jats had to face frustration, they found it difficult to complete with the educated class for white collar jobs. Self employment was the obvious answer and soon the community began spreading into different professions.
A Jat is essentially a tiller of the land, yet he responds to battle-cry spontaneously. How does such an enigmatic
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combination of traits, so intense and so native, survive the drudgery of city life?
In social life he is as "fast" as any Delhite. He drinks,dances, goes to the movies. All this he does in the Jat way-gate-crashing into every 'walk of life. That's one thing he admits and is proud of it.
Conservative by nature, the Jats rarely marry into other communities. Their awareness of their cultural identity can be seen in the Jat Sikh Association in Delhi. The J.S.A. helps them find jobs and arrange matrimonial alliances. It has even founded a colony for those wanting to settle down Delhi."
Shri Gulzar Singh Sandhu has given vivid and correct description of the Jats in his article "Pride and Pragmatism-Jats Values of Life" published in Hindustan Times Weekly dated July 25th 1974. He has explained the characteristics of Jats in manner that no portion of it can he left. Hence I have to reproduce it in full as under:
"Jats are essentially a village born people who must own some land for cultivation. All the Jats in a village consider tnemse1ves to be the descendants of the man who they believe founded it with the owner of the sword generations ago. It was he who started cultivating the land. The blacksmiths, carpenters and other artisans followed suit. Thus a Jat takes pride in tracing his fore-fathers to contemporaries of Jehangir, Aurangzeb or Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
In a Jat's life, loyalty of friends and relative plays a more significant role than the sense of belonging to his village. He has a passion for power and dominance. He look upon, marriage (this or his dependants') as the chief means of achieving this. He is on the look-out for a bride or a bridegroom from a well connected family.
The Jats like to get things done by others. They may employ Mazhbis (the low caste) to commit murder and Granthis (priests) to read the scriptures. No wonder Jats make difficult subordinates and comfortable bosses.
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No Jat wants to be ruled. He desires power over a group if not, over an area. Only once in the past (except during British Rule) has a large part of the undivided Punjab been controlled by one man - Ranjit Singh. Among themselves however the Jats do not recognise any superior. Even Ranjit Singh was conscious of their will to defy-Ire never gave them any position of power. Their desire for power stems from the long periods of insecurity they have endured.
The social status of a Jat is determined by the size of his holding and one way of keeping It large is to have a smaller humbers of heirs by limiting the number of child-bearing women. This explains the practice of sharing the wife of an elder brother prevalent in certain area.
As cultivable land rose in value with the passage of time, the Jat concept of honour came to be associated with one's ability to spend. A Jat's status was determined by his creditworthiness with a money- lender: no salvation without a Guru and no honour without a money-lender: The Jats started mortgaging their land with the money-lender. It is said that once a God-fearing Jat was not allowed to enter Heaven because God feared he might mortgage Heaven too!
The Green Revolution has brought the Jats a lot of money. And the new-rich have taken to alcohol in a big way. They do not consider it bad. They brink to win over others. "Drink makes you feel equal to the person seated by your side, more than you would be otherwise," They would explain, win they must, to acquire more power and prestige. To make others yield is the Jat's motto.
The Jat believes in doing every thin well and with speed, if he decides to entertain, he entertains lavishly- he places not a glass of whiskey in front or a guest, but the whole bottle. If he beats his enemy he beats him to death. The enemy is invariably another Jat "who should be treated as dead only after the funeral rites."
To sum up, the Jat approach to life is tribal and feudal on the one hand and pragmatic on other. Pride has been
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responsible for pulling them up and pulling them down, pragmatism has lent them grace and balance.
"The Jat writer himself considers his occupation as of no consequence and gets no kick out of it. He is there almost against his will. As the BritiSh Sociologist Dr. Joyce Pethgrew says: "the Jats have a passion for dominance." And writing is hardly the way to satisfy it. The most eminent living Jat writer Sant Singh Sekhon, is never tired of affirming that he had always wanted to be a politician so that "he could order I.A.S. Officers about." The Hindustan Times Weekly July 25th 1974, Articles styled 'The Literary Landscape' by Kulwant Singh Virk.
"The Jat is of all the Panjab races the most impatient of the tribal or communal control and the one which asserts the freedom of the individual most strongly. In tracts where, as in Rohtak, the Jat tribes have the field to them selves, and are compelled, in default of rival castes or enemies, to fall back upon each other for somebody to quarrel with, the tribe ties are strong. But as a rule a Jat is a man who does what seems right in his own eyes and sometimes what seems wrong also, and will not be said may be any man ..... He is independent and he is self-willed; but he is reasonable, and peaceably inclined if left alone." History of Jats by Qanungo, page 3.
"The Jat invariably marries the widow of his elder brother, and this alone stands in the way of his being recognised as a pure Kshatriya. But it is a custom which obtained in the Vedic age among the pure Aryans of the three higher castes. "
"Family (kunbha) may fight against family; one sect against another, but when it is a question of tribal honour or quarrel with a rival caste, every member of the clan, capable of wielding a lathi (quarter-staff), Will loyally assemble to carry out implicitly the order of the tribal elders, laying aside for
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the moment their own differences." History of Jats by Qanungo, page 5.
"Previous to the year 375 the attempts of the Germans to penetrate into the Empire (Roman) appear to have been due to their love of conquest, their love of adventure, their hope of enjoying some of the advantages of their civilised neighbours, or the need of new lands for their increasing numbers. The Romans, by means of their armies and walls, had up to this time succeeded in preventing the barbarians from violently occupying their territory. But suddenly a new force appeared which thrust the Germans out upon the weakened Empire. The Huns, a Mongolian folk from Central Asia, swept down upon the Goths, who were a German tribe settled upon the Danube, and forced a part of them to seek shelter across the river, within the boundries of the Empire. Here they soon fell out with the imperial officials, and a great battle was fought at Adrianople in 378 in which the Goths defeated and slew the emperor, Valens. The Germans had now not only broken through the boundaries of the empire, but they had also learned that they could defeat the Roman legions. The battle of Adrianople may, therefore, be said to mark the beginning of the conquest of the western part of the Empire by the Germans. For some years, after the battle of Adrianople the various bands of west Goths or Visigoths, as they are often called were induced to accept the terms offered by the emperor's officials and some of the Goths agreed to serve as soldiers in the Roman armies." History of Western Europe .... page 25.
"Before long, one of the German chieftains, Alaric, became dissatisfied with the treatment that he received. He collected an army, of which the nucleus consisted of West Goths, and set out for Italy. Rome fell into his hands in 410 and was plundered by his followers. Alaric appears to have been deeply impressed by the sight of the civilization about him. He did not destroy the city, hardly even did serious damage to it, and he gave especial orders to his soldiers not to injure the churches or their property.
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Alaric died before he could find a satisfactory spot for his people to settle upon - permanently. After his death the West Goths wandered into Gaul, and then into Spain, which had already been occupied by other barbarian tribes, the Vandals and Suevi. These had crossed the Rhine into Gaul for years before Alaric took Rome; for three years they devastated the country and then proceeded across the Pyrenees. When the West Goths reached Spain they quickly concluded peace with the Roman government. They then set to work to fight the Vandals, with such success that the emperor granted them a considerable district (419) in Southern Gaul, where they established a West Gothic Kingdom. Ten years after, the Vandals moved on into Africa, where they founded a kingdom and extended their con trot over the Western Mediterranean. Their place in Spain was taken by the West Goths who, under their king, Ruric (466-484), conquered a great part of the peninsula, so that their kingdom extended from the Loire to the Straits of Gibraltar"- History of Western Europe pages 26-27.
Jats, Their Settlements and Strongholds in Eurasia
The idea of common men in India and Europe that Jats are found in North-west India only, is incorrect. It shall be found that they are settlers in the whole of Eurasia and as a tribe they have maintained their permanent home in a land, known as Jutland and existing on the map even today as Jylland. At least up to 1934, this land was named as ?ailand in the Geographical Atlas. Pages 27 and 33 of Longman's Senior Atlas for India, 1934 Edition shows Jutland as is printed on the cover.
Professor Cothburn Oneal in his work "Conquests of "Tamerlane" (Timur-Lung) published by Avon Publications Inc. 575 Madison Avenue-New York 22-N Y refers to the following cities as 'Jat Strongholds' in Russia and near about:
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- (2) Bokhara, page 125.
- (3) Khojend (Khokand) now Ferghana, page 125.
- (4) Karshi (now Bek-Budi), page 125.
- (5) Samarkand, pages 103, 104 & 106.
- (6) Tashkant, pages 108, 110.
- (7) Otrar, page 108.
" 'Happy' ? mused Kurgan (a vassal of Khakhan in Persia- 750 A. Hiri). There-are pleasures but no happiness. I remember well when Taragai (father of Tamerlane or Tamuur-Lung) and I campaigned together and enjoyed together the pleasures of victory- and the pains. He was with me when I caught a Jat arrow here'. He pointed to the flap over his vacant eye socket." Conquests of Tamerlane, page29.
"I (Timur-Lung) sent out a few scouts also and prepared to receive guests. And they came-suddenly-a force of some two hundred Jat raiders, their pack ponies loaded with loot and their saddle horses fat from feeding on the ripe grain in the fields by the way ..... .I already had meats roasting for a feast and my retainers dressed in gay party garb.
My guards at the gates drew no swords but saluted the Jats and welcomed them to Shehri-Sebz (a town then in Persia but now in Uzbekistan on the Bank of River Amu). Fearing a trap, the leader placed his main force on my walls and brought a dozen picked officers cautiously up to the palace: I greeted them heartily at the gate to the inner wall.
'Brothers' I said. Welcome to A.K. Sarai. I have been expecting the envoys of my Father, the Khakhan, my beloved Amir and Master. I am Timur, Chief of the Barlas, Amir of Shehr-Sehz. Enter into my palace garden.
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Completely bewildered by my hospitality, the Jat Commander rode dumbly beside me to the door of the palace.' Conquests of Tamurlane, page 91.
"I waved my hand toward the spacious gardens, where cooking fires spultered under many roasting carcassis. The Jats licked their hips and the leader finally sent a Tavachi to bring his men down from the walls.
Now come with me into my banquet hall, I (Timurlane) invited him and called attendants to take the Jats' horses." Conquests of Tamerlane, page 92.
"A man does not show his wives in our land, I (Timur) said. But I have heard that some of the northern tribes do share their women-and if that is true--I (Timur) hesitated.
It is true. We are of those tribes.
Very well. I (Timur) said reluctantly and faced the girls, show yourselves.
The dancers quickly divested themselves of all garments, and I was sure the Jats have never had such a treat before.
You too. Ibiku said viciously and pointed to Karin, who sat by my side."-Conquests of Tamurlane, page 93.
"I gave to each of the Jats a bag which contained far more gold than he would have been allowed to keep if he had captured my train for the Kha-khan. While all three ming-bashis including Ibiku, were still amazed by the gifts, I boldly ordered my column forward and passed on toward Tugluk's camp. A few hours later we saw the huge tent city, surrounded by herds of sheep, cattle and horses."-Conquests of Tamurlane, page 95.
"Clapping his hands again, Tugluk thundered out another Command."
I order a feast to honour my faithful son, Timur. Tonight we all welcome him. All men sha1l call him brother.
For two days we feasted and Tugluk's nobles took me into their circle. Jaku and Elchi whispered stories of my cunning to the appreciative Jats who loved intrigue above, all all things.
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So I grew in stature as the men laughed at Ibikus' Officers and roared at the coup by which I had won my Begum from the wily Shah Malik. Tugluk took note of my acceptance by the Bahaturs and I gained more of his favour also." Conquests of TamerIane, pages 96.
Jat strongholds at Tashkand and Otrar
"The first Bands of Jats, at least, respected my Kha Khan's commission when I offered no resistance and insisted that I was defending one of Tugluk's cities against Tatar attackers." Conquests of Tamerlane, page 104.
"Timur, my son, prince of Samarkand, the Kha-Khan droned. You have served me well and brought rich gifts. You stand high in my favour. And we continued our formal conversation for an hour. Tugluk reminded me again that I was of the house of Kayouli and my duty was to protect his son, of the house of Kabul. We reviewed the fine service I had rendered and vowed eternal friendship and loyalty. But when the Kha-Khan left, I found that the Jat General Bikijuk was the new protector and I was left with Shehri-Sebz, a steel tablet, and whatever army I could raise and support. But I still had my valley, Trampled and devastated though it might be." Conquests of Tamerlane, page 106.
"Bikijuk pillaged, ravaged and raped from the very start. Whether the tribal chieftains paid tribute or not, the Jat protector came and took all. During the king maker's life time the protectorship had been a two way arrangement- protection of and against the puppet of Samarkand. Under Bikijuk there was no protection against the spoiled prince." Conquests of Tamerlane, page 107.
"The crimes now are against Allah. The Jats have robbed mosques and defiled the green turbans of Sayyids, Said Zain- ad-din, Allah's wrath is aroused. You are His servant. You must rise against Bikijuk." Conquests of Tamerlane, page 107.
