|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)|
Maharashtra (महाराष्ट्र) is India's third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh.
- 1 Location
- 2 Divisions and Districts
- 3 Visit by Xuanzang in 640 AD
- 4 Jats in Maharashtra
- 5 महाराष्ट्र के जाटों इतिहास
- 6 Villages of Jat Bavisi khap
- 7 Jat inhabited districts
- 7.1 Jat Villages in Dhule district
- 7.2 Jat Villages in Nasik district
- 7.3 Jat Villages in Jalgaon district
- 7.4 Jat Villages in Aurangabad district
- 7.5 Jat Villages in Jalna district
- 7.6 Jat Villages in Buldhana district
- 7.7 Jat Villages in Akola district
- 7.8 Jat Villages in Amrawti district
- 7.9 Jat Villages in Wardha district
- 7.10 Jat Villages in Chandrapur district
- 7.11 Jat Villages in Sangli district
- 7.12 Jat Villages in Solapur district
- 8 Jat Bavisi
- 9 Notable Jats
- 10 Festivals by Jats
- 11 Language and culture
- 12 Jat Gotras in Maharashtra
- 13 Further reading
- 14 References
It is bordered by the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa and the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The Arabian Sea makes up the state's western coast. Mumbai (Bombay), India's largest city, is the capital of Maharashtra.
Divisions and Districts
|Nashik||Nashik, Dhule, Jalgaon, Ahmednagar and Nandurbar|
|Aurangabad||Aurangabad, Jalna, Latur, Nanded, Osmanabad, Parbhani, Hingoli and Beed|
|Amravati||Amravati, Akola, Washim, Buldhana and Yavatmal|
|Nagpur||Nagpur, Chandrapur, Wardha, Bhandara, Gondia and Gadchiroli|
|Mumbai (Konkan)||Mumbai, Mumbai Suburban (Mumbai Upanagar), Thane, Raigad, Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg|
|Poona|| Poona, Satara, Sangli, Solapur and Kolhapur
Maharashtra was known as Rashtra in the Rig Veda, Rashtrika in Ashoka's inscriptions, and Maharashtra afterwards, as attested by Huein-Tsang and other travellers. The name appears to have been derived from Maharashtri, in an old form of Prakrit, an ancient Indian language.
Visit by Xuanzang in 640 AD
Alexander Cunningham writes that From Konkana the pilgrim Xuanzang proceeded to the north-west for 2400 to 2500 li, or upwards of 400 miles, to Mo-ho-la-cha, or Maharashtra. The capital was 30 li, or 5 miles, in circuit, and on the west side touched a large river. From this description alone I should be inclined to adopt Paithan, or Pratishthana, on the Godavari as the capital of Maharashtra in the seventh
[p.554]: century. It is mentioned by Ptolemy as Baithana, and by the author of the 'Periplus' as Plithana, which should no doubt be corrected to Paithana. But the subsequent distance of 1000 li, or 167 miles, westward or north-westward to Bharoch is much too small, as the actual distance between Paithan and Bharoch is not less than 250 miles. M. Vivien de Saint- Martin thinks that Devagiri accords better with the position indicated ; but Devagiri is not situated on any river, and its distance from Bharoch is about 200 miles. I think it more probable that Kalyani is the place intended, as we know that it was the ancient capital of the Chalukya dynasty. Its position also agrees better with both of Hwen Thsang's distances, as it is about 400 miles to the north-west of Annagundi, and 180 or 190 miles to the south of Bharoch. To the west of the city also flows the Kailas river, which at this point is a large stream. Kalyan or Kalyani is mentioned by Kosmas Indikopleustes in the sixth century as the seat of a Christian bishopric, under the name of Kalliana, and by the author of the ' Periplus ' in the second century as Kalliena, which had been a famous emporium in the time of Sarayanos the elder. The name of Kaliyana also occurs several times in the Kanhari Cave inscriptions, which date from the first and second centuries of the Christian era.
The circuit of the province is said to be 6000 li, or 1000 miles, which agrees with the dimensions of the
[p.555]: tract remaining unassigned between Malwa on the north, Kosala and Andhra on the east, Konkana on the south, and the sea on the west. The limiting points of this tract are Daman and Vingorla on the sea-coast, and Idalabad and Haidarabad inland, which give a circuit of rather more than 1000 miles.
