Mathura

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Mathura district map

Mathura (मथुरा) is a city and district in Uttar Pradesh. It is the legendary birthplace of Lord Krishna and covers a geographic expanse of 3329.4. Encompassing the coordinates of 27°41’North latitude and 77° 41’ East longitudes.

Origin of name

Mathura city might also have got its name from a famous Yadava king Madhu who reigned around 1600 BC.

Variants of name

Tahsils in Mathura district

Villages in Mathura tahsil

Aduki, Ahilya Ganj Bangar, Ahmal, Akos Bangar, Alipur, Allhepur, Amirpur, Angai, Anganpura, Anore, Anwla Sultanpur Bangar, Arhera, Aring, Artauni, Atas Bangar, Atas Khadar, Aurangabad Bangar (CT), Averni, Azampur, Baburi Garbi, Baburi Sharqi, Bachhgaon, Bad (CT), Badhauta, Bajna, Bakalpur Mathura, Baldeo (NP), Balrai Bangar, Balrampur, Bamoli, Banarsipur, Bandi, Baqalpur Farah, Barari, Barauda Mashrakpur, Barauli, Barha Bangar, Basai, Basonti, Bati, Begampur, Beri, Beruka, Bhadal Ichchha, Bhadal Sundar, Bhadar, Bhadaya, Bhaderua, Bhagosa, Bhahai, Bhainsa, Bhartiya, Bhavanpura, Bhuarsu, Bhudha, Birjapur, Birona, Birona, Bisu, Borpa, Chandrabhan, Chhibrau, Chharaura, Chharhgaon, Chhatikara, Chholi, Chokipur Kalan, Churmura, Dagheta, Datiya, Daulatpur, Daulatpur Farah, Daulatpur Mathura, Devseras, Dhana Jiwna, Dhana Khema, Dhana Shamsabad, Dhana Teja, Dhangaon, Dharmpura, Dhorera Bangar, Dhorera Khadar, Farah (NP), Fateha, Fatehpura, Ganesara, Ganjoli, Gantholi, Garhaya Latifpur Bangar, Garhi Rambal, Garhsauli, Girdharpur, Gokul (NP), Gokulpur, Gopalpur, Gotha, Govardhan (NP), Goverdhan Brahmnan, Goverdhan Gorwan, Gulsana Bad, Habibpur Bangar, Hakimpur Mathura, Hasanpur, Hasanpur, Hataura, Hathaoli, Hatkoli, Hayatpur, Ibrahimpur, Ikdanta, Islampur, Jachonda, Jadaupur, Jafar Nagar, Jagdishpur, Jaisinghpura Bangar, Jait, Jakariapur, Jalal, Jamalpur, Jamunavata, Janu, Jatipura, Jatora, Jhandipur Bangar, Jhapara, Jharautha, Jhurawai, Jikhangaon, Jiroli, Jodhpur, Jogipur Bangar, Jonai, Jugsana, Junhaidi, Junsuti, Kachnau, Kanjaulighat Bangar, Kanora Bangar, Karanpur, Karnau, Karnawal Bangar, Kawaila, Keshonpur Manoharpur