Jat Kingdoms in Ancient India
|Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क|
Prominent ancient Jat kingdoms
Some Jat historians and other writers have mentioned in various references about the ancient Jat kingdoms. Some of them are listed below and the reference with each name indicates source where it is written :
Prof. Maheswari Prasad of Banaras Hindu University has written that one reason for non–occurrence of word Jat as such in ancient literature may be that they were formerly known by other names i.e. their clan names also. Change of nomenclature is a part of the historical process. With the branching of community, its several branches known by different names and when one of them is distinguished by its achievement, other groups also take its name as a general designation. It is therefore quite expected that descendants of many old communities are still present among Jats. A study of Jat gotra names reveals that Jat is a general term for number of cognate clans formerly known by different names.
Ancient Jat republics in Sindh
- Andhak/Vrishni/Bhoja - Union formed by Krishna consisting of 5 war like tribal group known as Gyat, or jnyat which changed to Jat. , , 
- Shivi - Ancient republic of Jats, found inhabiting area in the vicinity of Malava tribes at the time of invasion of India by Alexander the Great, in 326 BCE. There are ruins of an ancient town of Sivi people called 'Tamva-vati nagari' 11 miles north of Chittor. Ancient coins of Shivi people are found near this town bearng 'Majhamikaya Shivajanapadas', which means coins of 'Shiva janapada of Madhyamika'. The 'Tamvavati nagari' was called as 'Madhyamika nagari'. These coins are of the period first to second century BCE. , ,
- Yaudheyas - Ancient tribal confederation who lived in the area between the Indus river and the Ganges river. They are identified with the Jat clan Johiya of Bahawalpur and Multan Divisions (Pakistan) and Bikaner, Rajasthan (India).
Balhara rulers in Sind
According to Thakur Deshraj, the Balhara Jats were the rulers in Sindh from 8th century to 10th century. In 710 AD Muhammad bin Qasim occupied Sindh. Sindhu River had made them good navigators. They had fight with Alexander the great by boats. Brahman Raja Dahir was the ruler of Sindh at that time. Other Jat states in Sindh were not powerful; they were also eliminated by the year 800 AD. This was the early period of Balhara Jat rulers in Sindh. Balharas ruled the area, which can be remembered as Bal Division. The area from Khambhat to Simari was under their rule and Manafir was their capital. Manafir was probably Mandore or Mandwagarh. It is likely that after Nagas it was ruled by Balharas. The rule transferred from Balharas to Mauryas to Pawars to Chauhans to Parihars to Rathores.
Sir Henry Elliot has mentioned that after defeat of Jat Raja Sahasi Rai II, Raja Matta of Shivistan attacked Alore (the capital of Chach) with brother of Raja of Kannauj and his army. The Jat Raja Ranmal was the ruler of Kannauj at that time. He was famous as Rana. After that the other Jat rulers were eliminated except the Balharas. The Balharas were strong rulers from Khambhat to Sambhar. 'Koyala Patan' which is now known as 'Kolia', was a single city from Kolia to 'Kalindi Katkeri' spread over about 36 km in length. There used to be bricks of one cubit long and half cubit thick. There are seven tanks of Balharas, Banka tank in the name of Banka Balhara and Lalani tank in name of Lalaji. There is one village named Balhara in Sikar district of Rajasthan. 
In 900 A D a King of this gotra was a powerful ruler in the Western Punjab. He has been greatly praised by historian Sulaiman Nadwi, who came to India as a trader. According to him this ruler was one of the four big rulers of world at that time in 857 A D. He was a friend of the Arabs and his army had a large number of elephants and camels. His country was called Kokan (Kaikan) 'near river Herat. 
Nehra rulers in Sind
Nehra clan Jats were rulers of Nehrun state in Sindh at the time of attack on Sindh by Muhammad bin Qasim in 710. Present Hyderabad city was settled on the land of Nehrun. The Hyderabad city was then named Nehrun Kot and was called the heart of the Mehran. 
