Loharu

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Location of Loharu in Bhiwani District

Loharu (लोहारू) is a city and a municipal committee in Bhiwani district in the Indian state of Haryana ; it is one of the 4 administrative sub-divisions of the district, and has 119 villages in the Loharu Tehsil[2][3].

Contents

Villages in Loharu tahsil

Ahmedwas, Akberpur, Allaudinpur, Amirwas, Azempur, Barahlu, Bardu Chaina, Bardu Dhirja, Bardu Jogi, Bardu Mughal, Bardu Puran, Barwas, Basirwas, Behal, Beran, Bidhnoi, Bisalwas, Bithan, Budhera, Budheri, Cheher Kalan, Cheher Khurd, Damkora, Dhana Jogi, Dhani Ahmed, Dhani Dholan, Dhani Lachman, Dhani Mansukh, Dhani Shama, Dhigawa Jatan, Dhigawa Shamyan, Gagarwas, Garanpura, Gignaw, Gokalpura, Gopalwas, Gothra, Hariawas, Hasanpur, Jhanjara Sheoran, Jhanjra Toda, Jhumpa Kalan, Jhumpa Khurd, Kasni Kalan, Kasni Khurd, Kharkhari, Kurdal, Kushal Pura, Ladawas, Loharu (MC), Mandholi Kalan, Mohamad Nagar, Nakipur, Nangal, Nunsar, Obra, Pahari, Paju, Patwan, Phartia Bhiman, Phartia Kehar, Phartia Tal, Rahimpur, Salempur, Sarsi, Sehar, Serla, Sheharyarpur, Shehzmanpur, Shezadpur, Sidhanwa, Singhani, Sohasra, Sorda Jadid, Sorda Kadim, Sudhiwas, Surpura Kalan, Surpura Khurd,

Jat Gotras in Loharu

Bhariya, Maan, Sangwan, Sheoran, Pawariya,

History

It was the seat of the eponymous Princely State during the British Raj, established in 1803; and an important reminiscence of that is the Loharu Fort, now an important tourist destination of the district [4].

The Princely State of Loharu was a part of the Punjab States Agency and a 9 Salute State [5]. During the British Raj, it encompassed an area of 222 square miles, and was situated in the South-east corner of the undivided Punjab Province, between the district of Hisar and the Rajputana Agency[6]. In 1901, the State had a population of 15,229 people, of whom 2,175 were residents in the town of Loharu [7].


Loharu at the edge of Punjab (British India), 1903Loharu once had a mint of the Jaipur state, and hence gets its name from Lohars or the blacksmiths employed in it [8].

The family of the Loharu princely state, originally hailed from Bokhara in Central Asia (present Uzbekistan) moved to India [9], where Qasim Jan, and later became a courtier in the royal courts of Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II (r. 1728–1806), Qasim Jan had two brothers, Alam Jan and Arif Jan [10], it was the son of Arif Jan, Ahmad Baksh Khan who founded the princely state of Loharu in 1803 [11], when he received the town of Loharu from the Raja of Alwar, after he was employed by the Raja during the negotiation with Lord Lake, then Commander-in-Chief, India, while the Second Anglo-Maratha War was on, further in lieu of his services he received the pargana of 'Firozepur Jirka' (now in Gurgaon district) from Lord Lake [12][13][14].


Sir Amiruddin Ahmad Khan Nawab of Loharu,1884-1920.Ahmad Baksh Khan was succeed by his eldest son, Sams-ud-din Khan in 1827, though in 1835 he was executed by the British Raj for being involved in the conspiracy to kill the British Resident to Delhi, Sir William Frazer [15][16], subsequently the pargana of Firozepur was taken away by the British, and the state of Loharu was given to his brother Amin-ud-din and Zia-ud-din Khan. Both were themselves kept under surveillance after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 for some time, before being released and their positions restored.

The haveli of 'Nawab of Loharu', known as Mahal Sara, lies in Gali Qasim Jan, Ballimaran, where his son-in-law, noted poet Mirza Ghalib stayed for a few years, whose own haveli lies a few yard away [17][18]. Now a gali is known as Kothi Nawab Loharu lane in Ballimaran, Chandni Chowk, Delhi [19].

Alauddin Ahmed Khan succeeded his father Amin-ud-din Khan in 1869, and received the title of Nawab. Alauddin’s son, Amir-ud-din Ahmad Khan (1859 - 1937), after managing the state on his father’s behalf, succeed him in 1884, though from 1893 to 1903, he remained administrator and adviser of the state of Maler Kotla, during this time the state was being handled by his younger brother Bashiruddin Ahmed Khan, in 1903; Amir- ud-din Ahmad Khan also received the K.C.S.I honour from the British Government, and after January 1, 1903 was allowed a 9 gun personal salute, then on [12], and later became a member of the Viceroy of India's legislative council [7][20].


