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Location of Lahore
Lahore on Pakistan Map
Jat Kumar Sabha Lahore

Lahore (लाहोर) (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور) (Lahor) is the capital of the Punjab province and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. It is popularly known as the Heart of Pakistan, due to its historical importance in the creation of Pakistan, and also being a cultural, political and educational centre of the country. The city lies along the Ravi River, situated approximately 25 kilometres from Wagah border crossing and is 32 kilometres from the Indian city of Amritsar.


1. A legend or oral tradition holds that Lahore, known in ancient times as Lavapuri ("City of Lava" in Sanskrit), [1] was founded by Prince Lava or Loh, [2] the son of Rama, the Hindu deity, while Kasur was founded by his twin brother Prince Kusha.[3]To this day, Lahore Fort has a vacant temple dedicated to Lava (also pronounced Loh, hence Loh-awar or "The Fort of Loh").[4]

2. Ptolemy, the celebrated 2nd-century Egyptian astronomer and geographer, mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla [5] situated on the route between the Indus River and Palibothra, or Pataliputra (Patna) mostly, in a tract of country called Kasperia (Kashmir). It was described as extending along the rivers Bidastes or Vitasta (Jhelum), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Chenab), and Adris or Iravati (Ravi). This city may have been ancient Lahore.

3. Probably name was after Lohar (लोहर) Lohariya (लोहरिया) tribe.The gotra started after Raja Kalash Loha (कलशलोह).[6] Bhim Singh Dahiya[7] has described about the history of this clan. This clan is famous in Kashmir history and gave it a whole dynasty called Lohar dynasty. Their settlement in India was Loharin, in Pir Pantsal range. The Lohar Kot-fort of Lohars-is named after them. The famous queen Dida, married to Kshemagupta, was daughter of Lohar Kong Simha Raja, who himself was married to a daughter of Lalli (Jat Clan) Sahi king Bhima of Kabul and Udabhanda (Und, near modern Attock). Thus Didda was a Lohariya Jat scion, and a granddaughter of Lalli Jats of Kabul baseless called Brahmans. The descendants of their ruling family are still called Sahi Jats. Queen Didda, made one Sangram Raj, her successor. He was the son of her brother Udaya Raj and he died on 1028 A.D. [8]Lohar itself remained with Vigrah Raj. Alberuni refers to this castle Lohar Kot-as Loha Kot, and Mahmud Ghazni’s attack on Lohar Kot was a dismal failure. Farishta tells that Muhmud failed because the fort “was remarkable on account of its height and strength.[9]

Native language

Punjabi is the native language of the Punjab Province and is the most widely-spoken language in Lahore and rural areas. Urdu and English, however, are becoming more popular with younger generations since they are officially supported, whereas Punjabi has no official patronage. Many people of Lahore who speak Punjabi are known as Lahori Punjabi due to their use of a mixture of Punjabi and colloquial Urdu.


The oldest authentic document about Lahore was written anonymously in 982 A H and is called Hudud ul-'alam min al-mashriq ila al-maghrib|Hudud-i-Alam[10]. It was translated into English by Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky and published in Lahore in 1927. In this document, Lahore is referred to as a small shahr (city) with "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards." It refers to "two major markets around which dwellings exist," and it also mentions "the mud walls that enclose these two dwellings to make it one." The original document is currently held in the British Museum. [11]. Lahore was called by different names in history, and to date there is no evidence to suggest the actual time, when the city was made, some historians trace the history of the city as far as 4000 years ago.[12].

In 1799, all Sikh Misls joined into one to form a sovereign Sikh state ruled by Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjab) from the royal capital, Lahore[13].

Lahore enjoys a special position in the history of India's freedom-struggle. The 1929 Congress session was held at Lahore. In this Congress, the Declaration of the Independence of India was moved by Pandit Nehru and passed unanimously at midnight on 31 December 1929.[11] On this occasion, the contemporary tricolour of India (with a chakra at its centre) was hoisted as a national flag, and thousands of people saluted it.

Lahore Fort Prison was a place to detain revolutionary freedom fighters. Noted freedom fighter Jatin Das died in Lahore prison after fasting for 63 days in protest of British treatment of political prisoners. One of the greatest martyrs in the history of Indian independence, Shaheed Sardar Bhagat Singh along with his two comrades Sukhdev and Rajguru, was hanged in Lahore Jail.[14]

The most important session of the All India Muslim League, later the Pakistan Muslim League, the political party fighting for Indian independence and the creation of Pakistan, was held in Lahore in 1940. Muslims under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam demanded a separate homeland for Muslims of India in a document known as the Pakistan Resolution or the Lahore Resolution. During this session, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, leader of the League, publicly proposed the Two Nation Theory for the first time.