Jat rulers in Kaikan
Kaikan was a province in Sind. Kikania is the name of a mountain. When the Arab invaders first time came to Kaikan mountains, the Jats repelled them. K.R.Kanungo writes that when Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sind, Kaikan country was in independent possession of Jats. The country of Kaikan was supposed to be in south-eastern Afghanistan , which was conquered from Jats by the Arab general Amran Bin Musa in the reign of the Khalifa Al-Mutasim-bi-llah, (833-881 AD). During the same reign another expedition was sent against the Jats who had seized upon the roads of Hajar (?)...and spread terror over the roads and planted posts in all directions towards the desert. They were overcome after a bloody conflict of twenty five days. 27000 of them were led in captivity to grace the triumph of victor. It was a custom among these people to blow their horns when Marshalled for battle., ,.D.N.Jha & Shrimali wrote in Ancient History of India[Delhi University Publication]-Jats of Kikkan fought very bravely and defeated the Arabs very badly again & again.So Arab could not attack on India by Kikkan rout[path].[Page no 350]
Jat (Panwar) rulers in Omarkot
Umerkot or Omarkot (Urdu: عمرکوٹ) is town in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. It is also referred to as Amar Kot as per old histories, "Amar Kot Itehas" by Tej Singh Solanki. Once, it has been Capital of Greater Sindh Province, including some parts of present Rajasthan state of India. According to Thakur Deshraj, Panwar clan Jats were rulers here prior to Mughal ruler Humayun. Jame Todd tells it to be a Rajput state confusing Panwar with Rajputs, but it was denied by Cunningham, who wrote it to be a Panwar Jat state referring to the author of 'Humayun Nama'. , 
Other Jat People rulers in Sind
Thakur Deshraj mentions about rule of other Jat named Chandra Ram of Hala clan. He was ruler of Susthan but he lost it to Muslims. He wandered for some time but later he attacked the fort and occupied it. When Muhammad bin Qasim learnt it he sent 1000 sawar and 2000 footsoldiers to suppress Chandra Ram. He fought bravely but killed. His state was known as Halakhandi.,
After the fall of Kushan Empire country was divided in to small states. There is no information of any important Jat state in a period of two centuries following Kushan rule. In the beginning of fifth century we find Jat ruler Maharaja Shalinder with his rule extending from Punjab to Malwa and Rajasthan. This is proved from the Pali inscription obtained from village Kanwas in Kota state in year 1820 AD. We get following information from this inscription: 
Shalinder was the ruler Shalpur, known in the present by the name Sialkot. He established this state on his own power, which indicates that he was a monarch emerged from chieftain ship of a republic state. He had a powerful army full of strong warriors amongst whom he felt proud of glory of his caste. He had many small states under him and a rich treasury. He was a Kashyapvanshi (Suryavanshi) Taxak clan Jat. He had left Buddhism and adopted puranic religion and started vedic culture like performing yagyas etc. 
He married with a lady of other caste as he has been mentioned as having a dogla issue from him. His descendant Degali had married with daughters of Yaduvanshi. One of these queens gave birth to Veer Narendra. The chronology derived from this inscription is as under: 1. Maharaja Shalinder, 2. Dogla, 3. Sambuk, 4. Degali, 5. Veer Narendra 6. Veerchandra 7. Shalichandra
In samvat 597 (540 AD) a temple was built on the bank of river Taveli in Kota state and a close relative of Jit Shalinder had written the inscription. Probably the writer of the inscription was Shalichandra (son of Veerchandra and grandson of Veer Narendra), who left Shalivahanpur in samvat 597 (540 AD) due to attack of Huns and came to Malwa. Maharaja Shalinder had probably sought the help of his own clan ruler Maharaja Yasodharman of Malwa. In the first attempt of combined Jat power, they defeated Huns and repulsed them from Punjab which is clear from the Chandra’s grammar ‘Ajaya jarto Hunan’. 
Kartik Jat People ruler of Bundi
James Tod obtained a Pali inscription about Jit (= Jat?) tribe at village Ramchandrapura 3 kos (6 miles) east of Bundi state, which he sent to Asiatic Society London. The inscription reveals that there was a king Thot born in Uti vansha. His son was Raja Chandrasain, a powerful and beloved of his subject. The son of Chandrasain was Kartik, renowned for his prowess. His wife was Gunaniwas, who gave birth to two sons Mukund and Daruk. Daruk produced son named Kuhal. Kuhal produced son named Dhunak, who achieved great works. He had war with Hill Meenas tribes and defeated and destroyed them. He along with his brother Dok worshipped gods and brahmanas. They founded a temple. Kuhal had founded this temple and a Maheshwar temple in east. The popularity of this was spread by Achal son of Mahabali Maharaja Yashovarma. 
The period of war of this dynasty with pahari Meenas is difficult to asses. If we assume that Jat ruler Kartik had war with Menander then the period of this comes about 150 BC. Menander had attacked areas up to Chittor. It is very likely that Kartik had a war with Menander. This way the period of his descendant becomes the first century. If we look into the period of Achal who made this temple popular it comes around third or fourth century or beyond it, as ruler Yashovarman was in Maukhari vansha in eighth century in Kannauj. He had sent a delegation to China in 731 AD.  Lack of records and history prior to sixth century prevents prom determining the exact period of the rule of Kartik and his descendants. According to Thakur Deshraj, We can presume their rule from fourth to sixth century. 