Loharu State, State Court Fee Stamp, 8 Annas, issued under Nawab Amin ud-din Ahmad Khan (r. 1926-1947)In 1920, he abdicated to his second son, Aizzuddin Ahmad Khan, though he died early in 1926, leaving the state to his son, Amin ud-din Ahmad Khan (1911-1983) - the last Nawab [9], however since the new Nawab was still young, Amirud-din Ahmad Khan stepped in and took care of the state till 1931 [21].

After the Independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Union of India and many of the ruling family and the city's Muslim inhabitants re-settled in Lahore, Pakistan, though the Nawab and his direct descendants (except for the eldest daughter of Nawab Aminuddin Ahmed, Mahbano Begum who lives in Islamabad), stayed on, in India [15].

Succession of Nawabs

  • Ahmad Baksh Khan: 1806-1827
  • Sams-ud-din Khan: 1827-1835 (eldest son)
  • Amin-ud-din Khan: 1935-1869 (step brother)
  • Alauddin Ahmed Khan: 1869-1884 (son)
  • Amir-ud-din Ahmad Khan, K.C.S.I: 1884-1920 (son)(abdicated)
  • Aizz-uddin Ahmad Khan:1920-1926 (second son)
  • Amin ud-din Ahmad Khan:1926-1947 (son) - (acceded to India)

Notable members of the Loharu clan

The ruling family of Loharu was linked by blood or marriage to several important Muslim personalities of the 19th century, including:

  • Mirza Ghalib (1796—1869), renowned Urdu and Persian poet, married to Umrao Begum, daughter of Nawab Ilahi Bakhsh Khan (younger brother of the first Nawab, Ahmad Baksh Khan).
  • Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, educationist KCSI .
  • Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (1905-1977), President of India (1974-1977)
  • Iftikhar Ali Khan Pataudi (1910 –1952), Nawab of Pataudi, married to Shahar Bano Begum, daughter of a Nawab of Loharu.

Post-Independence

  • The last ruling Nawab, Amin ud-din Ahmad Khan: Served in the Indian Army, seeing action during the liberation of Portuguese India in 1961. He was later elected to the Legislative Assembly of Rajasthan state, and ended his chequered career as the governor of Himachal Pradesh (1977-1981) and governor of Punjab (1981-1982).
  • Ala-uddin Ahmad Khan II (Born 1938): After staying in Kolkata for many year, he now lives in Loharu town; where the Loharu fort, now in ruins, stands in its center [22], and a major tourist attraction [4]
  • Aimaduddin Ahmad Khan, or 'Durru Mian' (Born 1944): Indian National Congress politician, member Legislative Assembly of Rajasthan state [23], settled in Jaipur [24]
  • Noor Bano (Born 1939): Married to Syed Zulfiqar Ali Khan of Rampur, and a member 11th Lok Sabha and 13th Lok Sabha.

Loharu Descendants in Pakistan

  • Jamiluddin Aali, (born 1926, Delhi), Urdu poet, playwright.
  • Mahbano Begum, (born 1934, Loharu), eldest daughter of Nawab Aminuddin Ahmad, married to H. E. Dr. S. M. Koreshi, Ambassador of Pakistan.

Geography

Loharu is located at 28°27′N 75°49′E / 28.45°N 75.82°E / 28.45; 75.82[26]. It has an average elevation of 262 metres (859 feet).

Demographics

As of 2001[update] India census[27], Loharu had a population of 11,421. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Loharu has an average literacy rate of 55%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 66%, and female literacy is 44%. In Loharu, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age.


Further reading

  • Khandan-e-Loharu Ke Shura (Loharu Family Biography), by Hamid Sultan Ahmad. New Delhi, Ghalib Institute, 1981.[28]
  • Murder of Mr. Fraser, and Execution of the Nawab Shams-ud-din - Page 86
  • Rambles and Recollections of an Indian Official, by W.H. Sleeman, Vincent A. Smith, Published by Asian Educational Services, 1996. ISBN 812061013X. (ebook)
  • Chapter 5: My Loharu Connection The Battle Within, by Brigadier Mirza Hamid Hussain, Pakistan Army 33. 1970. ISBN 969-407-286-7 -.(ebook)

External Links

Loharu at Wikipedia



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