Malli

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Malli (मल्ली)/Mall (मल्ल)[1] [2] Mall (माल्ल)/Malli (माल्ली)[3] is a Jat Gotra.

Origin

They are said to be originated from Chandravanshi King Malla (मल्ल) of the Mahabharata period.[4]

Villages founded by Malli clan

  • Multan: This is an ancient city in Pakistan was founded by Malli clan. [5]

History

James Tod[6] quotes the bard's picture of Chohan dominion :

From 'the seat of government,' (Rajasthan) Macaouti, the oath of allegiance (an) resounded in fifty-two castles. The land of Thatha, Lahore, Multan, Peshawar. The Mahomedan writers confirm the account of Peshawar, for in their earliest recorded invasion, in A.H. 143, the princes of Lahore and Ajmer, said to be of the same family, are the great opponents of Islam, and combated its advance in fields west of the Indus. We know beyond doubt that Ajmer was then the chief seat of Chohan power. the Chohan in his might arose around


[p.409]: conquered even to the hills of Bhadri. The infidels (asuras) fled, and allegiance was proclaimed in Dehli and Kabul, while the country of Nepal he bestowed on the Mallani. Crowned with the blessing of the gods, he returned to Maheshwar.

James Tod[7] writes that The Mallani is (or rather was) one of the Chohan branch and may be the Malli who exposed Alexander at the confluent arms of the Indus. The tribe extinct and was so little known even five centuries ago, that a prince of Bundi, of the Hara tribe, intermarried with a Mallani, the book of genealogical affinities not indicating her being within the prohibited canon. A more skilful bard pointed out the incestuous connection, when divorce and expiation ensued. Vide page 270.

Malli Jats and Alexander's invasion

After reducing Aornos, Alexander crossed the Indus and fought and is believed to have won an epic battle against a local ruler Porus (original Indian name Raja Puru), who ruled a region in the Punjab, in the Battle of Hydaspes in 326 BC.

After the battle, Alexander was greatly impressed by Porus for his bravery in battle, and therefore made an alliance with him and appointed him as satrap of his own kingdom, even adding some land he did not own before. Alexander then named one of the two new cities that he founded, Bucephala, in honor of the horse who had brought him to India, who had died during the Battle of Hydaspes. Alexander continued on to conquer all the headwaters of the Indus River.

East of Porus' kingdom, near the Ganges River (original Indian name Ganga), was the powerful empire of Magadha ruled by the Nanda dynasty. Fearing the prospects of facing another powerful Indian army and exhausted by years of campaigning, his army mutinied at the Hyphasis River (the modern Beas River) refusing to march further east. This river thus marks the easternmost extent of Alexander's conquests:

As for the Macedonians, however, their struggle with Porus blunted their courage and stayed their further advance into India. For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which, as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants. For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand fighting elephants.

[8]


Alexander, after the meeting with his officer Coenus, was convinced that it was better to return. Alexander was forced to turn south. Along the way his army ran into the Malli clans (in modern day Multan). The Malli were the most warlike clans in South Asia during that period. Alexander's army challenged the Malli, and the ensuing battle led them to the Malli citadel. During the assault, Alexander himself was wounded seriously by a Mallian arrow.[9].[10] His forces, believing their king dead, took the citadel and unleashed their fury on the Malli who had taken refuge within it,perpetrating a massacre,sparing neither man,woman nor child.[11] Following this, the surviving Malli surrendered to Alexander's forces, and his beleaguered army moved on.He sent much of his army to Carmania (modern southern Iran) with his general Craterus, and commissioned a fleet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral Nearchus, while he led the rest of his forces back to Persia by the southern route through the Gedrosian Desert (now part of southern Iran and Makran now part of Pakistan).

Alexander left forces in India however. In the territory of the Indus, he nominated his officer Peithon as a satrap, a position he would hold for the next ten years until 316 BC, and in the Punjab he left Eudemus in charge of the army, at the side of the satrap Porus and Taxiles. Eudemus became ruler of a part of the Punjab after their death. Both rulers returned to the West in 316 BC with their armies. In 321 BCE, Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya Empire in India and overthrew the Greek satraps.

