Jat rulers in Rajasthan

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क
For content in Hindi See मध्यकालीन राजस्थान में जाट जनपद

Rajasthan was ruled by large number of small democratic republics of various Jat clans. These republics were there till the rule of Harshavardhana. After the fall Harsha in 647 AD, the Jat republics weakened due to invasions by Mugals, Turks, Muslims and Yavanas. In the sixth and seventh century when new Agnikula clan of Rajputs was created in Mount Abu, many of the Jat clans merged in them. Some Jat Gotras joined or merged with the Pratihara Confederation. But Majority of Jat Clans merged with Chauhans. Though these Jat clans existed earlier but the newly created system of recording their ancestry i.e. Badwas, Bhats, Jagas etc. started recording their ancestry from the point of creation of Agnikula Kshatriyas. Later on they credited the origin of these Jat clans from the respective Agnikula Kshatriya which is wrong and distorted fact.

Contents

Jat clans who ruled in Rajasthan

Here is given the partial list of Jat clans who ruled in Rajasthan. You may add more
Jat clan Capital Period Rule passed to
Achra  ? During rule of Chauhans  ?
Badawal  ? During rule of Chauhans  ?
Balhara Manafir/Mankir 8th to 10th century Mauryas
Bamraulia Dholpur 1805 to 1947 Joined the Indian Union
Beniwal Raslana till 15th century Rathores
Bhadu Bhadra/ Ajmer till 16th century Akbar
Bhandi  ? till mid 8th century Pratiharas
Bhari Dadrewa During rule of Chauhans  ?
Bhati Bhatner
Bhukar Gothara Bhukran till 15th century Shekhawats
Bhinchar Bhinchawa
Bidiyasar Rataoo 12-15th century Rathores
Bijarnia Ladhana 1078-1515 Shekhawats
Burdak Sarnau 975 - 1258 Nasir-ud-din Mahmud
Chahar Narwar/Sidhmukh 13th/15 century Muslims
Chapotkat  ? 7-8th century Kalif Hasham (724-743 AD)
Dahiya Kinsaria/Manglana/Sanchor 9-13th century ?
Danga  ? till 999 AD Pratiharas
Dhankhar Alwar 5th century  ?
Dhaulya Kharnal 930 - 1103  ?
Gaina Bardu 1077 - 1757  ?
Garhwal Garhmukteshwar/Kuloth 12-13th century Chauhans
Gatwal Depal 13th century Qutb-ud-din Aibak (1206 to 1210)
Geela  ? During rule of Chauhans  ?
Godara Shekhsar till 15th century Rathores
Gora Chhoti Sadri/ Ajmer 491 AD/12th century Chauhans
Gujar  ? 7-8th century Kalif Hasham (724-743 AD)
Hooda Garhrehra (Gogameri) During rule of Chauhans  ?
Jajra  ? During rule of Chauhans  ?
Jakhar Riri 14-15th century  ?
Johiya Bhurupal till 15th century Rathores
Kachela  ? 7-8th century Kalif Hasham (724-743 AD)
Kalher Kalera Bas  ?  ?
Kaswan Sidhmukh 17th century Rathores
Katewa Khudana  ?  ?
Khichi Gagraun During rule of Chauhans  ?
Khoja Tonk 847-1281 AD Ghiyas ud din Balban (1266–1286)
Khokhar Kanwat  ? ?
Kok  ? till mid 8th century Pratiharas
Kularia Kot-Marot/Kathod /Kolia/Didwana Nagaur till 15th century Rathore/Shekhawats
Loyal Khari Karamsotan till 16th century  ?
Makad Sanchor During rule of Chauhans  ?
Mann Gorir till 19th century Shekhawats
Maurya Jahajpur/Kumbhalgarh/Chittor 224BC-215BC/725-35
Meel Kolida 10-13th century  ?
Mohil Chhapar/Janglu/Ladnu During rule of Chauhans  ?
Mor  ? 7-8th century Kalif Hasham (724-743 AD)
Mothasara Bidasar Sujangarh till 15th century Rathores
Naga Nagaur 7-10 th century Chauhans
Nagil Ranthambore 8-10th century Chauhans
Nain Beejhansar  ? ?
Nehra Bikaner/Narhar till beginning of 17th century Rathores/Shekhawats
Punia Jhansal/Luddi till 15th century Rathores
Rai Alore till 7th century Chach Brahman
Ratta 918 AD Pratiharas
Sahu Dhansia till 15th century Rathores
Sangwan Leeri 8-10th century Chauhans
Saran Bhadang till 15th century Rathores
Shail  ? till mid 8th century Pratiharas
Sihag Pallu/Sui till 15th century Rathores
Sindhu  ? 7-8th century Kalif Hasham (724-743 AD)
Suhag Pallu till 15th century Rathores
Sheoran Neemrana  ? ?
Sinsinwar Bharatpur 1670-1947 Joined the Indian Union
Sorout  ? 7-8th century Kalif Hasham (724-743 AD)
Thakan  ? till mid 8th century Pratiharas
Thalod Losal 1164 - 1614 AD Muslims