"Zain-ad-din and his corps of priests had put everyone of my warriors on edge-I was all Good, Bikijuk all Evil-so I led three thousand madmen north. I led them madly on beyond Samerkand under the cover of night. I bad learned of the Jat strongholds at Tashkand and Otrar where captives were
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held. It was toward these that I headed my crusade for Allah." Conquests of Tamerlane, page 108.
"Otrar fell to our holy Zeal. Again following the lead of our God who had taken our enemy chief, we slew all the Jats and set free our own people. And we paused to give thanks. For a week we celebrated inside the walls of Otrar. We refitted our men with the loot of the Jats-new clothing, new weapons, new mounts and new spirit. Then we crossed the Syr-Darya toward the Kirghis Steppe, where Mongol nomads held more of our people. We made quick work of the dull, stupid wanderers and then turned east and met the Samar-Kand corps, reinforced by Tugluk's army, We met in the late afternoon with the sun our backs. As a beheld the drab garb and the awkward big wheeled Kankalis of the northerners, I took pride in the colourful force Allah had given me. I was sure that the Mangols were amazed in their sleepy eyed way at the splendid warriors they faced-the heavenly host of Allah's own guard. We drew up in a line and camped for the night, eager to dazzle and defeat the hateful Jats in the next bright sun rise.... All night and all day it rained. Another day and another night and the slow-moving Jats drew up in a battle line. From the combersome Kankalis, high above the mud on their eight-foot wheels, the Mangols had taken dry horse blankets, dry weapons and shovels with which to derain their camp grounds so they faced us in comfort and superior strength." Conquests of Tamerlane, page 108.
Jat strongholds at Bokhara, Khojend and Karshi
"Things are worse than ever-he (Zain-ad-din) Said. Even I the chief Mollah have to live in hiding where you found me. It is the same in Bokhara and Khojend and Karshi-everywhere. There is not a single Tatar prince to lead us. You are the only Amir who dared near the Jat strongholds ..... Zain-ad-din studied me shrewdly. I had once accepted Allah's mantle-I wanted to wear it no more. Pray on a scourage on the Jats, I said seriously and then in a moment of inspiration I added seriously; Pray for a scourage on their horses. Without horses, the Jats are powerless." Conquests of Tamerlane, page 125.
"So I stayed on at Kumrud with Dilshad and Jahangir and old Saif-ad-din. The winter passed quickly. In the spring all
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the Jats horses staggered and died; and the plain simple people -the Faithful-rose up in arms, without Amirs to lead them and drove out their enemies. Outcasts grew rich by looting and pillaging while the brave citizens fought the Jats in the streets. I still made no move, while chaos reigned and the Mongol barbarians trudged north of foot." Conquests of Tamerlane, page 130.
"So it was that I skirted the boundaries of Hussayn's empire. subduing the Badakshani raiders on the glacier trails of Pamirs, destroying Persian-chieftains on the desert sands south of the Amu Darya, and ultimately driving the Jats across the steppes and out of the mountains."- Conquests of Tamer-lane, page 152.
"For a week I ran into nothing more formidable than the temporary auls (villages) of the Jat nomads-battle clusters of gray felt yurts which disappeared overnight. Then I encountered an occasional patrol, none of which offered battle. Then I camped on sites which showed signs of having been recently occupied by an entire army-but one smaller than my own and by the time I reached Lake Balkhas, it was apparent that Kamarad-din was retreating before me, either to make a stand at Almalyk (now Alma-Alta) or to try to lure me into the Gobi Desert and hold me until winter set in." Conquests of Tamer-lane, page 232.
"After three days of sporadic fighting I forced the Jat Khan to mak a stand, and defeated him completely. Since I needed his animals and supplies and did not have the facilities for transporting prisoners, I took no captives except a few hundred of the best women and put the rest of the Jats to death." Conquests of Tamerlane, page 232.
Jat strongholds in India
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which is believed to be a meteorite, it is semi-circular in shape and very small, measuring only some six inches by eight." History of Persia, Vol.I, page 506.
"Elam the home of the earliest civilization of Persia .... in the whole of the vast area of Iran, there is, as we have seen, but one navigable river, the Karun and it is in its valley that we find the earliest civilization in what was generally known as kingdom of Elam," History of Persia Vol. I, page 38.
"Elam as a kingdom had fallen and even if there still remained independent hill tribes, her memory passed away and was lost in a mist of fable and legend." History of Persia, Vol. I, page 93.
"El was the name given to Baal, the sun God, (the Lord), in the town Byblus." ..... , The story of extinct civilization of the East, page 99, by R. E. Anderson-1901. Edition published by George Newnes Ltd., Southampton Street, Strand, London.
"The civilization of the earliest Chaldeans implied a good knowledge of science in several leading branches....As astronomers and astrologers they used a regular calendar, the prototype probably of all those now adopted, dividing the year into four seasons, twelve lunar months or 360 days; and they also knew the exact length of 'the sidereal year'. The latitude of stars was reckoned from the zenith of Elam in their original Median mountains, just as we everywhere refer longitude to the Greenich meridian." The story of textinct civilization of the East by R.E. Anderson-190l Edition, page 29.
"Assur- Banipal's cuneiform records have, like the finding of King Sargon's cylinder at Sippar, fixed one of the early dates. In a war against the Elamities 645 B C, he destroyed their capital, Shushan, which is not far east of the Tigris, and tells us that he found there a Chaldean image which 1635 years previously, had been removed from the temple in Erech on the Eurphrates. Therefore in 2280 years BC, the Elamities had found wealthy temples in South Babylonia, a fact implying the
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residence of a cultured population for generations before." .... The story of extinct civilization of the East, page 42.
"After the fight between Ishdubar and the lion, which is missing in the tablets, the hero and the seer became fast friends and start against Kumbaba, an Elamite tyrant who lives in a gloomy forest of Cedars and Cypresses. It will be remembered that throughout Chaldean history the Elamites on the eastern frontier were bitter foes. The tyrant killed and his body left to 'all the birds of prey', Ishdubar is proclaimed king in Erech." . . . . .. The Story of Extinct Civilization of the East, page 46.
"The Cuneiform inscriptions record the accession of Cyrus to the throne of Persia with some details which can scarcely be reconciled with those traditions. Taking them as the true history, we now know that his father was really named Cambyses, and that he was a king of Elam, the mountainous country separating Persia from Babylonia. No doubt the nomad tribes of Elam were allied in race and language to their neighbours of Media and Persia and Cyrus on that score may be claimed as an Iranian, as well as Astyages. In 549 B.C. this king Cyrus was attacked by Astyages, king of Media, and the latter was not only repelled but deprived of his capital, Ecbatana. After conquering Persia, Cyrus naturally formed a new kingdom of the three countries- Persia, Media and Elam and called himself king, 546 BC. Cyrus was now 'the great king', as he is called by the Greek writers." .... The Story of Extinct Civilization of the East, page 165.
"The Persian monarch probably paid state visits to his great capitals from time to time, especially Babylon in the Chaldaean province, Ecbatana in Media, and less frequently, Sardis in Lydia, Susa, and Elam, where cyrus had held his court before setting at Persepolis, the chief seat of the Government" .... The Story of Extinct Civilization of the East, page 169.
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descended from the mountainous Lands of Elam on the east. The Egyptian inscriptions mention that their kings sent letters and presents to the Pharaohs. It is not known whether they were akin to the Elamites, a people who had always been at war with the Babylonians, and one of whose recorded invasions was several centuries before the advent of this dynasty. During the Kossean rule, beginning about 1749 B.C., many improvements were made in Babylonia, including the building of two great temples-one in the capital to Bel, and another at Borsippa to Nebo.
The Elamites on the east were often descending on South Babylonia to plunder and destroy, and one of their kings, known to readers of the Bible as Chenorlaomer, not only annexed part of Chaldea , but marched westward across the Arabian desert and gained a celebrated victory in the district of the Jorden and 'Lake Siddim'. This was the battle of 'Four kings against Five', in which Lot was taken, and carried away from Sodom 'with all his goods'. Lot's uncle, the partriarchul founder of the race of Israel, having pursued the victorious army of the Elamites and Chaldeans as far as Damascus, attacked them by night, and rescued 'and brought back Lot and his goods and the women also and the people', One of the four kings is called 'Amraphel, king of Shinar', and is no doubt Amarpal, a king of Babylon, since 'Shinar' was merely the Herbrew spelling of Shumir, South Babylonia. Amarpal had a son Hammurabi, more famous than himself, of whom mention has already been made. . . .. The Story of Extinct Civilizations of the East, pages 37 and 38.
"Disaster struck on about 2006 B.C., when Elamites from the hlg lands to the last destroyed the city. The Sumorians -we-r never agam a ominant element politically, but their culture persisted as the foundation for all subsequent civiliza- tiOns ID the llgns Euphrates valley." Civilization Past and Present, page 19. American Library. New Delhi.
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From the above quotations, we must infer that after the fall of Elam kingdom, the Jats of that kingdom migrated into India and some of them during the course of time, migrated to what is now District Muzaffarnagar and on settling named their village 'Elam'. Elam on Shahadra- Saharanpur route is an important and very-well-to-do Jat village. This name is after thieir old kingdom in Persia as Baraut (Barot) in Meerut Distict is named after Broach on River Narbada near Surat and Barod (Baroda), the area from where the Jats of this town migrated.
Jats and Religions
'Men may come and men may go but I go on for ever' is a well known proverb. Accordingly a Jat is a Jat with Jat charactersitics, irrespective of the religion that had to change from time to time. The Jat tribe, being of Aryan stock, in the beginning professed Aryan faith. Later on Jats of many countries changed to Buddhist faith. The Budhist faith was overcome by Christianity in Europe and part of Asia. By influence of the kings, the Juts of Scandinevian countries changed to Christianity. Still after, the Jat people along with others became Mohemmedans which was spread by the dint of sword, particularly in India, Persia, Arabia, Turkey, Spain and Russia.
Most of the Sikhs are from Jat tribe and have carried the Sikh faith to England, U.S.A., Canada and many other countries.
In Persia, some carry Zoroastrian faith.
Authorities regarding Jats and their various faiths in various countries and periods are quoted hereinafter.
"But at present (in India and Pakistan) about one third of them (Jats) are Muslims, one fifth Sikhs, and the rest are Hindus.
Some of Jats in Persia also belong to Zoroastrian faith. "The Jat is a Jat after all, whether be a Hindu, Sikh or Muslim (Christian or a Zonastrian); he tenaciously clings to his tribal name as proud heritage, and with it the tradition of kinship." History of Jats by Qanungo, page 2.
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"Of the numerous Jat tribes of the Punjab, more than two-fifths that is one million three hundred and nine thousand have embarrassed the creed of Islam. They are most numerous in Gujrawala, in the Gujarat District of Rawalpindi, in Muzaffargarh, in Dera Ghazi Khan and in Sialkot". Hindu Tribe and Caste, Vol. H, page 70.
"A very numerous people in the Punjab, from whom (Jats) have proceeded the greatest proportion of adherants to the Sikh religion. But they have spread themselves far beyond the Punjab and are to be found widely scattered over the country between it and Bharatpur and Agra.' The Hindu Tribes and Castes, Vol. 1I, page 74.
"In short, whether as Yuti, Getes, Jits, Juts or Jats, this race far surpassed in numbers, three centuries ago, any other tribe or race in India; and it is a fact that they now constitute a vast majority of the peasantry of Western Rajwarra and perhaps of Northern India.
At what period these Jits established themselves in the Indian desert we are, as has been already observed, entirely ignorant, but even at the time of the Rathore invasion of these communities, their habits confirmed the tradition of their Scythic origin. They led chiefly a pastoral life, were guided, but not governed by the elders, and with the exception of adoration to the 'Universal mother' (Bhawani), incarnate in the person of a youthful Jatni, they were utter aliens to the Hindu theocracy. In fact, the doctrine of the great Islamite saint Shekh Fureed, appear to have overturned the pagan rites brought from the Jaxartis; and without any settled ideas on religion; the Jits of the desert jumbled all their tenets together. They considered themselves, in short, as a distinct class and as a Pooniah Jit informed me 'Their Wattan (वतन) was far beyond the Five rivers.' Even in the name of one of the six Communities (The Asiagh) on whose submission Beeka founded his new State, we have nearly the Asi, the chief of the four tribes from the Oxus and Jaxartes, who overturned the Greek kingdon of Bactria"- Annals of Rajasthan, Vol.II, pp. 138-139.
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"Similarity of religious manners affords stronger proofs of original identity than language. Language is eternally changing so are manners; but an exploded custom or rite traced to its source and maintained in opposition to climate, is a testimony not to be rejected." Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. I, page 55.
"The Suiones or Suevi, the most powerful Getic nation of Scandinavia, was divided into many tribes, one of whom, the Su (Yuchi or Jit), made human sacrifices in their consecrated groves to Ertha (Ella) whom all worshipped and whose charriot was drawn by a Cow (The Gao or Cow, symbolic of Pritha or earth"-Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. I, page 55.