Presently they are known mainly as Mahla. Here is the distribution of Mahla clan in various states:


Hukam Singh Pawar (Pauria)[12] states: The companion princes of Harshavardhana, i.e. Kumaragupta III and Madhavagupta belonged to the Mallava tribe (Malloi) and Bhandi was a Poni 104. Mahasenagupta, the mother of Prabhakarvardhana, the grand-mother of Harsha, was a princess of the Gupta (Dharana) lineage105 . King Grahavarman, husband of Rajyashri was a Maukhari 106. The Jats have among them the Kuntals, Mall or Malli; Poni or Punia or Paunyas, Dharanas as well as Mukharis or Mokharias. This does not seem to be a mere coincidence.


Ram Sarup Joon[13] writes that ....Alexander invaded India in 326 BC and came upto the River Beas. After crossing the River Indus at Attock, he had to fight with a series of Jat Kingdoms. Alexander's historian Arrian writes that Jats were the bravest people he had to contest with in India......Names of tribes described above by Arrian as having fought Alexander viz., Maliha, Madrak, Malak, Kath, Yodha and Jatrak exist today as Jat gotras.

सिकन्दर की वापसी में जाट राजाओं से सामना

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[14] के अनुसार व्यास नदी के तट पर पहुंचने पर सिकन्दर के सैनिकों ने आगे बढ़ने से इन्कार कर दिया। इसका कारण यह था कि व्यास से आगे शक्तिशाली यौधेय गोत्र के जाटों के गणराज्य थे। ये लोग एक विशाल प्रदेश के स्वामी थे। पूर्व में सहारनपुर से लेकर पश्चिम में बहावलपुर तक और उत्तर-पश्चिम में लुधियाना से लेकर दक्षिण-पूर्व में दिल्ली, मथुरा, आगरा तक इनका राज्य फैला हुआ था। इनका प्रजातन्त्र गणराज्य था जिस पर कोई सम्राट् नहीं होता था। समय के अनुकूल ये लोग अपना सेनापति योग्यता के आधार पर नियुक्त करते थे। ये लोग अत्यन्त वीर और युद्धप्रिय थे। ये लोग अजेय थे तथा रणक्षेत्र से पीछे हटने वाले नहीं थे। इनकी महान् वीरता तथा शक्ति के विषय में सुनकर यूनानियों का साहस टूट गया और उन्होंने आगे बढ़ने से इन्कार कर दिया। इनके राज्य के पूर्व में नन्द वंश[15] (नांदल जाटवंश) के सम्राट् महापद्म नन्द का मगध पर शासन था जिसकी राजधानी पाटलिपुत्र थी। यह बड़ा शक्तिशाली सम्राट् था। यूनानी लेखकों के अनुसार इसकी सेना में 20,000 घोड़े, 4000 हाथी, 2000 रथ और 2,00,000 पैदल सैनिक थे। सिकन्दर को ऐसी परिस्थिति में व्यास नदी से ही वापिस लौटना पड़ा। [16]

सिकन्दर की सेना जेहलम नदी तक उसी रास्ते से वापिस गई जिससे वह आयी थी। फिर जेहलम नदी से सिन्ध प्रान्त और बलोचिस्तान के रास्ते से उसके सैनिक गये। परन्तु वापिसी का मार्ग सरल नहीं था। सिकन्दर की सेना से पग-पग पर जाटों ने डटकर युद्ध किए। उस समय दक्षिणी पंजाब में मालव (मल्लोई), शिवि, मद्र और क्षुद्रक गोत्र के जाटों ने सिकन्दर की सेनाओं से सख्त युद्ध किया तथा सिकन्दर को घायल कर दिया। कई स्थानों पर तो जाटों ने अपने बच्चों को आग में फेंककर यूनानियों से पूरी शक्ति लगाकर भयंकर युद्ध किया।

मालव-मल्ल जाटों के साथ युद्ध में सिकन्दर को पता चला कि भारतवर्ष को जीतना कोई सरल खेल नहीं है। मालव जाटों के विषय में यूनानी लेखकों ने लिखा है कि “वे असंख्यक थे और अन्य सब भारतीय जातियों से अधिक शूरवीर थे[17]।”