On the eastern frontier of the kingdom there was a great mountain with ridges rising one over another, and scarped crests. In former days the Arhat Achara had built a monastery, with rooms excavated in the rock, and a front of two storeys in height facing a " sombre" valley. The Vihar attached to it was 100 feet in height; and in the midst of the monastery there was a stone statue of Buddha about 70 feet high, which was surmounted by seven stone caps suspended in the air without any apparent support. The walls of the Vihar were divided all round into panels in which were sculptured with minute detail all the great events of Buddha's life. Outside the north and south gates of the monastery there were stone elephants, both on the right-hand and on the left, which according to the belief of the people occasionally roared so loudly as to make the earth quake. The description of the hill is too vague to be of much use in identifying its position ; but if the easterly bearing is correct, the hill of Ajayanti is most probably the place intended, as its bluff ridges appear to answer better to the pilgrim's account than the smoother slopes of Elura. But with the exception of the stone elephants, the account is too vague to enable us to identify the place with any certainty. There are two stone elephants outside the Kailas excavation at Elura, but that is a Brahmanical temple, and not a Buddhist
[p.556]: vihar. There is also an elephant close to the Indra-sabha at Elura, but the animal is inside the courtyard, instead of outside the gate as described by the pilgrim. Scenes from Buddha's life formed the common subjects of Buddhist sculpture, and would therefore offer no special assistance towards the identification of the monastery. But though the pilgrim's account is vague, it is so minute as to the positions of the elephants and the arrangement of the sculptures that I am inclined to think he must have seen the place himself. In this case I would read " western " frontier of the kingdom, and identify his cave monastery with the well-known excavations of Kanhari in the island of Salsette. Indeed, if I am correct in the identification of Kalyani as the capital of Maharashtra in the seventh century, it is almost certain that the pilgrim must have visited the Buddhist establishments at Kanhari, which are not more than 25 miles distant from Kalyani. The numerous inscriptions at Kanhari show that some of its excavations must date as early as the first century before Christ, and the bulk of them during the first and second centuries after Christ. One of the inscriptions is dated in the year 30 of the Sakadityakal, or A.D. 108. No remains of stone elephants have yet been found at Kanhari, but as the structural facades in front of the excavated vihars have all fallen down, some elephant torsos may yet be discovered amongst the ruins along the foot of the scarped rock. Mr. E. West has already disinterred the remains of a stone stupa with all its sculptured friezes from amongst these ruins, and further research will no doubt bring to light many other interesting remains.
Jats in Maharashtra
Maharashtra is the state which is not normally regarded as having any Jat population. It is not true. The Jats had gone to some parts of Maharastra about 4 – 5 generations back. They are settled in the interior areas and doing cultivation. They came from states like Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana etc.
महाराष्ट्र के जाटों इतिहास
320 वर्ष पूर्व जाटों के दल राजस्थान, हरयाणा, दिल्ली व उत्तर प्रदेश के विभिन्न भागों से ग्वालियर, झांसी व सागर के मार्ग से नरसिंहपुर जिले के क्षेत्र में प्रविष्ट हुए थे। इस काल में पिंडारियों का आतंक था। जाटों ने उनसे संघर्ष किया और खदेड़ दिया। जाटों के उस समय तीन दल आये थे। एक दल सागर के आसपास रुका और वहाँ के निवासी हो गए। इनमें से प्रमुख राजनेता श्री रघु ठाकुर हैं। सागर से आगे जाटों का दल गया उसने नरसिंहपुर के आसपास के गाँवों पर कब्ज़ा किया और वहाँ बस गए। जाटों के आगमन के पूर्व नरसिंहपुर का नाम 'गडरिया खेड़ा' था 'गडरिया खेड़ा' पर निवास करते हुए जाटों ने एक विशाल नरसिंह भगवान के मंदिर का निर्माण प्रारम्भ किया। साथ ही एक किलेनुमा गढ़ी का निर्माण कराया। यह गढ़ी वर्त्तमान में राव साहब की बाखर कहलाती है। इस बखर से दो भूमिगत सुरंगों का निर्माण करवाया जो 'श्री देव नरसिंह भगवान' के मंदिर से जुड़ती हैं। एक सुरंग से जाट राजा, जाट सरदार तथा दूसरी सुरंग से संभ्रांत महिलायें आकर नरसिंह भगवान के दर्शन करती थी, शिव भगवान को अभिषेक करती थी। नरसिंह भगवान का मंदिर 28 वर्षों में पूर्ण हुआ। इस मंदिर के पीछे 18 एकड़ में एक विशाल सरोवर बनाया गया जिसे 'नरसिंह तालाब' के नाम से जाना जाता है। ये सभी निर्माण कार्य पूर्ण होने पर लगभग 285 वर्ष पूर्व नरसिंह भगवान की प्रतिमा विधि-विधान से स्थापित की। इसी दिवस पर गडरिया खेड़ा का नाम नरसिंह भगवान के नाम पर नरसिंहपुर रखा गया।