"If we can show the Germans to have been originally Scythae or Goths (Getes or Jits) a wide field of curiosity and inquiry is open to origin of Government, manners, etc., all the antiquities of Europe will assume a new appearance and instead of being traced to the bands of Germany, as Montesquien and the greatest writers have hitherto done, may be followed through long descriptions of the manners of the Scythians, etc., as given by Herodotus Scandinavia was occupied by the Scythae Five hundred years before Christ. These Scythians worshipped Mercury (Budha), Woden or Odian, and believed themselves his progeny. The Gothic mythology by parallel, might be shown to the Grecian, whose gods were the' progeny of Coelus and Terra (Budha and Ella). Dry-ads, satyrs, fairies, and all the Greek and Roman superstition, may be found in the Scandinavian creed. The Goths consulted the heart of victims and oracles, had sybils, had a Venus in Freya, and Parcal in the Valkyrie" Annuls and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol. I, page 51.
"The Suevi or Suiones erected the celebrated temples of Upsala in which they placed the statue or Thor, odens and Friya the triple divinity of the Scandinavian Asi, the Trimurti of the Solar and Lunar races."-Annuls of Rajasthan Vol. I, p.56.
"The Cimbri, one of the most celebrated of the six tribes of Yeutlned derive their name from their fame as warriors"- Annuls of Rajasthan, Vol. I, page 56.
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"Gajni or Gayni was another capital, whence the last prince, Silladitya (who was slain) and his family, were expelled by Parthian invaders in the sixth century."-Annuls of Rajas- tan, Vol. I, page 71.
"In the Eastern countries Bukhara is the cupola of Islam and in those regions she is like unto the city of peace (Baghdad). Since ancient time she has in every age been the place of assembly of the great savants of every religion. Now the derivation of Bukhara is from Bukhar (Viharo), which in the language of the Magians (correctly. the Buddhists) signifies centre of learning." (about 1220 A.D.) - History of Mongols, page 32.
When (Ghazan) in his early boyhood, was with his grand-father (Abaqa) so Hulagu(1265-1283), the latter being devoted to the teachings of the Bhikshus (Buddhist priests) and sharing their convictions, entrusted him to one or two highly respected Bhikshus, requesting them to teach him to the best of their abilities, and to guide him toward the acceptance of their doctrines be achieved such a perfection in them that he became an expert authority in this field....Out of a deep devotion to the (Buddhist) doctrine, he built in Khabushan in Khurasan soaring temples, and in this way followed all the prescriptions of this faith. All the Bhikshus and monks were highly astonished at these mortifications and exercises of self denial .... Early in November 1295, Ghazan, with all his emirs and in the presence of the great Sheikh Sadr-ad-din Ibrahim Hamani, professed the oneness of God and everybody went to Islam ..... History of Mongol, pages 144 to 146.
"It was in the 3rd century B.C. when the Emperor Ashoka became its great devotee, that Buddhism began to spread in the territories outside India. The Buddhist missionaries converted Ceylon and Burma to their faith. They then reached Mesopatamia and Syria in Asia Minor, Egypt in Africa and Macadonia in Europe. In the same period Buddhism spread in Central Asia." Evolution of Indian Culture, p. 148.
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Biggest Buddha to Smile Again
Experts from the Archaeological Survey of India have been at restoration work since 1969 under a bilateral agreement. Afghan labour and material were used in the work.
The 53 metre-tall, big Buddha, a fifth century monument, was badly damaged in the canon fire during Aurangzeb's expedition to Afghanistan in the late 17th century. This as well as the nearby small Buddha which is 38 metres high, had earlier been ravaged by the hordes of Chengiz Khan. The faces of the two statues had been smashed and large portions of the feet were hanging loose.
The work, being supervised by Mr. R. Sen Gupta, director (conservation), the Archaeological Survey of India, is now in its final phase.
Indian assistance has also been sought for the restoration of ninth century arch at Bost, near Laskargah 40 km from Kandahar. The arch is inscribed on Afghan currency notes." Times of India, Dated 8-7-1977.
"When Salucus, one of the successors of Alexendar, invaded India in 305 B.C., Chander Gupta defeated him and forced him to conclude a treaty by virtue of which he had to cede to him the whole of Afghanitan." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 182.
"Kashghar, Yarkand Khotan and Kuchi were the significant centres of Buddhism. Flourishing India once dotted the area which now lies buried under the sands of the desert of Gobi. According to the account of the Chinese pilgrim Fa-hien, Indians were living in this region in the early centuries of the Christian era and by the 5th century A.D., the whole of Central
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Asia was completely Indianised." Evolution of Indian Culture, page 309.
"It was well known that there have been friendly and fruitful contacts between the people of India and Iran from the most ancient times. During the time of the Achamaenian Kings of Iran and during the Mauryan period and more particularly during the Buddhist period in India, 2000 to 3000 years ago there was vital contacts between the two countries. Iranian ideas entered into India and Indian philosophy and culture entered Iran. It is well known that Buddhism moved from the North-West of India towards Central Asia and China and to this has left behind in Afghanistan, Iran, Central Asia and China traces of its great contribution"... Speech of Shri B.D. Jatti, Vice-President of India published in Journal of the Indo-Iran Society, New Delhi, September-October, 1975-76, page 6.
The East Goths were Arian Heretics
"On his death in 526, Theodoric German left behind him an admirably organized state, but it had one conspicuous weakness. The Goths, although Christians were unorthodox according to the standard of the Italian Christians. They had been converted by eastern missionaries who taught them the Arian heresy earlier prevalent at Constantinople. The doctrine, which derived its name from Arius, a presbyter of Allexandria (d. 336) had been condemned by the Council of Nicaea. The followers of Arius did not have the same conception of Christ's nature and of the relations of the three members of the Trinity as that sanctioned at Rome. The East Goths were, therefore, not only barbarians, which might have been forgiven them, but were guilty, in the eyes of the orthodox Italians, of the unpardonable offence of heresy. Theodoric him- self was exceptionally tolerant for his times. His conviction that "we cannot command in matters of religion because no one- can be compelled to believe against his will", showed a spirit alien to the traditions of the Roman Empire and the Roman Church, which represented the orthodox belief." History of Western Europe, page 30.
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"The year after Theodric's death one of the greatest of the emperors of the East. Justinian (527-565). came to the throne at Constantinople. He undertook to regain for the Empire the provinces in Africa and Italy that had been occupied by the Vandals and East Goths. His general, Belisarious, overthrew the Vandal kingdom in northern Africa in 534, but it was more difficult task to destroy the Gothic rule in Italy. However, in spite of a brave defence, the Goths were so completely defeated in 553, that they agreed to leave Italy with all their movable possessions. What became to the remnants of the race we do not know." History of Western Europe, page 33.
"All the other German peoples within the Empire were Christians, but they were all Arian heretics; and to the orthodox Christians about them they seemed worse than heathen. This religious difference had prevented the Germans and Romans from intermarrying and had retarded their fusion in other ways." History of Western Europe, page 35.
"The writers of the time indicate that the West Goths, when they were first admitted to the Empire before the battle of Adrianople amounted to four or five hundred thousand persons including men, women and children. This is the largest band reported and it must have been greatly reduced before the west Goths, after long wanderings and many battles finally settled in Spain and Southern Gaul." History of Western Europe page 39.
"The West Goths in the time of Euric were probably the first to write down their ancient laws, using the Latin language. Their example was followed by the Franks, the Burgundians, and later by the Lombards and other peoples, These codes make up the 'Laws of the Barbarians' which form our most important source of knowledge of the habits and ideas of the Germans at the time of invasions. For several centuries following the conquest, the members of the various German tribes appear to have been judged by the laws of the particular." History of Western Europe, page 40.
"The disintegration of the Frankish empire was hastened by the continued invasions from all sides. From the north-
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Denmark, Norway and Sweden-came the Scandinavian pirates, the Northmen. They were skilful and daring seamen, who not only harassed the coast of the North Sea, but made their way up the rivers, plundering and burning towns inland as far as Paris." History of Western Europe, page 98.
"From the various languages spoken by the German barbarians, modern German, English, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian. Danish and Icelandic are derived." History of Western Europe, page 251.
"As for the Germanic language, one at least was reduced to writing even before the break up to the Empire An eastern bishop, Ulfilas (381 A.D.) had undertaken to convert the Goths while they were still living north of the Danube before the battle of Adrianople. In order to carry on his work, Ulfilas translated a great part of the Bible into Gothic, using the Greek letters to represent the sounds, with the single exception of the Gothic, there is no example of writing in any German language before Charlenagne's time." History of Western Europe, page 252.
"In the ninth century some of the Northmen invaded the districts to the east of the Baltic, while their relatives were causing grievous trouble in France and England. It is generally supposed that one of their leaders, Rurik, was the first to consolidate the Slavic tribes about Novgorod into a sort of state in 262. Rurik's successor extended the bounds of the new empire so as to include the important town of Kiev Rous, the name given by the neighbouring Fiuns to the Norman adventure." History of Western Europe, page 510.
"The costumes and etiquette of the court were also Asiatic. The Russian armor suggested that of the Chinese, and their head-dress was a turban. It was the task of Peter the Great to Europanize Russia." ... History of Western Europe, page 511.
"Peter's reforms extended through his whole reign. He made his people give up their cherished oriental beards and long flowing garments. He forced the women of the better class, who had been kept in a sort of oriental harem, to come out and meet the men in special assemblies such as were common in the
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West. He invited foreigners to settle in Russia, and insured them protection, privileges, and the free exercise of their religion. He sent young Russians abroad to study. He reorganized the government officials on the model of a western kingdom, and made over his army in the same way" .... History of Western Europe, page 512.
Gher (cattle shed) with hookka (Indian Smoke) in his hand. It is the duty of the youngsters or inferiors to prepare the smoke. At the age of sixty he is adorned :IS Chowdbry (headman of the village and as a right command respects from the whole of village folk. In past times, a Chowdhry proved to be an intelligent and impartial Judge in deciding petty conflicts.
Jat ways in India
Life of a Jat in India:
Leaving some Jats who are in service or in active politics or are in noble professions like medical, legal or engineering etc., most of the Jats are engaged in cultivation. They are born in villages and after primary education, acquaint them- selves with agriculture and by the age of sixteen, they completely take over to this vocation with their parents. After obtaining maturity, young Jat develops fancy to possess better breed and healthy animals. Till fifty years back, he used to ride on a good horse whom he loved most and took pride in horse riding. By the change of animal era to machinery period, Jats too have changed over to tractors and tillers in place of bullocks and Jeep instead of horse. However a Jat in a village or on his farm cannot do without one or two buffaloes because without milk, curd, Ghee (butter) and Chaach (cream separated curd), his daily diet remains incomplete. Only five decades before, if a stranger requested a Jat for a glass of water to quench his thirst, he was supplied with a glass of Lassi (diluted curd mixed with sugar). He did not mind if some one extracted one or two sugar-canes from his field to feed oneself for taste. It was customary for a Jat to offer a quarter kilo Cud (indigenous substitute for sugar) to one who happened to be sitting in the Kolowh at the time of its preparation.
A young Jat of India, energetic as he is, labours hard or rather very hard in his vocation at the time of Work and recreates fully at leisure. He enjoys sound sleep after hard work. At the age of forty or forty-five bis sons replace him in hard duty, He then enjoys cool breeze under a tree in his
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A Jat woman's beauty of character is that she always works shoulder to shoulder with her husband. Lighter duties of maintaining the animals are left to them while heavy work is done by the males. She has to prepare fresh break-fast and takes it to the field for husband. Again she prepares lunch and once more reaches the field to serve it to the males working at the field. On coming back home she is busy with her Charkha (a country made wooden machine to spin yarn out of cotton). Thus in the morning, she milks the buffaloes and gives fodder to them and other an i mals, afterwards she eh urns the curd, prepares breakfast and on return from the field. she prepares lunch and after its delivery, she works for the clothing need of the family. Many of the ladies come to a common place with their Charkha and without wasting time, make chit chats and enjoy the society. Their Charkha in the past had played important role in Indian economy and Mahatma Gandhi emphasised its importance and used it as a tool to gain independence. In the evening, she prepares dinner and after feeding every member of the family. She also takes her food after which she prepares long glasses of milk for all males and females. Even after so much of labour, she does not feel dizzy and does not lack to please her husband. All the day round busying keeps her active and healthy to keep doctors away. She seldom needs a nursing home for delivery. Her only demand is heavy silver and if possible some gold ornaments.
Garments of Jat Folks
Children use Pyjama with shirt. Grown up males use Dhoti (a cloth nearly 4 x 1 metre specially manufactured by Indian mills which is tied up around the loin) which stretches
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only up to the knees so as not to hinder in physical labour. In place of shirt, in the past, they used Bandi (shirt up to hips only) tied up with strings instead of buttons. The head dress was a turban nearly 10 metres long. Turban was a must for those who worked in the shining sun on open fields where hot wind blows uninterrupted. The footwear is Juti covering most of the foot and manufactured indigenous, out of un-tanned leather of buffaloes. It is easy to be worn and put off. It is comfortable to walk with it on and work on the field.
The ladies were clad and covered from head to foot. Their loin to leg wear was Ghagra which was sewn out of 36 metres cloth and sometimes weighed up to four kilos. To cover up breasts, they used Cholli which did not cover stomach or back as has become prevalent in modern fashion and consumed little cloth. The stomach and back were however kept covered with headdress known as Onna which used to be 2-1/4 X 1 metres. The ladies liked colourful and shining garments.