Dehat, Khadera, Khamini, Khanpur, Khediya, Kherat, Kheria, Kilauni, Kirarai, Kishanpur, Koh, Koila Alipur Bangar, Konai, Kosi Khurd, Kota, Kothara, Kunjera, Kurkanda, Ladpur, Lahrauli Bangar, Lalpur, Loriha Patti, Luhara, Madanpura Bangar, Madaur, Madaura, Madaura, Madhopur Khadar, Madhuri Kund, Maghera, Magorra, Mahaban (NP), Mahaban Bangar (Dehat), Mahaban Khadar, Mahmadpur, Maholi, Mahroli, Mahuan, Mai Mirzapur Bangar, Makhdum, Mal, Malhu, Malikpur, Malsarai, Manoharpur, Masum Nagar, Mathura (CB), Mathura (MB), Mathura Bangar, Mazahidpur, Meghpur, Mirpur, Mirzapur Brahmnan, Mirzapur Nagla, Mohanpur, Mohpai Bangar, Mora, Mubarikpur Bangar, Mudesi, Mudseras, Muhal Sakraya Bangar, Muiuddinpur, Mukandpur, Mukhrai, Murshidabad Bangar, Murshidpur Bangar, Mustafabad, Muzaffarpur, Nabipur, Nabipur Bangar, Nagari, Nagla Abua, Nagla Ajam Bangar, Nagla Ajam Khadar, Nagla Akos Bangar, Nagla Bali, Nagla Bohra, Nagla Chhinga, Nagla Gaju, Nagla Girdhar, Nagla Gukhrauli, Nagla Hirday Nurullapur, Nagala jamuni , Nagla Kasi, Nagla Mana, Nagla Maniram, Nagla Mirbulaki, Nagla Neta, Nagla Phoolpur , Nagla Qazi, Nagla Sadola, Nagala uday singh , Nainupatti, Narhauli Junnardar, Narholi, Navada, Navganva, Neemgaon, Nera Bangar, Noorpur, Ol, Pachawar, Padal, Pali Brahmnan, Pali Khera, Palidungara, Palson, Parkham, Patlauni, Pauri, Pentha, Phenchari, Phondar, Pilua Sadiqpur, Pingari, Piprauth Murshidpur, Pura, Radhakund (NP), Radhakund Rural, Radoi, Rahimpur, Raipura Jat, Rajpur Bangar, Rajpur Khadar, Rajpur Naobaramad, Ral, Rampur, Rasulpur, Rawal Bangar, Ronchi Bangar, Rosu, Saidpur, Sakana, Sakarwa, Sakitara, Sakraya Bangar, Sakraya Khadar, Salemabad, Salempur Farah, Salempur Mathura, Samaspur, Sanaura, Sarai Alikhan, Sarai Daud, Sarai Salbahan, Sarkand Khera, Sarurpur, Satoha Asgarpur, Saunkh (NP), Seeh, Sehat Bangar, Selkhera, Senha, Sersa, Shahaupur Bangar, Shahjadpur (Indrawali), Shahpur Chainpur, Shahpur Farah, Shahpur Jaran, Shahzoopur Gujar, Shehzadpur Pauri, Sherpur Khadar, Singa Patti, Son, Sonkh Dehat, Sonoth Janubi, Sonsa, Sunrakh Bangar, Tahra, Tarsi, Tartura, Tatrauta Bangar, Thirawali, Tos, Umari, Unchagaon, Uspar, Vrindaban Bangar, Vrindaban Khadar, Vrindavan (MB),