जाटों का आखिरी दल महाराष्ट्र के बरार क्षेत्र के जिला अकोला, अमरावती, यवतमाल आदि पहुंचे इन जिलों के अनेक गाँवों में जाटों का निवास है। नागपुर नगर निगम में चौधरी देशराज कई वर्षों महापौर के पद पर आसीन रहे हैं।
सन्दर्भ - जाट-शक्ति, रतलाम, दिनांक 7 मार्च 2014, लेखक: ठाकुर सत्येन्द्र सिंह, तलापर स्कूल के पास, संजयवार्ड, नरसिंहपुर, मो. 09425169149
Villages of Jat Bavisi khap
- Nasik (नासिक) - 1. Tokada (टोकडा), 2. Jalkoo (जलकू), 3. Rajmana/Rajmane (राजमाने) , 4. Padalde (पाडलदे), 5. Hatane (हताने), 6. Saytarpara (सायतरपाड़ा) , 7. Jatpara (जाटपाड़ा) (Nimbayatpada), 8. Bhutpara (भूतपाड़ा), 9. Dapaura (दापौरा) , 10. Chinchagyaha (चिंचगयहा), 11. Nardana (नरडाणा), 12. Palasdara (पलासदरा) , 13. Lakhane (लखाने),
- Jalgaon (जलगाँव) - 14. Pinjarpada (पिंजारपाड़ा) (Ramnagar), 15. Rajur (राजूर), 16. Manur (मनुर), 17. Talonda (तलोंदा),
Jat inhabited districts
Jat Villages in Dhule district
Jat Villages in Nasik district
- Nasik – Tokada, Jalkoo, Rajmana, Palarde, Hatane, Saytarpara, Jatpara (Nimbayatpada), Bhutpara, Dapaura, Chinchagyaha, Nardana, Palasdara, Lakhane
- Tokra - (tehsil: Malegaon) in Nasik district is the main village of Jat Bavisi. This village is famous for cooperative societies in dairy. National leaders like Dara Singh, Dharmendra, Ram Niwas Mirdha etc have visited Tokra village.
Jat Villages in Jalgaon district
- Londha (लोंढा) in tehsil Chalisgaon (Jalgaon),
- Bhusawal tehsil Bhusawal (Jalgaon),
Jat Villages in Aurangabad district
Jat Villages in Jalna district
Jat Villages in Buldhana district
- Khamgaon - Godara Jats live in Khamgaon district Buldhana. Satya Narayan Chaudhary, Khamgaon, Mob:9850368675, Ph:07262-258228
Jat Villages in Akola district
Jat Villages in Amrawti district
Jat Villages in Wardha district
Jat Villages in Chandrapur district
Jat Villages in Sangli district
Jat Villages in Solapur district
- Karmala - Solapur district, Village has Lakhawat Gotra. Ref. - Ram Karan Lakhawat, Karmala, Mob:9325119460, 999335566131.
Everyone is aware of Meham 24si, This is Khap of 24 villages of Jats which include other castes also. But the name Jat 22si is not known to many. A very few people know about it. The name of Jat 22si is based on historical fact. About 180 kms from Mumbai is Malegaon the teshil of Nasik Dist in Maharastra. There are around 22 small villages of Jats.
In 3rd battle of Panipat, Peshwa Brahman Maratha brought around 4000 families with them. When they lost some families were killed and rest took refuge in the Fort of Maharaja Surajmal. Maharaja Surajmal, in the fiery winter of 1761 (jan) took care of injured and others. For the safety of the families while returning Maharaja Surajmal sent his soldiers with them. Who took them to their homes with respect and safety, which was far off from illusion at that time. Maratha Samaj was so impressed by Maharaja Surajmal and his soldiers for the care and respect they gave to them that they married their daughters to the soldiers who accompanied them. They (Soldiers) settled down there after marriage. Time passed but today after 245 years, 22 villages are blooming in that area, Whose occupation is farming. Same happened to their fate as what has happened to Jats in other part of the Country. There is no other example in world like the above one.
The cine star Dharmendra has built a high school in the name of his mother Sant Kaur Devi in Tokra village. For the first time in mumbai Darmendra has also built a Jat Sabha and Jat Bhawan. Every Jat should be proud of what Dharmendra has done. The Gottars of JATs staying in 22 villages are- Mann, Jakhar, Sihag, Sehrawat, Dhaiya, Bijarnia, Jhinjar, Nimadiya, Punia, Gill, Beniwal, Sangwan (70 families) etc.