Ceremonies in a Jat Life
Chhati: After six days of the birth of a child, Chhati is observed when the household, friends, and guests were served rice with curry made of curd.
Karan Chhedan Samskar:During the teens, Karan Chhedan Samskar is performed when a particular vein of the ears is penetrated with a needle and a little gold ornament called Murki is worn through it. This particular penetration has got medical significance since it saves the person from many future ailments, particularity of testicles.
'Marriage': Before completion of twenty, marriage is performed and in selecting the match, the boy or the girl has little say. That is purely a duty left to parents. Important considerations in the selection is the health, the reputation of the family, and area of land which the selected family owns for cultivation. As has been stressed elsewhere of this thesis, a Jat adorns above all other things, the land which he cultivates. His respect for the soil is no less than his own mother. In case, little or his land is usurped by some one, even by his own cousin, he will
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prefer to die in a quarrel than to allow the other to kidnap his land. His love for land spells no bound. After the settlement, Sagai is sent from bride's side which is a proof of final engagement, because the performance of marriage may be delayed for some months or even some years. On the day of marriage, the revival of old glory of a Sardar of his domain comes in to play The manners of a Raja or King or Chieftain or Khan invading his foe's estate are repeated. A feast is thrown to the marriage party as was used to be done for the military acompanying the Raja on the expedition. Afterwards, the bridegroom representing the Raja rides on horse (known as Ghur-charhi) when the women relatives make a tika on his forehead as symbol of success. Followed by his military personnel (Baratis) and other staff, he goes to the temple for blessings of God to won over the enemy. On this occasion he is bound to be properly dressed of his office i.e., military dress with crown on his head (Mod). The whole army (Barat) either on elephants, horses, chariots, Rath, Behli or carts drawn by bullocks or even on foot starts to the destination of invasion. Before reaching the bride's village, the army stop in a garden for preparation of invasion. In the mean time if envoys of the foe come before the chieftain for settling terms of peace and bring presents according to his status, the Raja accepts the presents. This function is known as Barothi or Khet. The foe now a friend, requests the head of the army to come with his men and stay with him and throws a rich, heavy, tasteful dinner with drinks and dance (only rare) to the whole party. After the dinner, the ceremonies of marriage are performed according to the custom prevailing in the religion to which the individual Jat belongs. The feast is repeated for a day or two whereafter the father of the bride gives presents to the party and more particularly to the bride-groom. The groom thereafter with his bride on a suitable ride, starts for home where the bride is welcome into the house.
The female number lesser in Jat clan and therefore there is no hitch to accept a bride from outside the clan if the match is otherwise suitable. The offsprings of an outside bride are Jats in all respects. Likewise if one of the brothers dies leaving his widow, the widow can be taken as wife by the
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other brother of the deceased, in case he is bachelor or a widower.
Janav ceremony: Thread (Janav) ceremony is not prevalent amongst Jats. Only those who profess Arya Samajist religion undergo this ceremony. This ceremony, however, is essential amongst the twice-born Hindus i.e. Brahman, Kshatriya and Vaish.
After death, mourning is observed for thirteen days. On thirteenth day, all relatives and family members get together to elect the new Sardar for the family, always out of his sons and generally the eldest son of the deceased is choiced for the leader. A turban is then put over his head by members of the family in presence of relatives and other members of the clan in proof of his having been chosen as head of his family. This is known as Pagdi Ceremony. All those present on the occasion offer their presents to the new head mostly in cash and fruits. Acceptance of the presents shows the authority of the new head over his family or group of families. Thereafter a feast is arranged from the side of the new head which further puts a seal on his authority. This reminds us of the occasion of throning of Ogatai as successor of Genghis Khan which has been described by Herold Lamb in his work Genghis Khan, Emperor of all men on page, 178 as :
"He (Ye Liu Chutsai, the sage Catheyan) urged Ogotai to mount without delay to the gold throne on the felt-covered dais, and as the new Emperor was doing so Ye Liu Chutsai went to his side and spoke to Chatagai. Thou art the elder, he said but thou art a subject. Being the elder, seize this moment to be the first to prostrate thyself before the throne. An instant's hesitation and Chatagai threw himself down before his brother. All the officers and nobles in the council pavilion foll- owed his example and Ogotai was acknowledged as Kha Khan. The throng went out and bent their heads to the south, toward the sun and the multitude of the camp did likewise. Then followed days of feasting. The treasure that Genghis Khan had left, the riches gathered from all the corners of unknown lands, was given to the other princess, the officers and the Mongols of the army."
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"Then the rule passed from the house of Ogotai to the sons of Tuli-Mangu and Kubilai Khan. And the third and most extensive wave of conquests swept the word," page 180.
Law of Succession
D.F. Mulla on Hindu Law 1946 Edition on page 167 says "Among Jats who have migrated to the district of Meerut from the Punjab there exists a custom by which reversioners. Irrespective of degree succeed equally to the last male owner, each branch of the family taking its share per stirpes. Dharam Singh Vs. Hira-Allahabad High Court (1922) 44 All. 390; 65 IC 828 ; 22 AA 141"
Section 175 of Hindu Law by Mulla deals with Reversioners. "Under the Hindu Law the death of the female owner opens the inheritance to the reversioners and the one most nearly related at the time to the last full owner, becomes entitled to possession. In her life time however the reversionary right is a mere possibility or open successionist." The author gives an illustration to explain reversionary right as :
"A Hindu 'A' dies leaving a widow, a brother, a son of that brother and an uncle. Here the brother, his son and uncle are a1l reversioners. The brother is the next or presumptive reversioner. The other reversioners are remote or contingent reversioners. If the brother dies in the life time of the widow, his son becomes the next reversioner." Hindu Law by D.F. Mulla, page 166.
One can trace the origin of the theory of co-operation in the Jat tribe. There is thousand years old custom amongst Jat Cultivators, from whom others also have copied, that in sowing sugarcane, when more number of persons are required than available in the family, the other cultivators of the tribe on the occasion co-operate and lend their labour to him at his fields. Next day when the same crop is to be sown in other's field, the first, in exchange, works on
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other's field and thus they co-operate with each other as regards labour. The same can also be observed in small farmers who cannot afford to maintain two bullocks necessary for a plough. They keep one each and at the time of necessity lend his one bullock to the other and vice versa so that all processes of cultivation are completed without purchasing another bullock. Co-operation is very much manifest amongst them up to only thirty years back when Gud (गुड़) was manufactured indigenously through Kolowh (small cane crusher) and boiling pan. Since one farmer could not afford to install a Kolowh and boiling pan for his small yield and cane as such was not a marketable commodity at that time, five to ten farmers co-operated and installed one Kolowh for all. They then allocated working hours or days to each member to manufacture gud from his yield. Even they co-operated amongst themselves to lend their one bullock on the other owner of a single bullock because to work a Kolowh a pair of bullock is required. Further if a farmer is sick or otherwise busy and cannot utilize the allotted time, he requests another to work for him and when he feels free, he works for the other during his allotted time. This system is known as Dangwara (डंगवारा) in their language. The same system of co-operation is observed in harvesting the crop and making it fit to be taken to the market. Co-operation of capital (land) and labour is very frequent who possess large holdings where the landless laborer who has yielded crop on a Jat field gets a share in the crop. This co-operative system is also found in irrigating their fields with canal water. In fact this is prevalent in every activity of their life whenever need arises.
Imparting of Justice
Well known Panchayat system (assembly of five dignitaries of the village) is an institution in Jat tribe as old as the tribe itself and remained prevalent up to the time, the Panchayat the Act was passed. Now as per the Act, the Pradhan (President) is elected by vote. Prior to it the head Panch was nominated unanimously and generally he used to be the eldest member of the
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tribe in that village and was respected like a king, not by force but voluntarily. four other persons junior to him were also nominated in the same manner.
The moral of the Panch was undisputedly high as they could not favour even their own sons, relatives, friends or kith or kin. The judgment passed by them orally was always judicious and had more force than a written court judgment. The parties always obeyed the judgment although it is bound to be against one of them. No appeal or revision could be sought against the judgment once pronounced by the Punchayat. Of course every party had his full say to prove his cast. Even witnesses were heard. The system had a special privilege in coming to a correct judgment because every one in the village including the Panch were well acquainted with the nature, facts and circumstances or the disputes between the parties thereto. This privilege lacks in court judgment because the court has no personal knowledge about the facts of the dispute. Even the Advocates plead their case on hearsay. The judgments delivered therefore become wrong in several cases.
Whenever a question covering common interest of the villagers arose, the Panchayat came in session and summoned all the residents of the village or at least the heads of the families and after discussion an award of line of action was arrived at by all of them. Then as a promise to stick to the award, everyone present poured little salt in water contained in a jug. It was believed that in case anyone betrayed the promise, his body will decay or melt on the earth as salt has melted away in the pot and lost its existence.
In fact by promulgation of Panchayat Act, the integrity of Panchayat itself and people's belief in the Panchayats has been lost. The elections of a Panch in a village has resulted in party politics and thereby destroying the peace of the village folk. The oneness of the villagers irrespective of their caste and creed, which used to be the specialty of all the villages of India has come to an end. Because of party politics, different groups have sprung up in every village which has resulted differences amongst them and has led to every day quarrels even on petty
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matters and none commands voluntary respect to intervene. This has led to huge litigation amongst the villagers whereby they have to spend major part of their earnings in the courts.
Practically all Jats are of ruling nature. They are difficult to be ruled by a member of another tribe or caste. They consider themselves to be superior. A Jat sitting in his cot with Hooka (smoking pipe) in his hands, expects every passerby to pay respects to him. If the passerby is his own villager and did not pay his respect, he will be taught a lesson later on. A Bania or Mahajan (shop-keeper) of his village is bound to sell him his requirements on credit it need be. A Mahajan, if has to remind him of his debt, he should adopt such tactics that the Chowdhry may not feel annoyed. The lower caste people are considered by him as his Rayyat (the Ruled) and they must behave properly. A labourer even though has not been paid his last month's wages, must not grudge to work diligently for the Jat, the next month, if he has to live in the village. Now the situation is not so. The Independence of India has changed the position to a great extent. This ruling nature in them is hereditary because the Jats entered India as conquerers and on settlement in villages became land owners and were respected as rulers by the other people. The difference between the conquerer and conquered has not diminished altogether even after thousands of years.
Jat is a pleasant host but a dreadful foe. He is not a good paymaster, because of his ruling nature.
About the ruling nature of a Jat the following para from an article by Shri G.S. Sandhu be referred to :
"No Jat wants to be ruled. He desires power over a group if not, over an area. Only once in the past (except during British rule) has a large part of the undivided Punjab been
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controlled by one man- Ranjit Singh. Among themselves however the Jats do not recognise any superior. Even (Raja) Ranjit Singh was conscious of their will to defy-he never gave them any position of power. Their desire for power stems from the long periods of insecurity they have endured.
The social status of a Jat is determined by the size of his holding and one way of keeping it large is to have a smaller number of heirs by limiting the number of childbearing woman. This explains the practice of sharing the wife of an elder brother prevalent in certain areas.
As cultivable land rose in value with the passage of time, the Jat concept of honour came to be associated with one's ability to spend. A Jat's status was determined by his credit worthiness with a money-lender; no salvation without a Guru and no honour without a money lender. The Jats started mortgaging their lands with the money-lender. It is said that once a God-fearing Jat was not allowed to enter Heaven be- cause God-feared he might mortgage Heaven too." ... Pride and Pragmatism - Jat Valu of Life by Shri Gulzar Singh Sandhu.
Besides being cultivators of soil, the second foremost occupation of Jats in military or police service. Since he is brave, he flares well both in police and military where the life is hard. Many of the Jats have won different grades of military Cross. Military history is full of such names. One can refer to Jat Regiment Records. Retired Major K.C. Sheoran told me names of number of Jats who had won Military honour. However to give list of such persons is not the purpose of my subject. There are Jat villages where main occupation of the people is military service. Bhuron Ka Saidpore is well known to be such village in United Provinces. Most of the Ranks of Military personnels can be met in that village, in service as well as retired. They played important role both in 1st and 2nd world wars at home as well as Overseas. Jats are non-vegetarian by nature and do not discard drinks. Their women folk also entertain their own sex with milk, curd an I delicious food. Because of
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Jat's hard physical structure, they do well even in severe climates of snow covered mountains and in hot wind blowing Arabian countries. Very important quality of a Jat is that he is least homesick. To stick his vocation he can ordinarily shift where he can feed his family in a better way. We find that many Jat Sikhs have migrated and doing very well in many Europeon, American, Arabian, East Asian and even Scandinavian countries. He therefore is very successful in Military service. Most of the army people in Sikh Regiment of India are Jat Sikh. Moreover he is a good and harsh administrator. The forefathers of practically all the Jats were Military personnels and therefore military service is their ancestral or hereditary vocation. Some of them are Engineers, Doctors, Advocates, Politicians, Diplomats, and also businessmen of repute. I personally know Late Shri Har Prasad Singh, Shri B.S. Dehiya and Shri Mehnga Ram who have established a name in income-Tax Department for their keen intelligence and good administration.