Jat People republics in Rajasthan
Main article: Rajasthan men Jat Janpad
Jat republics in Jangladesh
Jangladesh was the name of a region of northern Rajasthan state in India. It included the present-day districts of Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, and Hanumangarh. These districts are predominant districts of the Jats. It corresponds to the former princely state of Bikaner, which was founded in the 15th century and persisted until shortly after India's Independence in 1947. The principal towns of Jangladesh at present are Bikaner, Churu, Rajgarh, Ratangarh and Reni. There is mention of this province in Bhisma Parva of Mahabharata.  At every stage of invasion to India the foreign invaders had to encounter with the Jats of this region. At what period the Jats established themselves in the Indian desert is not known. By the 4th century they had spread up to Punjab in India. 
The north-eastern and north-western Rajasthan, known by the name Jangladesh in ancient times,  was inhabited by Jat clans ruled by their own chiefs and largely governed by their own customary law.  Whole of the region was possessed by six or seven cantons namely Punia, Godara, Saran, Sihag, Beniwal, Johiya and Kaswan. Besides these cantons there were several sub-castes of Jats, simultaneously wrested from Rajput proprietors for instance Bagor, Kharipatta, Mohila or Mehila, Bhukar, Bhadu, Chahar.  According to History of Bikaner State and by the scholars, the region was occupied by Jats with their seven territories. It is said about Jat territories that Saat Patti Sattavan Majh (means seven long and fifty-seven small territories). Following are the main clans and their heads with capital and number of villages in each territory., 
Table of Jat republics in Jangladesh:
|S.No.||Name of janapada||Name of chieftain||No. of villages||Capital||Names of districts|
|1.||Punia||Kanha||300||Luddi||Bhadra, Ajitpur, Sidhmukh, Rajgarh, Dadrewa, Sankhoo|
|2.||Beniwal||Raisal||150||Raisalana||Bhukarkho, Sanduri, Manoharpur, Kooi, Bae|
|3.||Johiya||Sher Singh||600||Bhurupal||Jaitpur, Kumanu, Mahajan, Peepasar, Udasar|
|4.||Sihag||Chokha||150||Suin||Rawatsar, Biramsar, Dandusar, Gandaisi|
|5.||Saharan||Pula||300||Bhadang||Khejra, Phog, Buchawas, Sui, Badnu, Sirsila|
|6.||Godara||Pandu||700||Shekhsar||Shekhsar, Pundrasar, Gusainsar (Bada), Gharsisir, Garibdesar, Rungaysar, Kalu|
According to James Todd, during the period of Rathor domination ("intermediate between Timur's and Babur's invasion of India", i.e. sometime between 1398 and 1526) out of total 2670 villages in the Jangladesh, 2200 villages were under the rule of Jats. Each canton bore the name of the community, and was subdivided into districts. After Chauhans, Jats completely established their supremacy and hold over administration in their own traditional fashion, which continued till the conquest of the region by Rathores. The Jats claimed their right over the land which was under their possession, before the Rathores occupied it and this claim was inherited by their descendants, who used to divide the land among themselves for cultivation. It appears probable that in the early period of their conquest the Rathores could not exercise any definite claim on the land as landlords. However, it was possible only in the 17th century,  due to internal rivalries among Jats, primarily Godaras surrendered, later on all Jat clans accepted Rathor's suzerainty., 
Other republics in Jangladesh
- Bhadu - Bhadus were rulers in Jangladesh where they established an important city Bhadra. Samantraj was a popular ruler of Bhadus. Bhadus had a war with 'Bhagore' people and after capturing it they moved to Marwar area. Bhadus also occupied many villages in Ajmer-Merwara.
- Bhati - Jat Bhatis ruled Bhatner, presently Hanumangarh, and Bhatinda. Bhatner was historically important because it was situated on route of invaders from Central Asia to India. 
- Bhukar - Bhukars were initially settled at Sambhar in Rajasthan. They were the rulers in this area and their ruling method was that of 'Bhomia-chor'. Gothra Bhukaran was their capital.
- Jakhar - The king of the Jakhar clan, Jakhbhadra, settled in Jangladesh and made his capital at Reni (modern-day Taranagar).  At a later date, the Jakhars established a kingdom, the ruins of which are found at Madhauli, which was in the princely state of Jaipur. 