The president of Jat 22si is Ch. Dhan Singh Sehrawat whose Address is :- Village - Naradana, Post - Kalwadi, Teh - Malegaon, Dist - Nasik, State - Maharastra Wardha – Sevagram Rajesh Jaysingh Siyag : At. Sevagram, Tah-Wardha Dist. Wardha Maharashtra 9422334003
Some notable Jats from the Jat Bawisi of Maharashtra are:
- Kailas Sheshrao Bijarane.Rajur, Bank Manager
- Bharat Singh Singar - Head Master Tokra
- Got Singh Chindha - Narwal Accountant Tokada
- BhuraRam Nimade - Sachiv Gram Panchayat Tokada
- Shanta Ram Lathar - Ex. Chairman Dugdha Sangh Tokada
- Kondi Ram Dhadiwal - Chairman V.K.S Socity Tokada
- Balaji Pharas- Chairman Dugdha Sangha Tokada
- A B Sumrao - Author Tokada
- Jawahar Singh Dyandyan - Driver Malegaon
- Ratan Singh Bajad - Govt Audit Inspector Malegaon (Nasik)
- Ratan Singh Maan - Sachiv Gram Panchayat Chanbad (Nasik)
- Moti Singh Jakhar - Bank Inspector Aurangabad
- Kisan Singh Jakhar - Deputy Collector Badnera (Amrawati)
- Ambar Singh Beniwal - Ex. Supervisor Union Malegaon
- Kacharu Bhawasa - Ex. Chairman Dugdha Sangha Londha
- A B Dingar - Padalde
- ShantaRam Jhinjar - Teacher Padalde
- Gotu Singh Sumrao - High School Kalyan
- Daya Ram Bajad - Head Master Kaman (Thane)
- Rakesh Ola: IPS 2012 batch, ASP Ahmadnagar, Maharashtra, Former RJS, M: 9689554433
- Rakesh Sepat: IFS, Maharashtra Cadre, Ot at IGNFA Dehradun, M: 7840001550
Festivals by Jats
The Jats in the region celebrate Gokul ashtmi (Janmashtmi) with great preparations in each house. Other festivals Jats celebrate are Diwali, Dashara, Pola, Rakshabandhan, Ramnavami, Shivratri, Holi etc.
Language and culture
There is a great similarity in culture of farming communities of Maharashtra and that of Jat belt in north India. The living of Local Marathas is amost equal to Jats. The areas look like Jat areas are Pune, Satara, Sangli, Kolhapur etc. The pehalwans of this area are famous.
The pronunciation of some of the words like pani (water) , gavadi (cow), bheent (wall), bhijna (to get wet), cha/chaha (tea), handna/hindna (to roam), alla/ola (wet), Gaavti (desi murga), Kanda (Onion), Jiman (Lunch), Pawane(Guest) etc are similar in Marathi and the Jat Languages. The existence of ‘L’ (ळ) is found in Marathi and Jat Languages only and not in other language. Water is pronounced as paani (पाणी) in both regions.
Jat Gotras in Maharashtra
The list of Jat gotras found in Maharashtra state is given below. Some of clans pronunciated differently in that local area have been given in the bracket. Aulakh (Walan), Bajad, Baje, Bebla, Barad, Behra, Beniwal, Bher, Bichhu, Bijarnia(Bijarne), Birang, Chaudhary, Chharang, Chopra, Chune, Dahiya(Dahe), Darakha, Deol, Dhan, Dhanda, Dhariwal, Dingar, Durasra, Gadar, Gill, Godara, Goyat (Gohel), Hal, Indolia (Hindane), Jakhar, Jhajra, Jhinjhar, Johni, Ka, Kachha, Kala, Karil, Katar, Kate, Kohad, Lakhawat, Lalwane, Lathar, Legha, Lidrad, Logha, Maan, Nakhal, Nehra, Nimde, Nitharwal, Pagal, Paras, Phoge, Punia (Pune), Ragi, Rah, Randhawa, Rasoda, Rathor, Rojh, Sangera, Sangwan, Sarag, Sardan, Sehrawat (Sarawat), Shemad, Shia, Shiwar, Sihag, Sindhu, Sumrao, Suran, Teja, Todawat, Siyag,
- Ashok Dingar & A.B. Sumrao, “Maharashtra mein Jaton ki Biradari” – Jat Veer Smarika 1987-88, Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad Gwalior. pp. 65,66,67
- Haryanvi and Marathi
- JATs in Andhra Pradesh & Maharastra
- The Ancient Geography of India/Southern India, p.553-556
- Julien's ' Hiouen Thsang,' iii. 149. See Map No. I.
- M. Julien's ' Hiouen Thsang,' iii. 401. In the life of the pilgrim, i. 203. the direction is said to be north-east, but as this would place the capital of Maharashtra in the midst of the Indian Ocean, the correction to north-west is absolutely necessary.
- Hudson, Geogr. Vet. i- 30 : <greek>.
- Jat Vaibhav Smarika Khategaon, 2010, p. 120
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