Some Dignitaries of the Jats
Some of the Dignitaries of Past and Present of the Jat Tribe:
The tribe has produced Generals, Rajas, Politicians and profesaionalists of repute. To name of very few of them. I mention the names of
- Ibiku and Bikijuk, the Jat Generals in Mongol army.
- Alarik, a German (Goth) General who brought downfall of Roman Empire in 410 A.D.
- Riurik; the Ruler of Jutland was called by Russian king for his aid against foreign invaders, whereby the Jats settled in that country. The Governor of Mongolia or Jatah in 1360 A.D. was Tughluk Timur Khan who determined to annex Transoxian to his domain.
- In India the names of
- Raja Suraj Mal,
- Churaman and
- Sir Chhotu Ram are unforgetable.
- Chowdhari Charan Singh, Ex-Home Minister of India,
- Kunwar Natwar Singh I.F.S. and
- Nathu Ram Mirdha, Ex-Chairman, Agriculture Price Commission, are Jats.
- Justice Mahabir Singh, Allahabad High Court,
- Dr. S.P.S. Teotia, an international figure in Metabolic diseases,
- Dr. G.S. Sirohi who established Sirohi point in South Pole regarding Botany plantation and
- Shri Dara Singh, a world
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Champion, are also Jats. There are many other persons of great fame.
Jat Against Muslim Invaders
- Mahmud Ghazni and Moghnl emperors of India were tired of the Jats,
- Timur Lung had to struggle very hard to subdue Jats of Samarkand, Tashkant, Khiva and other strongholds.
In fact to save their liberty, the Jats fought bravely with Muslim invaders every-where in Eurasia whenever needed. In modern times, the Jats of West Punjab and Sindh (now Pakistan) in 1947 bad to combat with Muslims. They also made war against Greek invaders in Persia and North-West India. The authorities quoted below will corroborate my viewpoint.
"It is not till after the Greek invasion that we come across coins with the names of kings clearly engraved on them. Excepting, perhaps, a few coins of the time of Alexander, the most important series of such coins were those issued by the Greek rulers of Bactria who ultimately conquered the Punjab and North/Western Frontier.....That it is from these coins alone that we know of nearly 30 Greek kings and Queens who ruled in India ....for nearly two centuries"....Indian People, vet. I, page 57.
"The coinage of the Greeks were initiated by the Scythian and Parthian invaders who followed in their footsteps....One branch of the Scythian invaders who settled permanently in Gujarat and the Kathiawar peninsula" ..... Indian People, Vol. I, page 57.
"The Kushans who followed them likewise issued a large number of coins, but the history of this dynasty is also known from other sources." ..... Indian People, Vol. 1, page 58.
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around Bolan Pass and is referred by the Hiuan Tsang as a Kingdom whose people had a pastoral lives amid the great mountains and valleys in separate clans without any ruling chief." History & Culture of Indian People, Vol. Ill, page 169.
"Muhammad-bin-Qasim, the Commander on behalf of Hajjaj (near about 708 A.D.) was re-inforced by two thousand select horse sent by Hajjaj and 4000 warlike Jats from Siwistan (Sehwan) in India .... after conquering a few more stronghold, he besieged Multan" History & Culture of Indian People Vol. III, page 172.
Between 724 to 738 A.D., "It would thus appear that the Arabs advanced through Rajasthan and proceeded as far as Malwa in the East and Broach in the South." ..... History & Culture of Indian People, Vol. Ill, page 172.
There was four routs to enter India from West viz.,
- (l) by sea,
- (2) Khybar Pass,
- (3) Bolan Pass,
- (4) Makran Coast.
(In A.D. 786-809), "The Muslim army from Caliph Al-Mahdi, had also to fight with the hardy 'Jaths' of Kikanan who are known to have resisted the Arabs as back as A.D. 662." History & Culture of Indian People. Vol. IV. page 127.
In A.D. 1025 Mahmud of Ghazni, "On his way thitherto he was greatly troubled by the 'Jats', His long and perilous journey ended in A.D. 1026 ..... in A.D. 1027 Mahmud again came to India to punish the Jats who gave him so much trouble on his return journey from Somnath." .... History and Culture of Indian People, Vol. V, page 21.
"The Jats also made great preparations to meet the invader (Mahmood of Ghazni). They sent their women and children to the islands for safety, and themselves boldly came forward
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with 4000 boats, each filled with valiant fighters. The battle between the two armies began with terrible intensity. Almost all the boats of the Jats were broken into pieces as they dashed against those of the Sultan. A large number of Jats were drowned in the river and those who survived were killed by the Muslim archers. The Sultan next plundered the islands where the families of the Jats were kept with their valuables and then returned to Ghazni." .... History & Culture of Indian People, Vol. V, page 22.
"Masud (son of Mahmood of Ghazni, the Sultan) appointed Ahmad Niyaltigin, Governor of the Punjab .... The Sultan sent a force under the command of Hindu named Tilak against him (Niyaltigin). Tilak reached Lahore and defeated Niyaltigin in a severe engagement. Niyaltigin fled away but was killed by the Jats while Tilak returned to the Royal Court after settling the affairs of the country.
First expedition of Mahmud Ghazni to India was in 1000 A.D. or 390 A.H History of Ghazni, page 8.
"It was to have been expected that Mahmud, after establishing himself on the throne of Ghazni, would have embraced the first opportunity of invading India; for while yet a prince, he had seen how easily the hardy warriors of Zabulistan had overcome the more effeminate sons of India." ..... History of Ghazni, page 8.
"I prefer, as on former occasions, the former, the river of Waihind, or the Indus, being a more probable place of action then Peshawar, which was then within the Mohammedan border. The Gakkhers have performed the part assigned to them is probable enough, whether the action was fought at one place or the other; but that the Gakkhars are the ancestors of the modern 'Jats' as Dr. Berd asserts, is altogether a mistake, and likely to read to serious errors." History of Ghazni, page 20.
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"Mahmud, after the capture of Thanesar, was desirous of proceeding to reduce Delhi...He resolved, therefore, for the present, to proceed no further, till he bad accomplished these objects. Anandpal, however, conducted himself with so much policy and hospitability towards Mahmud that the Sultan returned peaceably to Ghazni. On this occasion. the Muhammaden army brought to Ghazni 200,000 captives, so that the capital appeared like an Indian city, for every soldier of the army had several slaves and slave girls." Firishta- History of Ghazni, page 32 (year 402 A.H.).
"There (Somnath) hung in this temple a golden chain which weighed 200 Indian Mans. Mahmud returned back to Ghazni through the deserts." History of Ghazni, page 54.
Mahmud's father had also invaded India as far as Sodra on the Chinab, where he demolished idols in celebration of Mahmud's birth ..... History of Ghazni, page 8.
In 5th he came to Peshawar only.
In 6th Indus river was taken in Mohemmedan borber. Here he had to fight with Gakkhars. Dr. Berd asserts that were ancestors of modern 'Jats' but Mr. Elliot says it is altogether a mistake and likely to lead to serious errors. History of Ghazni, page 20.
In 8th, after conquest of Ghor, he had practically nothing.
10th was to Thanesar which was held in
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the same veneration by Hindus as Macca by the Muslims. On this occasion, Anandpal (Raja of Multan) prepared an entertainment for the reception of the king and issued orders to supply the Muslim camp with every necessity of life. He (Mahmud Ghazni) sent the idol of Jagsom of the Thanesar to Ghazni to be trodden under foot in the street. He took 200,000 captives to Ghazni.
"In 13th expedition- Jats of Jud -417 A.H.-It is probable that, on the dissolution of the kingdom of Lahore the Jats of the Jud hills acquired considerable power and by predatory incursions were able to horry their neighbours. Their advance so far from their own country to attack the Muhammedans Army, and the strength of the force with which they opposed it, show that they possessed no inconsiderable power. From a passage quoted by M. Reivard from Kamilut Tawarikh (416 A. H.) it appears that they had invaded the principality of Mansura and had forced the Musalman Amir to abjure his religion. It does not quite appear which particular portion of the hilly country is here meant, but most probably the salt range, on the part nearest to Multan. The Jats have now moved further to the north and east, but some of their clans points to the Salt Range as their original seat." ..... History of Ghazni, page 60.
"The following account is taken from Nizamuddin Ahmad. -"In the same year (417 A.H.), the Sultan, with a view to punish the Jats, who had molested his army on his return from Somnath, led a large force towards Multan, and when he arrived there, he ordered 1400 boats to be built, each of which was armed with three firm iron spikes, projecting one from the prow and two from the sides, so that anything which came in contact with them would infallibly be destroyed. In each boat were 20 archers, with bows and arrows, grenades, and nuptha ; and in this way they proceeded to attack the Jats; who having intelligence of armaments, sent their families into the islands and prepared themselves for the conflict. They launched, according to some, four, and according to others, eight thousand
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boats, manned and armed, ready to engage the Muhammadans. Both fleets met, and a desparate conflict ensued. Every boat of the Jats that approached the Muslim fleet, when it received the shock of the projecting spikes was broken and overturned. Thus most of the Jats were drowned, and those who were not destroyed were put to the sword. The Sultan's army proceeded to the places where their families were concealed and took them all prisoner. The Sultan then returned victorious to Ghazni." History of Ghazni, page 61.
"On the distribution of rank into Zat and Suwar was founded a classification into first, second and third class Mansabs, by which the scale of Zat pay was reduced proportionately. From this classification were exempted officers about 5000 Zat, these were all of one class. From 5000 downwards, an officer was first class, if his rank in Zat and Suwar were equal; second class, if his Suwar was half the Zat rank; third class, if the Suwar were less than half the Zat, or there were no Suwar at all (Dastur-Ul-Insha 222). I think that here Blochmann (Ain. 1283, Lines 5 and f. 11) obscures the subject by using 'contingent' as the equivalent of Suwar, instead of learning the untranslated original word to express a technical meaning." ... The Army of the Indian Moghal, page 6.
"The grant of Suwar in addition of Zat rank was an honour." .... The Army of Indian Moghals, page 9.
"There are also several instances of heads being sent in during the reigns of Almagir and Bahadur Shah. For example, Denisamand Khan tells us, entry of 18th Ramzan 1119 H., 12th Dec. 1707, that an Imperial Officer, after taking the Jat force of Sansani, near Mathura, sent in 1000 heads in ten carts, along with the weapons taken," The Army of Indian Moghals, page 243.
"When the Jat Rajah of Bharatpur besieged his Station at Wer, about 30 to 40 miles south of Bharatpur, his biggest cannon, a 48 pounder, was sent from his capital. It was a piece that Suraj Mal had taken from the Mahrattas, and they had carried away from Dehli;" The Army of Indian Moghals, page 120.
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"Chura Man Jat, who was hovering near the army on the west, cut off many followers and penetrated into the camp. But the above named Rajah (Jaisingh) drove him out again. Next the Jats attacked on the South. whence they carried off some goods and part of the imperial property. Zafar Khan, Muzaffar Khan and Muhammad Khan, Bangash, once more repelled them. They then made a further attempt on the East side. Here Mir Mushrif and Alwi Khan, Tarin of Lakhnau, met and defeated them. But the uproar was very great, and the followers and traders were so frightened, that they jumped into the Jamnah and tried to swim across it, many losing their lives in the attempt. By three O'clock the baggage camp was moved to a safer place, and the confusion continuing, it was again moved still farther off." The Army of the Indian Moghuls by William Irvine. page 247.
"Across to the river side (Jumna) was blocked by the Jats who plundered impartially friend and foe." ... The Army of Indian Moghals, page 250.
"Thus (Thungarh near Bharatpur) was a fort built by the ancestors of the Jat rajaha of Bharatpur, and it was their chief place of strength before they removed to Bharatput. It was situated somewhere between Dig (Dig) and Gobardhan, to the west of Mathura." The Army of Indian Moghals, page 285.
"Then, when Najag Khan took Agrah from the fats in 1773, the messenger carrying the news to Dilhi carried with him the boys of the fort to be laid at his Majesty's feet.".....The Army of Indian Moghals, page 288.
" Mughis-ud-din wholeheartedly justified Ala-ud-din's rigorous policy towards the Hindus and pointed out that Islamic law sanctioned sterner principle, so much so that "if the revenue collector spits into a Hindu's mouth, the Hindu must
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open his mouth to receive it without hesitation." .... The Delhi Sultanate, Vol. VI, page 25.
"Alauddin Khilji ordered that the Hindus will not be allowed to possess more than what is required for a bare subsistence"....Delhi Sultanate. Vol. VI, page 25.
"Farishta states, as a result of his enquiry at Lahore, that although there was no authentic account in my book it was generally believed that Malik Tughluq, a Turkish slave of Sultan Balben, married a woman of the Jat tribe, and their son was Ghazi Malik who later became Sultan Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq ..... The story of the Jat marriage is in a way indirectly supported by 'Afif' who says that Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq, when Governor of Dipalpur gave his brother in marriage to the daughter of a Hindu nobleman of the province who was extremely unwilling but was coerced by threat to accept the proposal. It may be added that the issue of this marriage was the future Sultan Firoz Tughluq. But if we accept the view of 'Afif' that Ghazi Malik himself came to India from Khurasan (Persia) during the reign of Allauddin Khilji, he can hardly be the son of a Jat mother." (A.D. 1320).... Delhi Sultanate" Vol. VI, pages 52 and 53.