Lahore is regarded as the heart of Pakistan and was known as the Paris of the East before the riots of 1947. Among all cities of India, Lahore suffered the greatest loss due to the Partition of Punjab in 1947.

At independence, Lahore was made capital of Punjab province in the new state of Pakistan.

Jat clans in Lahore District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans in Lahore District[15]:

Aulakh (357), Awan (3,433), Bhatti (2,042), Bajwa (492), Bhullar (1,373), Buttar (198), Bath (340), Chauhan (393), Cheema (603), Chhina (742), Chander (1,221), Chahal (561), Deo (111), Dhillon (1,706), Dhariwal (752), Gill (2,381), Goraya (480), Ghumman (403), Gondal (1,080), Heer (376), Hanjra (836), Johiya (649), Khera (107), Kharal (2,064), Khokhar (2,708), Maan (637), Malhi (154), Pannun (7), Randhawa (162), Sidhu (1,022), Sandhu (9,965), Sarai (351), Sekhon (155), Sansi (522), Sial (1,373), Samra(45), Tarar (170), Uppal (87), Virk (1,375) and, Waraich (357)

Jats and Lahore

  • Many Jat Gotras have originated from rulers of Lahore. According to the bards king Gaj of Ghazni had two sons named Mangal Rao and Masur Rao. Mangal Rao was the ruler of Lahore and Masur Rao of Sialkot. Foreign invaders drove both of them out of their kingdoms. Masur Rao fled away to the deserts of Rajasthan. He had two sons named Abhai Rao and Saran Rao. Descendants of Abhai Rao came to be called Bhurhya Bhatti and those of Saran Rao, Saran. Mangal Rao had six sons, named Mojam Rao, Gulrish, Moolraj, Sheoraj, Kewl Rao and Phul Rao. Descendants of Gulrish came to be called Gloraya or Kiliraya, those of Moolraj, Munda and those Sheoraj, Sheoran. Descendants of Kewal Rao and Phul Rao adopted pottery as their profession and were called Kumhar.
  • The majority of Sindhu Jats are found in the districts of Lahore and Amritsar.
  • King Porus (पौरुष), the Greek version of the Indian names Puru, Pururava, or Parvata, was the ruler of a Kingdom in Punjab located between the Jhelum and the Chenab (in Greek, the Hydaspes and the Acesines) rivers in the Punjab. Its capital may have been near the current city of Lahore [16]. He had 600 small republics under him, which were ruled by Jats. Porus was most poerful of them.[17]
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjab) also called "Sher-e-Punjab" ("The Lion of the Punjab") (1780-1839) was a Sikh emperor of the sovereign country of Punjab and the Sikh Empire. His Samadhi is located in Lahore, Pakistan. Ranjit Singh took the title of Maharaja on April 12 1801 (to coincide with Baisakhi day). A descendant of Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh religion, conducted the coronation ceremony [18]. Lahore served as his capital from 1799.
  • Kisan Andolans were first started from Punjab. It was in Punjab that India's first farmers’ movement emerged. The role played by Ghadar party, led by Raja Mahendra Pratap, in the political awakening of India was an important step. The peasant conferences were held in Lahore, Faislabad, Lyallpur and other places of West Punjab -- the most famous of them being 1938-39 Long Morcha in Lahore when peasants from all over Punjab courted arrests for nine months in front of the assembly building.
  • Sardar Bhagat Singh, One of the greatest martyrs in the history of Indian independence, a Sandhu Jat Shaheed, was hanged in Lahore Jail.[19]


  1. Bombay Historical Society (1946):Annual bibliography of Indian history and Indology , Volume 4, p. 257
  2. Baqir, Muhammad (1985): Lahore,past and present, B.R. Pub. Corp. pp. 19–20
  3. Nadiem, Ihsan N (2005):Punjam - Land, History, People; Al-Faisal Nashran. p. 111.
  4. Aqoosh, Lahore Number 1976
  5. Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 16, p. 106
  6. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 280
  7. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Harsha Vardhana : Linkage and Identity, pp.224-225
  8. RAJAT, VI, 355 and VII, 1284
  9. Elliot, Early History of India (V A Smith), Vol I
  10. HUDUD AL-'ALAM 'The Regions of the World' A Persian Geography
  11. Dawn Pakistan - The 'shroud' over Lahore's antiquity
  12. [1]
  13. Encyclopædia Britannica article on Lahore
  14. Daily Times Pakistan - Memorial will be built to Bhagat Singh, says governor
  15. Census Of India 1911 Volume xiv Punjab Part 2 by Pandit Narikishan Kaul
  17. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998 (Page 290)
  19. Daily Times Pakistan - Memorial will be built to Bhagat Singh, says governor

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