Rajputana is misleading name

Rajasthan was known as Rajputana prior to independence which creates confusion as if Rajput population is in majority in this state. Thakur Deshraj has provided facts that total Jat population in Rajasthan in 1931 census was 11,42,025 where as Rajput population was 6,33,830. Thus Jats were about double the population of Rajputs. Shekhawati was part of Jaipur state, which had the highest Jat population of 3,13,609. In some of the princely states it was about 25 percent of total population, forming the single largest caste. [1] As per Imperial Gazeteer of India v-8, p-22, More than 44 per cent of the population in Bhadra tahsil in 1901, were Jats at that time. [2]


Historical traditions are that Jats, Bhils, Ahirs, Gujars, Meenas and some other tribes had a great contribution in building the state of Rajasthan along with Rajputs. All these tribes had to suffer great difficulties to protect their culture and the land. Millions of them martyred for this land. ‘The Hinduan Suraj’ title to Udaipur was due to Bhils. Jats had been fighting since beginning. Gujars had been exterminated in Bhinmal and Ajmer areas fighting with the invaders. Bhils ruled Kota and Bundi one time. Gujars were sardars in Alwar, Jodhpur and Ajmer areas. [3]

The truth is that purohits, Charans and Court poets out of greed for money and land gave prominence to Rajputs. Later James Tod wrote annals after taking bribe from Maharaja Udaipur and Maharaja Jodhpur of the Rajputana state. He was biased towards these states and Rajputs. The earlier contributions of warriors and protectors of the land Jats, Bhils, Gujars and Meenas were neglected and lost in the history. [4]

Antiquity of Jats in Rajasthan

Jats lived in the Thar Desert since ancient times according to the puranic sources. They were also settled in Sindh and Punjab who migrated to the desert area of Rajasthan from time to time. The Author of the book ‘India of the dark ages’ writes that Jat republics were present in Rajasthan. Rule of Yaudheyas in desert area and naga Jats in Nagaur has been mentioned. [5] These republics were there till the rule of Harshavardhana. After the fall Harsha in 647 AD, the Jat republics weakened due to invasions by Mugals, Turks, Muslims and Yavanas. In the sixth and seventh century when new Agnikula clan of Rajputas was created in mount Abu, many of the Jat clans merged in them. Rajput sangha was formed from Gujar clans also. The Jat clans who joined Rajput sangha were termed Rajputs. Jat clans who did not leave the Vedic tradition of widow marriage remained in Jat sangha. Later during Muslim rule, to avoid the excesses by Mugals some of these Rajputs started child marriages of girls and the widow marriages, these groups left Rajput sangha and joined again the Jats and Gurjars. According to the records of Bhats, the rule of Anangapal and Prithvi Raj Chauhan was on these Jat areas of Ajmer, Sambhar, Fulera, and Shekhawati and up to Delhi. After the fall of Prithvi Raj Chauhan, there was no alternative left for these clans except to join the Jat sangha. The large number of common clans amongst Rajputs, Jats and Gurjars indicates that intermixing of clans with these sanghas was a trend at that time. [5]

Rule of Yaudheyas Jats in Rajasthan

Yaudheyas are identified with the Jats clan Joiyas or Johiya[6] of Bahawalpur and Multan Divisions (Pakistan) and Bikaner, Rajasthan (India). Yaudheyas were the rulers of South-Eastern Punjab and Rajasthan. Even today these areas are inhabited by the Johiyas.


Alexander had heard about a very powerful people beyond the river Beas. Arrian describes them as gallant fighters, good agriculturists and having constitutional government. [Ibid.] Though they have not been specifically named, there is little doubt in their being Yaudheyas. [7], [8] It is said in the Adi Parva of Mahabharata that Yaudheya was son of Yudhishthira by his Shivi wife. [9] They find mention in the Sabhaparva of the Mahabharata under different name-Mattamayura. It is said that starting from Khandavapratha Nakul marched towards west and reached Rohitika-beautiful, prosperous and rich in cattle and horses and dear to Kartikeya. He also captured Marubhumi and Bahudhanya. Because these three places had been the chief centres of Yaudheyas and also because Kartikeya finds depiction on the Yaudheya coins, Mattamayura is merely another name for the Yaudheyas. This ancient name is preserved in Jat gotra as Mori, Maur, Mor. [10]

It appears that the political power of the Yaudheyas was eclipsed under the Mauryas. But after their decline the Yaudheyas again became politically dominant and had their heydays up to the rise of the Guptas. [11]

During the glorious period of the Yaudheyas their neighbours in Rajasthan were Malavas (Jaipur, Tonk, Ajmer), Shivis (Chittor), Matsya (Alwar) and Maukharis (Kota). The Yaudheyas probably formed a confederacy with these and others and, as Atlekar suggests, gave a final blow to the tottering Kushan Kingdom.[12] The Yaudheya chiefs who bore the titles Maharaja Senapati appear to have been chosen for this purpose by Yaudheya gana. During this period they might have developed some contacts with the Vakatakas, Bharashivas and other Naga families, under the subjugation of the Guptas, they must have developed closure toes with the Guptas. It is probably during these centuries that they absorbed some elements of their neighbours. The Jat Gotra names Malava, Mokhar, Makhar, Machchar, Bharshiv, Nag, Dharan may be understood against this back ground. [13]

Pali inscriptions

By the end of fifth and the beginning of the sixth century, their southward migration from Sind, second in line, took place and they reached Kota in Rajasthan, probably via Bikaner regions. From Kota they migrated further east and established their rule at Malwa under the rule of Salichandra, son of Vira Chandra. Salichandra erected a minster (mindra) on banks of the river Taveli in Malwa.