"He (Mohammad Bin Tughluq) was soon faced with popular outbreaks in Sannam, Samana, Kaithal and Kuhran. The Jat and Rajput tribes in the regions in East Punjab formed Mandals (strongholds), withheld the tribute and created disturbances." Delhi Sultanate, Vol. VI, page 78.
"Timur was born in the year A.D. 1336 at the town called Kech or Shahr-i-sabz (Green town) to the south of Samarkand in Transoxiana, in the territory between the river Oxus and Jaxartes." Delhi Sultanate, Vol. VI, page 116.
"Timur then proceeded against the Jats. Although they fled into the jungles, Timur pursued them there. He killed 2000 Jats, captured their wives and children and plundered their cattle and property." (the place was after Dipalpur, [[Bhatner], city of Sarsuti to Delhi (Punjab) .... Delhi Sultanate, Vol. VI, page 118.
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"It was in A.H. 99 (A.D. 718) (Samvat 774) that Mohd. Bin Kasim vanquished and slew Dahir prince of Sinde, after numerous conflicts. Amongst the spoils of victory sent to the Caliph on this occasion were the daughters of subjugated monarch, who were the cause of Kasim's destruction when he was on the eve of carrying the war against Raja Har Chund of Kanauj. The two young princesses, in order to revenge the death of their father, represented falsely to the Khalif that Mohammed Kasim to be sewed up in a raw hide, and sent in that condition to court. When the Mandate arrived at Tatta, Kasim was prepared to carry an expedition against Har Chund, monarch of Kanouj, when he arrived at court the Khalif showed him to the daughters of Dahir, who expressed their joy upon beholding their father's murderer in such a condition." (Ayeen Akbery, Vol. H, page 119). Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan Vol. I, pages 198-199.
"The Jats are a branch of the great Getic race, of which enough has been said in various parts of this work. Though reduced from the rank they once had amongst the 'Thirty six royal races', they appear never to have renounced the love of independence, which they contested with Cyrus in their original haunts in Sogdiana. The name of the cincinnatus of the Jats, who abandoned his plaugh to led his countrymen against their tyrants, was Chooraman. Taking advantage of the Sanguinary civil wars amongst the successors of Aurngzeb, they erected potty castles in the villages (whose lands they cultivated) of Thoon and Sinsini and soon Obtained the distinction of Kuzzaks or robbers, a title which they were not slow to merit, by their inroads as far as the royal abode of Ferochsar. The Syeds, then in power, commanded Jai Singh of Amber to attack them in their strongholds and Thoon and Sinsini were simultaneously invested. But the Jats even in the very infancy of their power, evinced the same obstinate skill in defending mud walls, which in later times gained them so much celebrity. The royal astronomer of Amber was foiled, and after twelve months of toil, was ingloriously compelled to raise both seiges." ... Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.II, page 299.
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"That the Jits continued as a powerful community on the East bank of the Indus and in the Punjab, fully five centuries after the period of our inscription and their annals illustrate, we have the most interesting records in the history of Mahmood, the conqueror of India, whose progress they checked in a manner unprecedented in the annals of continental warfare. It was in 416 of the Hegira (A.D. 1026) that Mahmood marched an army against the Jits who had harassed and insulted him on the return of his last expedition against Saurashtra. The interest of the account authorises its being given from the original.
The Jits inhabited the country on borders of Moolthan, along the river that runs by the mountains of Jod. When Mahmood reached Moolthan, finding the Jit country defended by great rivers, he built fifteen hundred boats, around each with six iron spikes projecting from their prows, to prevent their being boarded by the enemy, expert in this kind of warfare. In each boat he placed twenty arches and some with fire balls of Naptha to burn the Jit fleet. The monarch having determined on their extirpation, awaited the result at Moolthan. The Jits sent their wives, children and effects of Sind Sagur and launched 4000 or as others say 8000 boats well armed to meet the Gujnians, A terrible conflict ensued, but the projecting spikes sunk the Jit boats while others were set on fire, Few escaped from this scene of terror and those did met with the more severe fate of captivity. Many doubts less, did escape and it is most probable that the Jit communities, on whose overthrow the State of Bikaner was founded, were remnants of this very warfare. Not long after this event, the original empire of 'the Gate was overturned, when many fugitives found a refuge in India." ...Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. Vol. I,. page 90.
"The Jats had the audacity to attack the army of Mahmud of Ghazni on his return from Somnath. His seventeenth expendition was undertaken for chastising them. He had to fight a great naval battle in which his genius shone no less splendidly than on land. He led a large force towards Multan,
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and when he arrived there he ordered fourteen hundred boats to be built each of which was armed with three firm iron spikes, projecting one from the prow and two from the sides. so that anything which came in contact with them would infallibly be destroyed. In each boat were twenty archers, with bows and arrows, grenades, and naphtha; and in this way he proceeded to attack the Jats, who having intelligence of the armament, sent their families into the islands and prepared themselves for the conflict. They launched, according to some four, and according to others eight thousand boats, manned and armed, ready to engage the Muhammadans, both fleets met, and a desperate conflict ensued. Every boat of the Jats that approached the Muslim fleet when it received the shock of the projecting pikes was broken and overturned. Thus most of the Jats were drowned and those who were not so destroyed were put to the sword. The Sultan's army proceeded to the places where their families were concealed and took them all prisoners." (Tabakat-i-Akbari, quoted in Elliot. ii, 478) History of the Jats by Qanungo, pages 30 to 32.
"Babur found the Jats living amongst the mountains of Nilab and Bhera, where they acknowledged the ascendancy of the Gakkar chiefs (Memoirs of Babur, A.S. Beveridge, page 387). They still retained their old turbulent and predatory habits. He says: "If one go into Hindustan the Jats and Gujars always pour down in countless hordes from hill and plain for loot in bullock and buffalo. These ill-omened peoples are just senseless oppressors....When we reached Sialkot, they tell in tumult on poor and needy folks who were coming out of the town to our camp, and stripped them bare. I had the silly thieves sought for, and ordered two or three of them cut to pieces." (Ibid., page 454) ... History of Jats by Qanungo, page 33.
"After the defeat of Prithviraj in 1192 A.D., the Jats of Haryana raised the standard of tribal revolt and under a capable chief, named Jatwan, besieged the Muslim commander at Hansi. On receiving this news Qutb-ud-din marched twelve farsakhs i.e., about 40 miles during one night. Jatwan raised the siege of Hansi and prepared for an obstinate conflict. "The armies attacked each other" says the author of Taj-ul-Masir
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"like two hills of steel, and the field of battle (on the borders of the Bager country) became tulip-dyed with the blood of warrious ..... Jatwan had his standards of God-plurality and ensigns of perdition lowered by the hand of power" (Elliot, ii. 218).
About 1530, the Jats formed mandals round Sunam and Samana with the Bhattis, Mina and kindred tribes withheld tribute and plundered the roads. Sultan Muhammad Bin Tughlaq marched against them, destroyed their mandals, and they were torn from their old lands and scattered (Tarikh-i-Firozshah-I, Elliot iii. 245).
Timur dwells with considerable satisfaction on his suppression of the Jats, whom he describes as a robust race, demon-like in appearance and as numerous as ants and locusts, a veritable plague to the merchants and wayfarers." (Malfuzat-i-Timur, Elliot iii. 429.) [[History of Jats by Qanungo]] on, pages 32 to 33.
"In 1669, another sturdy race, the Jats living almost under the very shadow of the imperial rose in revolt. This was but one flare of the mighty conflagration, kindled throughout India, by the missionary zeal of the Emperor. The Jat peasants of the Mathura and Agra districts had long been the victims of oppression and misrule. Their religious susceptibilities were shocked by the destruction of the Hindu temples of Mathura, whose lofty spires seemed to mock the edifices of Agra. They saw their field devastated and their wives and daughters carried off to gratify Muslim lust. One faujdar of Mathura, Murshid Quli Khan used to take raids upon the villages to procure beautiful women. Another infamous practice of his was this: at the time of Hindu fairs and festivals, "the Khan, painting his forehead and wearing a dhoti like a Hindu used to walk up and down in the crowd. Whenever he saw a woman whose beauty filled even the moon with envy, he snatched her away like a wolf, pouncing upon a flock, and placing her in the boat which his men kept ready on the bank (of the Jamuna) he sped to Agra." History of the Jats by Qanungo, pp. 37-38.
The Jat Designs During Aurangzlb's Reign
Professor Jadunath Sarkar has recently secured from the Jaipur State archives copies of many hundreds of official letters
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and news-sheets (akhbarat-i-darbar-muale) sent to Rajahs Bishun Singh and Swai Jai Singh by their agents at the Imperial Court. These came to hand after my History had been printed, and hence I can give here only a brief summary of the new facts thus brought to light about the acti vity of the Jat rebels during the last two decades of the reign of Aurangzib."
"In these letters, the audacious Jats are invariably designated Jat-i-badzat (the Jat of evil breed). This clearly indicates the important fury of the Mughal Government, which knew not how to suppress them. The sphere of the marauding activity of the Jats, as these letters illustrate, extended from Mathura, to the border of Jaipur; and from the hills of Miwat to the bank of the Chambal. Peace and order fled from this region. The roads became so unsafe that Rs. 200 used to be demanded as escort hire for accompanying a caravan only from Agra to Dholpur. Merchants and wayfarers could travel only under passes bought for a heavy price from the free booting Jat leaders. Among the strongholds of the Jats in that period Sinsani, Sogor, Sonkh, and Wair are often mentioned." History of Jats by Qanungo, page 341.
Jutland, the Home Land of All Jats of the World
This chapter deals with relations of Jats of the world to Scandinavian countries as also with other countries. Scandinavia is an ill pronunciation of Sanskrit word Scandhnabh (स्कंधनाभ). This Sanskrit word is said to have occurred at various places in Vedic literature. Scandinavia during the course of time split up politically into (i) Norway, (ii) Sweden, (iii) Denmark including Jutland and Friesland and some other small countries on the coast of Baltic Sea. Some of the authorities hold that the home of Aryans was in North West of Europe i.e., Scandinavia and adjacent area of the North where nights are long. Such authorities have been quoted hereinafter. This theory finds corroboration by the Analysis
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of origin of languages also. Since the language of Germany, English, Dutch, Icelandic and Scandinavia said to have derived from Aryan Language Sanskrit.
Germany itself is a pure Sanskrit word 'Gramany' (ग्रामनी) which in Aryan times denoted a headman of a village or clan and whose authority was supreme in that village or clan both economically and politically. Quotations have been given in this regard.
Jutland (Jylland) is a peninsula of Denmark, covering greatest inhabited area of the country. As has been said else Where in this work, this is the land of Juts or Jats and the Jats of Whole of the world have got blood relations with this land, since all jats are descendants of a common ancestor.
To prove my case that Jutland is the home land of all Jats, of the World, let me analyse the word Jutland. This word is made up of two components i.e., Jut and Land. It clearly signifies that it is the land of the Juts or Jats. Land in Persian language is translated as Istan and in Sanskrit is known as Astlian. The difference of spellings and dialect between similar words i.e., Jat or Jut and Istan or Asthan, is due to different alphabets and speech in various languages. Spellings do change by the passing of the time e.g., old spelling of Lucknow previously were Lakhnaw and of Muzaffarnagar, the same were Mozzofornogar and that of Alighar were Alyagraha. Similarly Varanasi previously was known and spelt as Banaras and Kanpur as Cawnpore etc. As Eng-Land is the homeland of all Englishmen in the World, Fin-Land, the land of all Finns; Goath-Land, the land of the Goaths ; Gaza-Land, the land of the Gazas; Po-Land, the land of the Polls; Naga- Land, the land of the Nagas ; Ire-Land, the land of Irish; Zulu-Land, the land of Zulus; Bilouch-Istan is home-land of all Bilauchs, Uzbekistan, the homeland of all Uzbeks; Afganistan the homeland of all Afgans; Hindustan, the home land of all Hindus; Ghor-Istan, the land of the Ghors; so on and so forth. Hence Jut-Land is
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It is from Jutland whereto or wherefrom most of the Jats either migrated or immigrated into the whole world. As all the Muslims of the world, in whatever country they may be, consider Arabia as their homeland, so all Parsis consider Persia as their homeland. Therefore all the Jats of the world consider Jutland or Jutisthan as their homeland and have special affinity to this part of the world.
Migration of Jats
Expansion of Scandinavias - One Thousand Years Back.
"Jutland- East Jutland, Northern Jutland and Southern part of Jutland, page 33-"Jutland Peninsula", page 38- 'West Jutland, page 41 etc. of Denmark Official Hand Book. "It is characteristic that periods of great political power in Danish history have been on strong naval powers, as in the
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viking period and the medieval expansion in the Baltic area and period of great commercial power can be seen as results of the same factors as they have been based on the efficiency of merchant shipping. This is true of mercantile expansion in the sixteenth century, which led to the establishment of colonies in India, on the Guinea coast, and in the West Indus." Page 38 of Denmark Official Hand Book.
Juts lived in villages in Jutland as they live in India. "The original form of habitation except in West Jutland and Bornholm, was the nucleated village. Most Danish villages ante-date the beginning of the historical period. The village community was abolished at the end of the 18th century." Page 53 of Denmark O. H. Book.
