Jat Clan System

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क

The Jat clan system refers to social organization of the Jats, Indo-Aryans/Indo-Scythian people of Northern India and Pakistan [1] [2] [3].

The clan names of the Jat people are unique in India. However, some small number of their clan names do overlap with the Rajputs and Gujars.[4] A Jat clan may include both gotra and vansha. List of Jat Clans have been compiled by many Jat historians. These lists have more than 2700 Jat clans or gotras. Like caste, gotras and vanshas do not change. There can be more than one gotra in a vansha but there can not be more than one vansha in a gotra. Most of the Jat clans come from Chandravansh lineage but they are also from Suryavansha, Agnivansh and Nagavanshi descent. Patel and Chowdhury are surnames used by a number of castes these do not reflect ancestry or caste and, therefore, are not considered as clans or vanshas. It is necessary to understand difference between clan, gotra and vansha. Jat clans may include both gotra and vansha.

Clan

A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. Even if actual lineage patterns are unknown, clan members nonetheless recognize a founding member or apical ancestor. As kinship based bonds can be merely symbolical in nature some clans share a "stipulated" common ancestor, which is a symbol of the clan's unity.

Gotra

A gotra (गोत्र) (lit. "cow-pen" or "cow-shed" in archaic rigvedic Sanskrit) is a patrilineal classification and identification of castes in India. Gotra is the Sanskrit term for a much older system of tribal clans.The Sanskrit term "Gotra" was initially used by the Vedic people for the identification of the lineages. Maharshi Panini has defined gotra in his grammar astadhyayi in sanskrit as under-

उपत्यं प्रौत्रं प्रभृति गोत्रम upatyam prautram prabhriti gotram

Translation – Gotra is the name of group of descents, leaving son, including grandsons and great grandsons.

Vansha

Initially there was only one vansha that was Manuvansha. Later one branch started from sons of Manu, which was called Suryavansha and other branch started from daughter of Manu, Ila, that was called Aila or Chandravanshi. Later to minimize the influence of Buddhism and Jainism in India, the Brahmans organized a grand yagya at mount Abu in Rajasthan, which continued for 40 days. Almost all the ruling clans attended this yagya. The ruling clans which took part in this yagya were titled as ‘Rajputs’. Four kshatriyas appeared from the agnikunda namely, Solankis, Pratiharas, Chauhans and Paramaras. They were termed, "Agnivanshi kshatriyas".[5]

According to Agni Purana, the Agnivansha kshatriyas were born from the fire which resides in Mt. Abu in Northwestern India after the "destruction of ancient Kshatriyas". However historians interpret this as suggestive of Indo-Scythian origin because this place was entrance gateway for scythic groups in India. In fact lineage of all 36 Rajput ruling clans has been traced to Indo-Scythian races [6] The ruling clans who took part in the above yagya were termed Rajputs but those who did not take part remained Jats, Gurjars as such in their old clans. Gotras did not change in this process that is why common gotras are found in Jats, Rajputs and Gurjars.

A vansha is connected with ruling clan like Huna vansha in China and Agnivansha in India. All the gotras try to link with some vansha. Those who joined mount Abu yagya connect their gotra with four Rajput clans namely Solanki, Pratihara, Chauhan Paramara. Rest connect their gotra with Suryavansha or Chandravansha or some great Rishi or a King.

Leading historians advocates:

"The Rajputs proper were of mixed origin – pre-Muslim invaders such as Scythians, Bactrians, Parthians, Hunas and Gurjaras who came in before, say, the end of the 7th century."[7]

Basis of Vanshas and gotras

Jat people Gotras have initially been created in the name of a person, a place or some historical incidence. When in a generation a great person takes birth all the previous titles of this generation are included in the name of this great person and a new gotra starts in his name. Like caste does not change, gotras and vanshas also do not change. There can be more than one gotra in a vansha but there can not be more than one vansha in a gotra. For example Chauhan vansha has 116 gotras included in it. [8] (see - Chauhan)

According to Dilip Singh Ahlawat, Vanshas and gotras start on the basis of some important person, country, period, title and language. [9]

Based on system of worship

Some Jat people clans developed their Vansha according to their system of worship such as Devas and Nāgas. In Devas the worshippers of Indra were known as Aindra, worshippers of Varun as Vārun, worshippers of Mitra as Maitreya or Mitrā, worshippers of Shiva as Shivi or Shaivya, worshippers of Marut as Mārut, worshippers of Gandharva as Gāndharva, worshippers of Shesha as Sheshma, worshippers of Karka as Karkotaka, worshippers of Nāga as Nāgā or Nāgil.