सिन्ध प्रान्त में उस समय जाट राजा मूसकसेन का शासन था जिसकी राजधानी अलोर थी। जब सिकन्दर इसके राज्य में से गुजरने लगा तो इसने यूनानी सेना से जमकर युद्ध किया। इससे आगे एक और जाटराज्य था। वहां के जाटों ने भी यूनानियों से लोहा लिया[18]

सिकन्दर की सेना जब सिंध प्रान्त से सिंधु नदी पर पहुंची थी तो इसी राजा मूसकसेन (मुशिकन) ने अपने समुद्री जहाजों द्वारा उसे नदी पार कराई थी[19]

जब सिकन्दर अपनी सेना सहित बलोचिस्तान पहुंचा तो वहां के जाट राजा चित्रवर्मा ने जिसकी राजधानी कलात ([[Kuluta|कुलूत) थी, सिकन्दर से युद्ध किया[20]


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-363


अलग-अलग स्थानों पर हुए युद्ध में जाटों ने सिकन्दर को कई बार घायल किया। वह बलोचिस्तान से अपने देश को जा रहा था परन्तु घावों के कारण रास्ते में ही बैबीलोन (इराक़ में दजला नदी पर है) के स्थान पर 323 ई० पू० में उसका देहान्त हो गया[21]। उस समय उसकी आयु 33 वर्ष की थी।

भारत से लौटते समय सिकन्दर ने अपने जीते हुए राज्य पोरस और आम्भी में बांट दिये थे और सिन्ध प्रान्त का राज्यपाल फिलिप्स को बनाया। परन्तु 6 वर्ष में ही, ई० पू० 317 में भारत से यूनानियों के राज्य को समाप्त कर दिया गया और मौर्य-मौर जाटों का शासन शुरु हुआ। इसका वर्णन अध्याय पांच में किया गया है।

Distribution

Notable persons

  • G.S. Malhi - Ex. Member of Canadian Parliament belongs to Malli Jat clan.[22]

External links

References

  1. B S Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.240, s.n.138
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. म-49
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. म-18
  4. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p.277
  5. History and study of the Jats/Chapter 7, Prof. B.S. Dhillon, p.104
  6. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Haravati,p. 408-409
  7. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Haravati,p. 409 fn-1
  8. Plutarch,Vita Alexandri,62
  9. Plutarch, Alexander 63.5
  10. The Baldwin Project: The Story of Greece by Mary Macgregor
  11. History of Ancient India by Rama Shankar Tripathi[1]
  12. The Jats: Their Origin, Antiquity and Migration, p. 136
  13. History of the Jats/Chapter IV,p. 49-50
  14. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ.363-364
  15. जाट्स दी ऐनशन्ट रूलर्ज, लेखक बी० एस० दहिया ने पृ० 256 पर लिखा है कि यह कहना उचित है कि नन्द जाट आज नांदल/नांदेर कहे जाते हैं।
  16. भारत का इतिहास, पृ० 47, हरयाणा विद्यालय शिक्षा बोर्ड भिवानी; हिन्दुस्तान की तारीख उर्दू पृ० 161-162)
  17. हिन्दुस्तान की तारीख उर्दू पृ० 162 भारत का इतिहास पृ० 47 हरयाणा विद्यालय शिक्षा बोर्ड, भिवानी।
  18. जाट इतिहास क्रमशः पृ० 695, 192, 695 लेखक ठा० देशराज।
  19. जाट इतिहास क्रमशः पृ० 695, 192, 695 लेखक ठा० देशराज।
  20. जाट इतिहास क्रमशः पृ० 695, 192, 695 लेखक ठा० देशराज।
  21. भारत का इतिहास पृ० 47, हरयाणा विद्यालय शिक्षा बोर्ड भिवानी; हिन्दुस्तान की तारीख उर्दू पृ० 162।
  22. History and study of the Jats/Chapter 7, Prof. B.S. Dhillon, p.104

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