Through centuries of cultivation, the soil has been radically improved; it is cultivated in the true sense of the term. The result is an agricultural area which comprises three fourths of the land surface, with maximum potential cropping." Page 21, Denmark O. H.Book.
"Denmark is both an agricultural and industrial country ... Manufactures includes the processing of agricultural products e.g., milk, meat and sugarbeet ..... The greater part of the area (69.8 per cent) is agricultural." Page 55. "The New Stone Age (before 3000 B.C.) saw the introduction of an occupation that was to have vital importance of Denmark thereafter namely, agriculture." Page 61 of Denmark O. H. Book.
"The viking times were a period of Scandinavian expansion; as indeed can be read in the finds themselves, not only in Scandinavia, but wherever the intrepid warriors went, Page 67 of Denmark O. H. Book.
"Great droves of export cattle from Spottrup and other mansions in the rich Limfjord region travelled the bullock road through Jutland to north German markets for centuries." Page 77 of Denmark O. H. Book.
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"It follows from the figures that the sun at midnight in summer is low under the northern horizon, giving the 'light nights, that are characteristic of Denmark and other Northern countries. The most westerly point in Denmark, Blavands Huk, in West Jutland is situated at 8°5' E. Long." ..... Denmark Official Handbook, Page 41.
German Effect on Jutland
"The Danish language belongs to the East Scandinavian group of Germanic languages. The national religion, to which the bulk of the population belongs, is Lutheran Evangilical. The only non-Danish minority is a German element." Den- mark Official Handbook, page 53.
"Migrations and invasions from the continent early flowed across the open borderland of Jutland. By the same route came culture currents from Western Europe and Germany, which Denmark received and adapted to her own genius. But even in the Iron Age, with its vigorous economic and social development, Danish tribes trekked across Europe towards Germany and Italy and sailed their vessels to Britain. This first great expansion was followed from about 500-600 A.D. by another, which along with Norwegian Viking raids to the west and Swedish to the east, continued for several centuries and culminated around 900-1000 A. D." Denmark Official Handbook, page 70.
"The Juts of Jutland expanded to Cologne, Paris, Nantes, Spain, Camargue Luna (Italy) Greece, Constantinopel, Novgorod (USSR), Kiev, Itil and Semender etc., all prior to 1000 A.D." ...... Denmark Official Handbook, page 71. Refer to the map in this Chapter dealing with migration and immigration of Jats.
"Towards the end of eighth century A. D. Viking seafarers began a series of raids from the North. The roads marked the start of the Viking rea, a span of some 250 years when a tremendous outpouring of energy carried man of the North to such far flung places as Greenland and Bagdad.
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During the Viking Era these people colonized parts of England and France and all of Sicily. They established the first Russian kingdom. They traded slanes and furs for Chinese silks and Arab Silver in the markets of Bagdad." Who discovered America by Patricia Lauber published by Randon House, New York-pages 79 and 80.
The viking expansion had important consequences for development in Denmark itself. Riches, slaves and foreign culture were imported; at the same time those who stayed at home cleared large tracts of forest and built many new villages. Large farmers became estate-owners. "Page 72 of Denmark O. H. Book.
"The new influence flowing from the South reached Denmark chiefly through North Germany. A culture which flourished among enterprising merchants and artisans of the Hanseatic towns exerted a profound influence, also linguistically, on Denmark." Page 110 of Denmark O. H. Book.
"Of the Judicial system before 1200 there is only very incomplete knowledge, but by about 1200 A. D. there were three separate areas of jurisdiction, each with its own law; The Jutland code, the Zealand code and the Scanean code. The last-named gradually lost their importance and were superseded by the Jutland area." Page 255 of Denmark O.H. Book.
It is difficult to study religious history of Jutland of prior to 826 A.D. when "Christianity was introduced in 826 by the mission of the Benedictine monk Ansgar, from northern France. But it was not adopted until 960....When the king had himself baptized and ordered the religion's introduction." Page 239 of Denmark O. H. Book.
The only non-Danish minority is a German element in South Jutland numbering about 40,000 or less than 0.8 percent of the population. Big industrial expansion has caused a large immigration of foreign workers, totaling 54,000 (1972).
"The New Stone Age (before 3000 B.C.) saw the introduction of an occupation that was to have vital importance of
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Denmark thereafter; namely, agriculture. The arts of taming animals and growing cereals were learnt; through several intermediaries from the ancient civilizations of the Near East." Page 61 of Denmark Official Handbook.
"She (Denmark) came to occupy a key position at the outlet of the Baltic. In successive combination she clashed with the English, German princes, and Norwegian and Swedish kings. The period of expansion lasted until about 1600 and and followed by the struggle to preserve the national territory against expanding rivals: Swedish power in Scania ; Germany in the border regions of southern Jutland. In the long run Danish foreign policy was dictated by her relations with the western maritime powers on the one hand and the great continental powers on the other." Page 69 of Denmark Official Handbook.
Jats, wherever in the world, have adopted to cultivation and pastoral life. They are the best cultivators in the world.
Jutland is certainly the homeland of all the Jats. The Jats being of militant nature, seem to have turned to the west of the common house and conquering Mesopotamia, Syria, Germany reached the Baltic Sea to establish permanently in Jutland consisting of modern Denmark, Gothland, Sweden and Norway. Jut is a name that later grew into Jat, Got, Goth, Zott, Jit etc. The Jats of Eurasia seem to have remembered Jutland (Jatisthan) as their home but have forgotten its location. Please examine the following quotations :
"Migrating races look back to the land of their origin for centuries. The Parsis in India remember their origin after 800 years. The ancient Egyptions and the Phoenicians remembered their respective lands of origin even though they have forgotten their location.... Indian People, Vol. I, page 216.
"That from the Indo-Iranians common house the pre-Indians and the pre-Iranian expanded in two almost opposite directions ..... Indian People Vol. I, page 219.
"Sweden has experienced some very dynamic periods in her history when people from this outlying northern Peninsula
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travelled South to the cradles of Western civilization and helped to shape European history. Two such period stand out, and in both cases, the Sweden came to be as much feared as honoured. The first outward thrust occurred at a time of stagnation for Western culture: between 800 and 1050 A.D. when the vikings pushed eastward from Scandinavia and followed the water routes leading through Russia to the Black Sea or headed westwards towards the Atlantic littoral and the British Isles." ..... Profile of Sweden, page 9.
"Summing up what we have said so far, the Swedes live together in very small family units, so there is every reason to speak of the nuclear family in a quite litaral sense. Contacts with relatives have decreased as a result of heavy internal migration during the past few decades; relatives are widely dispersed and the distances in Sweden are onsiderable. For many urban families however, visits to relatives in the country are still a popular vocation pastime; yet such retarives are becoming fewer in number as urbanisation proceeds." Profile of Sweden, page 37.
"Man has lived in Norway for at least 10,000 years, but the country did not become really settled until historical times. The majority of the population today belong to the Nordic race tall, fair, long skulled people, and most of them have blue eyes," Facts about Norway, page 8.
Sir Henry Elliot affirms, that in these provinces the tribe has two great divisions. "The Dhe and the Hele of the Doab, or Pachhade and Deswale of Rohilkhand and Delhi. The former (the Dhe and [[Pachhade) are later swarm from that teeming hive of nations which has been winging its way from the North West from time immemorial." Hindu Tribes and Castes, Vol. I, page 233.
"In Sweden in the seventeenth century marriages outside the clan was punished. According to the German Civil Law the marriage of a man belonging to the high nobility with a woman of inferior birth is still regarded as disparaging and the woman is not entitled to the rank of her husband nor is
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the full right of inheritance possessed by her or her children," History of Caste, page 29,
"It (USSR) is a multi-national state inhabited by more than 100 nationalities and peoples." Geography of U.S.S.R., page 35.
"At present population of Jats including Sikh Jats (in India) is approximately 9.6 Million. But in 4th century B.C., it was five times." Page 2 of Jat Itihas. Jutland was populated exclusively by Jats. In Norway, Sweden, Germany and Spain also they were not less numerous. To avoid christianity some Jats came to India from near around Caspian Sea, Dhai or Dhayai are well known, page 4 of Jat Itihas, Jats in Arab, Iran, Afghanistan and Bilauchistan were usurped by Islam.
Shri Desraj quotes History of Medieval Hindu India by C.B. Vaid saying-"Their (Jats) ethonological characteristics also, as we have already seen, are clearly Aryans. They are fair, tall, high nosed and long headed They are mentioned in the Mahabharat as Jartas in the Karna Parva," page 9. In Punjab, instead of Jat, the pronunciation is Jut or Jutt, page 12.
Shri Desraj quotes Mr. Nessfield on page 16, "If appearance goes for anything Jats could not but be Aryans." On page 43 he again quotes his saying, "The word Jat is nothing more than the modern Hindi pronunciation of Yadu or Jadu the tribe in which Krishna was born." This does not seem to be correct since Jat in fourteenth century could be located in (i) India, (ii) Uzbekistan, (iii) Jutland, (iv) Gotland, and (v) Gothland, side by side while to my knowledge, Yadus are not located outside India pp. 9. 12,43 of Jat Itihas.
Shri Desraj quotes religions book of Scandinavia namely Aidda (एडडा ) saying that ancient inhabitants of Scandinavia were Jitts (जटेस) and Jits (जिटस) who were called Aryans and they were originally residents of Asigarh which is situated in Distt. Neemar in Malwa, page 61 of Jat ltihas. He further quotes one Scandinavians Mr. Count Jansturn who says that Scandinavians came from India, page 61. Scandinavia is
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an ill pronunciation of Skandhnabh (स्कंधनाभ), page 61 of Jat ltihas.
"How perfectly in unison is all this of the Jits of Jutland and the Jits of Rajasthan. In each case the hair is the chief object of admiration; of Balnath as balder and the magical effect of the Runes is not more powerful than that attached by the chief of the scalds of our Gete prince at the end of this inscription, fresh evidences in support of my hypothesis, that may of the Rajpoot races and Scandinavians have a common origin-that origin, Central Age.
Note 2 : Salpoora is the name of the capital of this Jit prince and his epithet of Sal-indra is merely titular, as the Indra, or lord of Sal-poori, 'the city of Sal' which the fortunate discovery of an inscription raised by Komarpal, king of Anhulwarra (Nehrwalla of D' Anille) dated S. 1207, has enabled me to place "at the base of the Sewaluk Mountains," In order to elucidate this point, and to give the full value of this record of the Jit princess of the Punjab. I append (No. V) a translation of the Nehrwalla conqueror's inscription, which will prove beyond a doubt that these Jit princes of Salpoori in the Punjab were the leaders of that very colony of the Yuti from the Jaxartes, who in the fifth century, as recorded by De Guignes, crossed the Indus and possessed themselves of the Punjab, and strange to say, have again risen to power, for the Sikhs (disciples) of Nanak are almost all of Jit Origin." Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. I, page 623.
"But the primary significance attached to the term 'Aryan' by Penka is the physical type represented by the Scandinavians. It is not to be wondered therefore, that starting with this assumption Penka succeeded in proving, at least to his own satisfaction, that Scandinavia was the cradle- land of the lndo-European." Page 209 of Indian People Vol. I (The distinguished author Shri R.C. Majumdar in his valuable work "The History and Culture of the Indian People" Volume 1- the Vedic Age on, page 214 remarks "It is curious to note that both Penka (op. cit., page 56) and Tilak (See his Arctic Home in the Vedas), independently of each other, arrived at
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the conclusion that the original home of the Aryans was situated in the Polar region. Penka depended on the evidence of Odyssey X-81-6, where short nights are spoken of. In the Vedic literature there are indeed passages which may suggest that the Vedic Aryans actually knew of the never-setting polar sun (See Aitareya Brahmana III. 4.6)
That these people of Jutland (Sehlesurg peninsula) had migrated far and wide towards South-East is evidenced by the following passages:
"It is equally clear that the west Germans (Juts) had not lost their habit of long-distance migration. There is good evidence also to show that they had a keen eye to the qualities of arable soils and that these afforded sufficient ground for the movement of large groups made up of federated tribes, together with their flocks and herds." An Historical Geography of Europe, page 57.
"In moving forward towards the Mediterranean world where geographical conditions had long favoured precious cultural development, the German peoples followed the line of least resistance which had been frequently taken in earlier times by the Achaians, for example who moved into Greece and by the Celts who entered the Balkans, Italy and Spain." ..... An Historical Geography of Europe, page 59.
Jat is a tribe which is least homesick. The Sikh Jats are available in practically every country of the world. Because of their hard labour and adaptability to every climate and culture, they are doing very well everywhere. In India also thousands of examples are at hand where a Jat exchanged his small holdings of land with large undeveloped tract at a distance of hundreds of miles away from his village and by his toil, converted these into fertile lands and are reaping good harvest. So is the case with Danish people who are self-sufficient in food even with their hilly tracts.
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twelth centuries the terms Rus of 'the Russian land' denoted the region around Kiev. It is significant that the varied stock of which Russia was composed-chiefly Slavs, finns and varangians-were not at this time called the Russian people." An Historical Geography of Europe, page 218. Hence existence of Juts in Russia, centuries before, is a good evidence that the people of Denmark migrated to long distances.