In Mahabharata

Madhura (मधुर): Mathura has been mentioned as Madhura (मधुर) in Mahabharata. They have been mentioned as Madhura in Shalya Parva, Mahabharata/Book IX Chapter 44,shloka 66. [2] Madhur clan is said to be originated from Mathura.

In Mahavansa

Prince Vijaya (543–505 BCE), son of king Sihabahu of Sinhapura in the country of Lala, was a first recorded King of Sri Lanka, mentioned in Mahavamsa. Vijaya and his followers, seven hundred men came to Lanka after being expelled from the country of Lala. [3]

Mahavansa/Chapter 7 tells that ....In Lanka, they displaced the island's original inhabitants Yakkhas, established a kingdom and became ancestors of the modern Sinhalas people. Vijaya founded the city of Tambapanni. Here and there did Vijaya's ministers found villages. Anuradhagama was built by a man of that name near the Kadamba river; the chaplain Upatissa built Upatissagama on the bank of the Qambhira river, to the north of Anuradhagama Three other ministers built, each for himself, Ujjeni, Uruvela, and the city of Vijita.

Mahavansa/Chapter 7 tells that ....The ministers, for consecrating Vijaya, sent people, entrusted with many precious gifts, jewels, pearls, and so forth, to the city of Madhura, to woo the daughter of the Pandu king for their lord, and they also (sent to woo) the daughters of others for the ministers and retainers. The king sent his daughter (to Lanka) he, and also daughters of others for the ministers (of Vijaya). Then king Vijaya consecrated the daughter of the Pandu king with solemn ceremony as his queen.

Migration of Yadus

James Tod[4] writes that the tide of Yadu migration during the lapse of thirty centuries, traces them, from Indraprastha, Surapura, Mathura, Prayaga, Dwarica, Jadu Ka Dang (the mountains of Jud), Behera, Ghazni in Zabulistan ; and again refluent into India, at Salivahanpura or Salpura in the Punjab. Tannot, Derawal, Lodorva in the desert, and finally Jaisalmer, founded in S. 1212, or A.D. 1156.

In Rajatarangini

According to Dilip Singh Ahlawat [5], The Naga Jats ruled over Kantipur, Mathura, Padmavati, Kausambi, Nagpur, Champavati, (Bhagalpur) and in the central India, in western Malwa, Nagaur (Jodhpur- Rajasthan). In addition they ruled the ancient land of Shergarh, (Kota, Rajasthan), Madhya Pradesh (Central India), Chutiya Nagpur, Khairagarh, Chakra Kotiya and Kawardha. The great scholar, Jat Emperor, Bhoja Parmar, mother Shashiprabha was a maiden of a Naga Clan.


Rajatarangini[6] tells us that the history of Kashmir then presents a blank till the reign of Gonanda I at the beginning of the Kaliyuga. This powerful king was contemporary with Yudhisthira and a friend of his enemy Jarasandha. Gonanda I, who ruled in Kashmira, where the Ganges flows cheering the mount Kailasa on her way, was invited by Jarasindhu to help him in his invasion of Mathura, the capital of Krishna. With a large army they invested that city and encamped on the banks of the Yamuna to the great terror of their foes. On one occasion the army of Krishna was defeated in a battle, but Balarama not only retrieved the confusion of his army, but made a vigorous attack on the allied force. For a long time victory remained doubtful, till at last Gonanda I, pierced with wounds fell dead on the field, and the army of Krishna was victorious. On his death Damodara I ascended the throne of Kashmira, and though possessed of this beautiful kingdom, he was far from being happy ; his proud heart brooded on his father's death. While in this state, he had that the Gandharas had invited Krishna and his relatives to the nuptials of some of the daughters of

[p.6]: their tribe, to be celebrated near the banks of the Indus, and in which the bridegrooms , were to be chosen by the brides. With great preparations were being made for the nuptials, the king moved with a large army of infantry and horse, and interrupted the, festival. In the battle that ensued, many of the Gandharas were killed, but the king, pierced to the heart with Krishna's chakra perished.

History


Ram Sarup Joon[7] writes that ....Samudra Gupta conquered the whole of Punjab and a major part of India. The clans defeated by him included


Harsha Charita[8] mentions ....The fate of a Yavana king was encompassed by the holder of his golden chowrie, who read the letters of a document reflected in his crest jewel. By slashes of drawn swords Viduratha's army minced the avaricious Mathura king Brihadratha while he was digging treasure at dead of night.


Mathura, the erstwhile kingdom of the Solar and Lunar dynasties was the focal point of ancient Indian civilization and religion, which witnessed the convergence of Indian, Indo-Scythian and Hellenstic cultures. The district is strategically placed 145 Km southeast of Delhi and 58 Km north west of Agra.

As per epic Mahabharata and per Bhagavata Purana, Mathura was the capital of the Surasena Kingdom, ruled by Kansa the maternal uncle of Krishna.

James Todd writes: [9] Suraseni name was given to a large tract of country round Mathura, or rather round Surpura, the ancient capital founded by Surasena, the grandfather of the Indian brother-deities, Krishna and Baldeva.