The sixth century Pali inscription (dated samvat 597-56 = 541 AD) mentions the race as Jit. Thus the term ‘Jit’ probably derives its nomenclature after the epithet of the founder of the tribe Jit Salindra. [14] According to James Tod, in Rajasthan and Punjab the tribe retained their ancient name Jit. [15], [16]

Migration of Jats from Sind to Rajasthan

Migration of Jats from Sindh to Rajasthan

As for the migration of Jats from Sind, it may be assumed that natural calamity and increase in population compelled them to migrate from their original abode in search of livelihood.[17]Hoernle has propounded the 'wedge theory' for the migration of most of the ancient tribes. This wedge theory tends us to believe that the Jats were among the first wave of the Aryans, and their first southeast migration took place from the Nort-West, and established their rule at Sorpur in Multan regions. Further they migrated towards east and stretched their abode from Brahmanabad (Mansura) to Kathiawar. As Jataki, the peculiar dialect of the Jats, also proves that the Jats must have come from the NW Punjab and from other districts (e.g. Multan) dependent upon the great country of the Five rivers.[18] By the end of fifth and the beginning of the sixth century, their southward migration, second in line, took place and they reached Kota in Rajasthan, probably via Bikaner regions. From Kota they migrated further east and established their rule at Malwa under the rule of Salichandra, son of Vira Chandra. Salichandra erected a minster (mindra) on banks of the river Taveli in Malwa.[19] Probably after their defeat by Sultan Mahmud in 1027 AD, and later hard pressed by the Ghaznavi Turkish Commander, the Jats of Sind again migrated to Rajasthan and settled themselves in Bundi regions.[17]The second inscription found at Bundi probably dates from circa samvat 1191 (1135 AD) possibly refers to the Jats as opponents of the Parmara rulers of Rajasthan.[20]

When Muhammad bin Qasim attacked Dahlilah, a fortified town in between Roar and Brahmanabad, most of the inhabitants (the Jats) had abandoned the place and migrated to Rajasthan via desert and took shelter in the country of Siru (modern Sirohi) which was then ruled by King Deva Raj, a cousin of Rai Dahir.[21] However, the third migration took place in early eighth century and Jats of lower Sind migrated to Rajasthan, probably via Barmer regions. By the twelfth century, the Jats settled in western Punjab, as the native poet Abul Farj Runi mentions them along with the Afghans.[17]Meanwhile, they also extended their abode in the eastern part of the Punjab (now Haryana), as in the end of the twelfth century they resisted Qutb-ud-din Aybak in the region of Hansi.[22]


References

  1. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992, page-694
  2. Imperial Gazeteer of India v-8,p-22
  3. Thakur Deshraj : Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 588.
  4. Dr Natthan Singh, Jat-Itihas, (Jat History), Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad, F-13, Dr Rajendra Prasad Colony, Tansen marg, Gwalior, M.P, India 474 002 2004, page-91
  5. 5.0 5.1 Sahiram, Ek adhūrī krānti, Shekhawati kā kisān āndolan (1922-1952), page - 14
  6. Cunningham , A. Coins of Ancient India, London, 1891,pp. 75-76
  7. Brahma Purana, Ch. 13
  8. Harivansha, Ch. 32
  9. Mahabharata ch. 95, 76
  10. Maheswari Prasad, “Jats in Ancient India”:The Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Vol.I, p. 23
  11. Maheswari Prasad, “Jats in Ancient India”:The Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Vol.I, p. 23
  12. A.S. Atlekar and R.C. Majumdar, The Vakataka Gupta Age, p.27
  13. Maheswari Prasad, “Jats in Ancient India”:The Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Vol.I, p. 25
  14. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol. I, inscription No. I,, pp. 622
  15. Ibid., op. cit., p.88
  16. Dr S. Jabir Raja (AMU), “The Jats of Punjab and Sind”: Their settlements and migrations (c. 5th-12th AD)”, The Jats, Vol. I, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, 2004, p. 54
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
  18. Richard F. Burton, op. cit., p.246
  19. Inscription No.1, Tod, op.cit., Vol.II, Appendix pp. 914-917.
  20. Inscription No.II, Tod, op.cit., Vol.II, Appendix, pp. 917-919 and n. 13
  21. Chachnama, p.166
  22. Hasan Nizami, Tajul-ma'asir, Fascimile translation in ED, Vol. II, p.218

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