- Sangwan - The Sangwan jats ruled at Sarsu in Jangladesh region of Rajasthan in 8th to 10th century.
- Sahu - They have been the rulers of a small republic in Jangladesh. Their capital was at village Dhansia, situated at a distance of 65 km in northwest of Churu town. There were 84 villages in their territory., 
Jat republics in Marwar
- Kulhari (Nagil is a branch of this clan ,That ruled ranthambore separately for 200years)
Jat republics in Anantagochar region
- Burdak: Burdaks founded village Sarnau near Jeenmata in Sikar Rajasthan and made their capital. Sarnau was made Jagirdari of Burdaks under Raja Mahi Pal of Delhi in samvat 1032 (975 AD). Burdaks ruled at Sarnau Fort from samvat 1032 to samvat 1315 (975 AD - 1258 AD). In samvat 1315 (1258 AD) Sarnau falls to Delhi Badashah Nasir-ud-din Mahmud (1246–1266) son of Iltutmish (1211–1236) of Slave dynasty. At that time Chaudhary Kalu Ram, Kunwar Padam Singh Burdak and Kunwar Jag Singh Burdak were Jagirdars from Burdak clan. There were 84 villages in this Jagir.
- Bijarnia - Mentioned as Varetatae people of Greek language by Megasthenes were rulers in Khandelawati. Vijayranias founded a village called 'Vijarna' in 1078 and constructed a fort at 'Ladhana' in 1178. One chieftain Jagsingh of this clan founded his rule in Palsana of Shekhawati region in year 1255.
Jat republics in Matsya region
Jat republics in southern Rajasthan
- Jatrana - This is an ancient gotra. According to Kautilya they fought against Alexander the Great. According to Alberuni this hilly place called Chittor ( Jattaur) was the capital of the Jatrana clan. They call themselves descendants of Tur.
- Gora - In ancient times ruled in Ajmer-Merwara, Mewar, and Bundi-Sirohi areas in Rajasthan. They are descendants of Pingala Nagavanshi. 
- Nagil -This is a ruling clan of nagavanshi jat.Ranthambore was founded by chaudhary Ranpal singh nagil much before 900AD.Nagill jat ruled this area for 150years and their capital was Ranthambore Jatvas.Nagill constructed a small fort on a hill as narrated by some clan historians.Their kingdom was spread over 150 villages adjoining Ranthambore Jatvas.Raja sajraj veer singh nagil was the most famous and skilful ruler of this clan without any illadvised ambition.Descendand nagil clan village Sanjerwas ,Haritha and Jaitpur. Bhiwani and Rewari Haryana.
- Ranthambore - It was founded by Ran Mal Jat, by putting a stambh (pillar) at the location of present Ranthambore. He challenged the neighbouring rulers for battle. The area around Ranthambore was ruled by Gora and Nagil jats till two centuries prior to the rule of Prithvi Raj Chauhan.
- Chandlai - A small republic founded by Jat chieftain 'Chandla'. He got constructed a pucca pond near the village in the name of her daughter ‘Bhala’ and put an inscription on it on baisakh sudi 15 samvat 1027 (970 AD). Chandla was ruler of Tonk at that time. ,
Jat People republics in United province
- Kaliramna - A king of this gotra was the ruler near Mathura, on the banks of Yamuna River. The ancient fort of Kaliramna is in ruins near Mathura. His fort was known as fort of Kalidheh.
- Khirwar - Raja Khir was the son of Aniruddha, the grandson of Sri Krishna. Khirwars are the descendants of Raja Khir. Khirwar Jats were the rulers of the Brij area of Uttar Pradesh. From here they moved to Madhya Pradesh, where they occupied good land for cultivation on the banks of the Narmada and founded the city of Narsinghpur in Madhya Pradesh where they ruled for a long period.
- Koīl - In the ancient times the people of Kampilya were later known as Koil. The Koīl people came from Kampilya and founded the city known as Kampilgarh, situated south east of Ganges. The town of Kampilgarh later became popular as Koil which is now Aligarh.
- Thakurele - [Aligarh,In 18th century they defeat the Hada Rajputs & have a strong hold on Khair,Inglash tahsil]
Ancient Jat People republics in Malwa
List of Ancient Jat people Kingdoms
- Maharaja Shalinder
- Maharaja Kartik
- Southern Rajasthan
- Lichhavi Dynasty
- Mauryan Empire
- Kushan Empire
- Gupta Empire
- Uttar Pradesh
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