Nagavanshi Jat clans

Jat people clans of Nagavanshi or Nāgas were originated from Kashyapa. The Nāgvanshis acquired the status of Devas due to their excellent qualities, behavior and actions. Purānas mention Nāgas along with devas. Purānas mention of many Nāga Kingdoms. In ancient times Nāgas were the rulers of entire India. During their peak period of rule they had sent armies to other countries also conquered them. In many places Indian Nāgas have been mentioned as ruling dynasties such as Tāk, Taxak, Tānak, Tushta etc. Apart from these there were many branches of Nāgas such as Karkotaka Vanshi, Shesha Vanshi, Vāsuki Vanshi, Ahi Vanshi, Manibhadra Vanshi etc. These branches further developed as sub branches such as Sind Vansh, Kushan Vansh, Vaish Vansh and Saindhav Vansh etc.

Some of the nagavanshi Jat people clans are Dhaulya, Asit, Kala, Dahiya, Sewda, Khokhar, Mundwaria, Nil, Gora, Tokas, Taxak, Takhar, Pandul, Titarwal, Mandel, Matwa, Roja, Kalya, Kalwaria, Abuda, Vasath, Lega, Bhakhar, Bhinchar, Lochag etc.

Jat historians have listed Some more nagavansh Jat clans which are [10][11][12]

Ābūdā, Āchashw, Ahi, Air, Airāwat, Āligī, Aparājit, Āpt, Ārtimān, Āryak, Asit, Aulak, Avalak, Avyay, Ayāhaṭ, Bāmal, Bānā, Barojwār, Bāsaṭh, Baulyā, Beniwāl, Bhakar, Bhākhar, Bhāṃmū, Bharaṃgur, Bhārshiv, Bheṃroṃ, Bhinchar, Bīhal, Bīlwān, Birālā, Dahiya, Dhaka, Dhaulya, Deū, Devatra, Gora, Imeguh, Kājal, Kālā, Kalash, Kāle Rāwat, Kālī, Kālī Ramaṇ, Kālī Ramatā, Kālī Rāwate, Kālī Rāye, Kālīḍhaman, Kālīshak, Kālīy, Kalmāsh, Kalwaria, Kalwāriyā, Kalyā, Kalya, Kalyāṇ, Kamal, Kanwal, Kariyā, Karkar, Karkoṭak, Karvīr, Kharwal, Khokhar, Khoṇḍal, Konḍāl, Kothār, Kulak, Kulakiya, Kulār, Kullar, Kuṃḍodar, Kumuḍ, Kunḍal, Kunjar, Kushmānḍak, Kuṭhar, Legā, Lochag, Matwā, Mātwe, Muḍwāḍiyā, Mundel, Nāg, Nāgā, Nāgar, Nāgauriyā, Nīl, Odasī, Olā, Paḍwāl, Pāgwaṭ, Pāhal, Pāl, Paṃḍahārī, Pāṇḍar, Pāṇḍul, Pandul, Panjā, Pānn, Parsāne, Paṭhur, Pauḍiyā, Pehalāyaṇ, Piṃḍale, Podān, Pūchhale, Punia, Rāhal, Roj, Roja , Rotra, Sagsail, Saharan, Sāmotā, Samrā, Sāngū, Sawaū, Sewdā, Sheshāno, Sheshmā, Shvitra, Shyaukand, Sihāg, Siraswār, Sitarwār, Siyol, Siwāyach, Sumrā, Sūtalā, Takhar, Takshak, Ṭāṃk, Tankor, Tetarwal, Tītarwāl, Tokas, Toran, Udwal, Ugrak, Vaharwāl, Vais, Varik, Varṇwāl, Vasath, Vaurāṇ, Vāvan, Vīhan, Vodiyā, Yolyā,