James Todd [10] writesthat Arrian notices the similarity of the Theban and the Hindu Hercules, and cites as authority the ambassador of Seleucus, Megasthenes, who says : " This Herakles is held in special honour by the Sourasenoi, an Indian tribe who possess two large cities, Methora and Cleisobora. . . . But the dress which this Herakles wore, Megasthenes tells us, resembled that of the Theban Herakles, as the Indians themselves admit." [Arrian, Indika, viii., Methora is Mathura ; Growse (Mathura, 3rd ed. 279) suggests that Cleisobora is Krishnapura, ' city of Krishna.']


James Todd[11] writes that We are assured by Alexander's historians that the country and people round Mathura, when he invaded India, were termed Surasenoi. There are two princes of the name of Sursen in the immediate ancestry of Krishna ; one his grandfather, the other eight generations anterior Which of these founded the capital Surpur whence the country and inhabitants had their appellation, we cannot say Mathura and Cleisobara are mentioned by the historians of Alexander as the chief cities of the Surasenoi. Though the Greeks sadly disfigure names, we cannot trace any affinity between Cleisobara and Surpur. I had the pleasure, in 1814, of discovering a remnant of this city, which the Yamuna has overwhelmed. [The ancient Suryapura was near Batesar, 40 miles south-east of Agra city. Sir H. Elliot (Supplemental Glossary, 187) remarks that it is strange that the Author so often claims the credit of discovery when its position is fixed in a set of familiar verses. For Suryapura see A. Fuhrer, Monumental Antiquities and Inscriptions, 69.] The sacred place of pilgrimage, Batesar, stands on part of it. My discovery of it was doubly gratifying, for while I found out the Surasenoi of the Greeks, I obtained a medal of the little known Apollodotus, who carried his arms to the mouths of the Indus, and possibly to the centre of the land of the Yadus. He is not included by Bayer in his lists of the kings of Bactria, but we have only an imperfect knowledge of the extent of that dynasty. The Bhagavat Purana asserts thirteen Yavan or Ionian princes to have ruled in Balichdes [?] or Bactria, in which they mention Pushpamitra Dvimitra. We are justified in asserting this to be Demetrius, the son of Euthydemus, but who did not succeed his father, as Menander intervened. Of this last conqueror I also possess a medal, obtained amongst the Surasenoi, and struck in commemoration of victory, as the winged messenger of heavenly peace extends the palm branch from her hand. These two will fill up a chasm in the Bactrian annals, for Menander is well known to them. Apollodotus would have perished but for Arrian, who wrote the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea in the second century, while commercial agent at Broach, or classically Brigukachchha, the Barugaza of the Greeks. [The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea was written by an unknown Greek merchant of first century A.D. (McCrindlo, Commerce and Navigation, Introd. p. 1).]

Without the notice this writer has afforded us, my Apollodotus would have lost half its value. Since my arrival in Europe I have also been made acquainted with the existence of a medal of Demetrius, discovered in Bokhara, and on which an essay has been written by a savant at St. Petersburg.


A portrait of Maharaja Šúraséna or Shoorsena, the grandfather of both Krishna and Pandavas.

Mathura has an ancient history. As per the ASI plaque at Mathura museum, the city is mentioned in the oldest epic Ramayana. In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna, slays a deamon called Lavanasur and claims the land. Afterwards the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded, Madhupura and later Mathura. The demon that Shatrughan killed in Ramayana was Lavanasur who was the progeny of a devout king Madhu who gets Lord Shiva's Trident in a boon in the Puranas. The Puranas ascribe the founding of the city to Ayu, the son of Pururuvas and the celestrial nymph Urvashi. The city might also have got its name from a famous Yadav king Madhu who reigned around 1600 BC.