"The economic and political development of Slav Russia in the ninth century owned much to external stimuli exerted by the steppe horsemen to the south. The ninth century witnessed the maritime activities of the viking raiders who from basis in Scandinavia ravaged the coasts alike of the North Sea, the channel and the Baltic and sailed up the rivers of Britain, Gaul and Russia. The vikings pushed up into Russia by the Neva Nolkhov and Lovat rivers, thence by way of the Narva by short postages they reached the Dnieper itself. The Rusmen were quick to perceive the Trade possibilities of the Russian rivers, and to establish trade intercourse between Russia and both the Greeks of the Byzantine Empire and the Arabs. They settled in the rural trading centres of the Slavs along the Dnieper and its affluents, and these collecting centres of local produce grew quickly under the stimulus of river navigation, into mercantile towns." An Historical Geography of Europe, page 217.
"The most widespread and destructive raiders came from Scandinavia. During the ninth and tenth centuries, Swedes, Danes and Norwagians- collectively known as Vikings stormed out of their remote forests and fiords The Danes took the middle passage, raiding England and the shores of Germany, France and Spain. By the 870's they had occupied most of England, north of the Thames. Also in the middle of the ninth century their furry broke upon the continent, where their long boats sailed up the Rhine, Scheldt, Seine and Loire. In particular the Danes devastated north west France,
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destroying dozens of abbeys and towns." Civilization Past and Present, Pages 194, 195, American Library, New Delhi.
"West of the Oder estuary, on the other hand, the coast features contrast with those of Pomerania and between Rostock and Jatland the natural conditions for maritime commerce were excellent, since vessals found there abundant shelter, and could navigate well inland, off the east coast of Jutland the sea is shallow and sheltered from the west winds, and the Testiary rock which forms this low coastland has offered resistance to marine erosion: in consequence, the coast has not been smoothed out as in Pomerania but is actually deeply embayed. More-over in the Western part of the Baltic, islands are concentrated: Rugon stands at the mouth of the Oder; Funen and Zealand lie between Jutland and Sweden; and the island of Bornland and Gothland are situated in relation to neighbouring coasts as to form useful maritime stations or tradecentres." An Historical Geography of Europe, pages 325 to 326.
"Moreover, as early as 1526 the Dutch had formed the idea (which however, was not realized) of making Goteborg in south-western Sweden a great staple port, so that goods could be carried overland into the Baltic and the sound dues could be evaded. In order to avoid payment of the toll dues they sought also the route along the coasts of Norway to the Arctic and white Sea ports of Russia." An Historical Geography of Europe, page 347.
"The Goths were the first to occupy Roman Dacia, A.D. 250 ; in 270 the province was abandoned, and the lower Danube re-fortified as the frontier line; whilst by 350 the Goths had pushed their territories as far west as the lower Tisza. Their subsequent invasion of Gaula may have followed the Roman Danubian roads; it is known merely that they crossed the Rhine and captured Metz." ... An Historical Geography of Europe, pages 379 to 380.
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"Denmark in 1870 in many respects lacked the distinguishing features of its present economic geography. Cereal production particularly Barley, rye and Oats-then played the most important part in its agricultural economy. The best cultivated lands were those of the big estates, on which record yields were obtained, but five-sixths of the country was held by free-holding peasants was disdained in 1870 both in the towns and abroad, and the only butter fit for export was that of the great landowners. The revolution in the agricultural economy of Denmark which made it an important producer of bacon, butter and eggs for exports began only towards 1890 when the competition of American cereals carried to Europe by steam-ship led to increased attention to dairy farming." An Historical Geography of Europe, pages 426 to 427.
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"The Goths, one of the more numerous German peoples, moved south- eastwards from the north German plain to the lowlands north of the Black Sea. Advancing Westwards from this region to the lower Danube, some of them settled within the Balkan lands of the Byzunine Empire, whilst other moved up the valleys of the Drave and Save and thence into Italy. The Ostrogoths, as they were called. established a kingdom in Italy, which they ruled from the old Roman capital of Ravenna. Another branch of the Goths who became known as the west or visigoths, crossed the western Alps and conquered as large part of southern Gaul, which they governed from Toulouse. In the year 413 they took possession of the cities of Valence on the lower Rhone, the 'Gap Town' of Toulouse and seaport of Narbonne. In its initial stage, about the year A. D. 410, the Kingdom of Visigoths extended between the Atlantic, the Garonne and the Pyrenees. From this base they conquered in a few years the whole of Aquitaine, and also the town of Poitiers, which commanded the Roman route northwards to the Loise. Further they crossed the Pyrenees and succeeded by the year 457 in conquering almost the whole of Spain. Shortly after this they captured definitely the town of Narbonne and also Nimes Merseilles and Arler, and consolidated the it rule over Low Languedve, the lower Rohne and even Province south of the Durance. At its greatest extent, at the end of the fifth century. the visigothic state embraced southern Gaul between the Loire. the lower Rhone, the Atlantic, the Gaul of Lion and the Pyrenees, whilst only a part of Spain with-stood their advance. In the northwest from the lower Tagus to Galicia earlier German immigrants, the Suevi, escaped conquest, whilst in the western Pyrenees and the cantabrian mountains the Basques preserved their independence. It was as an advance post against these sturdy mountaineers, descendants of the Iberi of Caesar, that the visigoths built in the year 581 their only town in Spain, namely Victoria, which stands above the Zadorra river, the valley of which carried the Coast road from Gaul down to the Upper Ebro. The advance of
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the Visigoths to the Loire brought them to the Southern frontier of the Frankish kingdom, and in the warfare that ensued between the two peoples the visigothic forces suffered decisive defeats." An Historical Geography of Europe, pages 143 to 144.
"The next great step for the Arab Mohammadans, after taking Africa. as then known, was to invade Spain, and that expedition was one of the greatest items in their magnificent conquest of nation. What was the state of Spain in the seventh century? After the fall of the Roman Empire, Spain was overrun by the Visigoths, Suevi, Vandals, and other barbarians from the north. The Vandals gave name of Andalusia i.e., Vandalitia) ; and both they and the Visigoths, or Western Goths, were nominally Christian. Before the arrival of the Moslem conquerors, the Visigoths had become the rulers, but from their severity they were loved neither by Spain nor by the Berbers of the neighbouring African coast." ., .... The Story of Extinct Civilization of the East, page 131.
"After seven days fighting, according to tradition, Roderick, the last of the Gothic kings, commanding, in a splendid chariot of ivory, clad in cloth of gold, was killed, and the Moors (Muslim) were victorious, though in numbers only one to six." The Story of Extinct Civilizations of East, page 132.
"Such was the end of the rule of Spain by the Western Goths. In the fifth century, descending from their wild German forests they had ravaged 'France' (using its future name) with fire and sword, then taken possession of Spain, just as the Eastern Goths after passing the Danube, had overrun Greece and Italy. every step marked by copious bloodshed." ..... · The Story of Extinct Civilization of the East, page 133.
"The Spanish population and the Jews of the towns, found the Moslem rule much preparable to that which the Goths had so long exercised." The Story of Extinct Civilizations of the East, page 134.
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"The easy settlement of the Moslems in Spain, and the continuance of their rule, was due to several causes which are easily understood. The previous government of the Gothic Christians had been much harsher and more arbitrary." ... The Story of Extinct Civilizations of the East, page 140.
"The foreign trade of Sweden was exclusively in the hands of a number of staple towns, of which Stockholm and Goteborg were by far the most important. The former was built on a number of islands and peninsulas in Lake Malar, and possessed good deep harbourage, although careful pilotage was necessary to effect entry. Goteborg commanded the maritime terminal of the central plain of Sweden in the West as did Stockholm in the east. It stood at the head of the estuary of the Gota which drains into the Katlegat, but Vessels could not reach the town and had to discharge their cargoes into lighters. [Goteborg]] imported grain and salt; it was the chief port for the herring fishing and for the Greenland whale hunting; it exported iron fish, and oil extracted from Whale and from herrings. In the transport of the bulk products of Sweden internal and external trade waterways played an important and increasing part. The many large lakes of central Sweden were linked up by a river and canal ways, thus the Stromsholm canal, facilitated the carriage of iron and copper from Dalecarnia to Stockholm, whilst the Capital was also linked with Orebro by way of Lakes Hjelonar and Vaner and auxiliary rivers or canals. The project of a continuous waterway between Stockholm and Goteborg was eventually carried out in 1800 by the cutting of a rocky bed for a canal past the Trolhatten cataracts on the Gota river, just below the point where it leaves the Vaner lake: prior to 1800 a short stoppage was necessary at this section of the river. The Trolhatten canal allowed passage to ships of 9 feet draught; it served above all a regional purpose as an outlet for iron and wood from Vermland." ..... An Historical Geography of Europe, page 399.
Kent (qu. Canthi, 'a coast'. in Sanskrit as in Gothic Kanta ?). The laws they had there introduced more especially the still prevaling one of gavel kind, where an the sons share equally, except the younger who has a double portion, are purely Scythic and brought by the original Goth from the Jaxartes.
The people of Russia belong to Indo-European group of peoples. Their language has many characteristics in common with German, Iranian and Greek and Aryan tongues. In steppes of Russia, great waves of migration came at intervals. In 4th century and afterwards the Huns entered and controlled the steppes of Russia. Thereafter Mongols invaded and established their reign in Russia. The Mongols imposed strict obedience on the Princes and also introduced regime of taxation and military conscription. Near about 3rd century, the Slavic tribes established in this country and Norsemen entered the country in 8th century and thereafter, by way of the Baltic.
The settlers in South Russian steppes were Scythians belonging to Iranian language. The Scythians favourite occupation was war and closest companion was the horse. They entered Russia in or about 7th century.
Goths who were German tribes dominated Russian steppes by entering from north along the Dnieper and Don rivers in 3rd Century A.D. They became mounted Warriors and organised strong military, but they were subdued by the Huns.
In 9th century when Byzantine emperor threatened the North and South Russian trade routes, it became necessary to call the Varangians from the overseas and the call was answered
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by Riurik (Rovic) a famous Norse pirate who was ruler of Southern Jatland and Friesland, as Vassal of Emperor Lothaire. He restored order in North Russia and established in Novgord. Thus Scandinavians settled in North Russia who migrated to South in the course of time.
Once again in 12th century, the Germans and Swedes entered Russia through Riga, a Town founded in 1200 A.D., as traders and missionaries. Thus Germans and Scandinavians migrated into Russia in many waves, now and then. This also explains the migration of Juts from Denmark and Sweden in USSR and particularly more fertile and warm Uzbekistan where Timurlung invaded Jat strongholds.
George Vernadsky, author of a History of Russia on page 31 says "The call (calling the Varangians, Scandinavian invaders as they were called, from over the seas) was answered by Riurik of Muscovite dynasty (in the Frankish Annals, Roric) the famous Norse (Scandinavian) advanturer and pirate, who as vassal of Emperor Lqthaire (Frank Emperor) was then the ruler on southern 'Jutland' and Friesland (Western Europe)". Jats under Riurik came to Russia to subdue the invaders and established in North Russia where from they spread in the whole of the country. The Mongol invaders like Mangu later conscripted 10% of population of Russia for military purposes and therefore Jats became the army of the Mongols. The Mongols established Jats for protection of their conquests in Samarkand, Tashkant, Otrar, Bokhara, Khojend, Qarshi, Kumrud and Kirghis steppes. At that time Karakorum was the capital city in Mongolia and their Sarai was near present Stalingrad.
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"The Yuchi established in Bactria and along the Jihoon (Jaxartes River) eventually bore the name of Jeta or Yetan that is to say Getes. Their empire subsisted a long time in this part of Asia and extended even into India. Then are the people whom the Greeks knew under the names of Indo-Scythes. Their manners are the same as those of Turcs. Revolution occurred in the very heart of the East, whose consequences were felt afar. (Histoire des Huns, Vol. I, page 42)" ..... " Annals of Rajasthan Vol. I, page 55.
"The period allowed by all these authorities for the migration of these Scythic hordes into Europe is alsp that for their entry into India"...... Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. I, p. 55.
It proves that 1st migration of Jats from Central Asia as also known Transoxiana the area between the Amu and Syr rivers or also known as Oxus and Jihoon or Jaxartes rivers, was simultaneous towards south east into India and north west to USSR, Scandinavia, Jutland and Germany. Therefore it is but to be held that Jats by whatever name was called in various European and Asiatic countries including Persia and Juland, have a common ancestor and thus members of one family and knitted with blood relationship. The Jats in Christian and Muslim countries by now have fused with the other tribes and thus the Gotra, clan, tribe or even race of the people has been lost and it is not possible to trace a person as Jat in those countries, except Jutland. They themselves have forgotten that they belong to Jat tribe and are Jats. However India and Jutland are lucky in this respect yet to maintain the existence of Jat or Jut tribe in the world. This will help the people of the two countries to be faithful to each other, in peace and war and to co-operate in all spheres of life, with a view to be helpful to each other. If Jats, Juts, Jits, Zots, Goths of the world know that they are descendents of a common ancestor, the feeling will promote world peace.
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