Based on persons

The vanshas or gotras started on the basis of persons are Yadavavansh, Raghuvansh, Pandava, Paurava, Kuruvanshi, Tanwar, Salkhalan, Dahiya, Jakhar, Jaglan, Kushan, Budhwar, Dhillon, Deshwal, Dalal, Maan, Sihag, Kadian, Lamba, Punia, Lalla, Balan, Nava, Taxak, Kakrana, Chandravanshi, Shivi, Gaur, Madra, Bhimbhraulia, Sangwan, Gill, Hala and Suryavanshi etc. [13]

Based on places

The vanshas or gotras started on the basis of place are Sindhu, Gandhari, Kuntal, Khutail, Ahlawat, Chedi, Sinsinwar, Bhind, Dahima, Nehra, Tewatia, Vahika, Bais Rajputs, Magadh, Mohil, Tushar, Malloi (Malwa),Sethi Sikarwar, Sisodia etc. [14]

Based on languages

The vanshas or gotras started on the basis of language are Kakurath, Kak, Kakk, Kukkur, Gandhir, Gandir, Gandila, Gandasia, Gul, Gala, Golia, Galaran, Gahlot, etc. [15]

Based on titles

The vanshas or gotras started on the basis of title are Rao, Rawat, Harawat, Chauhan,ghosh Solanki, Parihar, Parmar, Thakurela, Chhokar, Thenua, Chapotkat, Rana, Godara, Dixit, Mithe, Chatte, Khatte, Janghare, Bhagaur, Lohchab, Thakur, Antal, Malik, Gathwale, Jatrana, Chaudhari etc. The creation of new vanshas stopped with the vanishing of Rajshahi or Rajvansh. [16]

List of Jat clans

Lists of Jat clans have been compiled by many Jat historians like Ompal Singh Tugania [17], Bhaleram Beniwal [18] [19] Dr Mahendra Singh Arya and others [20], Thakur Deshraj [21], Dilip Singh Ahlawat [22] etc. The above lists have more than 2700 Jat gotras. Thakur Deshraj and Dilip Singh Ahlawat have mentioned history of some of Jat gotras. Some websites of Jats have also prepared list of Jat Gotras with details of history and distriburion. [23]

References

  1. Alexander Cunningham, History of Sikhs
  2. James Tod, Annals
  3. Sir Herbert Risley: The People of India
  4. Marshall, J., (Sir, Hon. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge University, and formerly Director-General of Archaeology in India), A Guide to Taxila, Cambridge University Press, London, 1960, pp. 24.
  5. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania : Jat samudāy ke pramukh Ādhār bindu, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2004 (Page 7)
  6. Scythic Origin of the Rajput Race
  7. The Thirty-six Royal Races of Rajput
  8. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania: Jat samudāy ke pramukh Ādhār bindu, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2004 (Page 5)
  9. Dilip Singh Ahlawat:Jat viron ka Itihasa
  10. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998
  11. Mansukh Ranwa:Kshatriya Shiromani Vir Tejaji, Page 9
  12. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Their Origins and History (The History of the Indigenous people of India Vol. 2), Published by Originals (an imprint of Low Price Publications), Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1
  13. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania: Jat samudāy ke pramukh Ādhār bindu, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2004 (Page 7-8)
  14. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania: Jat samudāy ke pramukh Ādhār bindu, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2004 (Page 7-8)
  15. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania: Jat samudāy ke pramukh Ādhār bindu, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2004 (Page 7-8)
  16. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania: Jat samudāy ke pramukh Ādhār bindu, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2004 (Page 7-8)
  17. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania: Jat Samudāy Ke Pramukh Ādhār Bindu, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2004
  18. Bhaleram Beniwal: Jāton kā Ādikālīn Itihāsa, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2005.
  19. Bhaleram Beniwal: Jāt Yodhaon ke Balidān, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2005
  20. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998
  21. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihasa (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd
  22. Dilip Singh Ahlawat: Jat viron ka Itihasa
  23. List of Jat Gotras on Jatland

Further Reading


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