In the 6th century BC Mathura became the capital of the Shursen (Surasen) republic[12]. The city was later ruled by the Maurya empire (4th to 2nd centuries BC) and the Sunga dynasty (2nd century BC). It may have come under the control of Indo-Greeks some time between 180 BC and 100 BC. It then reverted to local rule before being conquered by the Indo-Scythians during the 1st century BC. Archaeological evidence seems to indicate that, by 100 BC, there was a group of Jains living in Mathura . Mathuran art and culture reached its zenith under the Kushan dynasty which had Mathura as one of their capitals, the other being Purushapura (Peshawar). The dynasty had kings with the name of Kadphises, Kanishka, Huvishka and Vasudeva. All the Kushans were patrons of Buddhism except Vasudeo, mentioned on coins as Bazodeo. Kanishka even hosted the third Buddhist council, the first two being hosted by Ajatshatru and Ashoka the Great. The headless statue of Kanishka is in the Mathura museum.

Megasthenes, writing in the early 3rd century BC, mentions Mathura as a great city under the name Μέθορα (Méthora).[13]

The Indo-Scythians (aka Sakas or Shakas) conquered the area of Mathura over Indian kings around 60 BCE. Some of their satraps were Hagamasha and Hagana, who were in turn followed by the Saka Great Satrap Rajuvula.

The findings of ancient stone inscriptions in Maghera, a town 17 km from Mathura, provide historical artifacts that provide more details into this era of Mathura [14]. The 3 line text in these inscriptions are in Brahmi script and were tranlated as "In the 116th year of the Greek kings..." [15][16]

The Mathura lion capital, an Indo-Scythian sandstone capital in crude style, dated to the 1st century CE, describes in kharoshthi the gift of a stupa with a relic of the Buddha, by Queen Nadasi Kasa, the wife of the Indo-Scythian ruler of Mathura, Rajuvula. The capital also mentions the genealogy of several Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura.

Rajuvula apparently eliminated the last of the Indo-Greek kings, Strato II, around 10 CE, and took his capital city, Sagala.

The Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions attest that Mathura fell under the control of the Sakas. The inscriptions contain references to Kharaosta Kamuio and Aiyasi Kamuia. Yuvaraja Kharostes (Kshatrapa) was the son of Arta as is attested by his own coins.[17] Arta is stated to be brother of King Moga or Maues.[18] Princess Aiyasi Kambojaka, also called Kambojika, was the chief queen of Shaka Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula. Kamboja presence in Mathura is also verified from some verses of epic Mahabharata which are believed to have been composed around this period.[19] This may suggest that Sakas and Kambojas may have jointly ruled over Mathura and Uttar Pradesh. It is revealing that Mahabharata verses only attest the Kambojas and Yavanas as the inhabitants of Mathura, but do not make any reference to the Sakas.[20] Probably, the epic has reckoned the Sakas of Mathura among the Kambojas (Dr J. L. Kamboj) or else have addressed them as Yavanas, unless the Mahabharata verses refer to the previous period of invasion occupation by the Yavanas around 150 BCE.

The Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura are sometimes called the "Northern Satraps", as opposed to the "Western Satraps" ruling in Gujarat and Malwa. After Rajuvula, several successors are known to have ruled as vassals to the Kushans, such as the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara, who are known from an inscription discovered in Sarnath, and dated to the 3rd year of Kanishka (c 130 CE), in which they were paying allegiance to the Kushans.[21]

Mathura served as one of the Kushan Empire's two capitals from the first to the third centuries. The Mathura Museum has the largest collection of redstone sculptures in Asia, depicting many famous Buddha figurines.

Fa Hien mentions the city, as a centre of Buddhism about A.D. 400; while his successor Hsuan Tsang, who visited the city in 634 AD, which he mentions as Mot'ulo, and writes that it contained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Brahmanical temples [22]. Later, he went east to Thanesar, Jalandhar in the eastern Punjab, before climbing up to visit predominantly Theravada monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning southward again to Bairat and then Mathura, on the Yamuna river [23].

The city was sacked and many of its temples destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018 and again by Sikandar Lodhi, who earned the epithet of But Shikan, the destroyer of idols. The Keshav Dev temple was partially destroyed by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, who built the city's Jami Masjid (Friday mosque) on the same site, re-using many of the temple's stones. It was won over from the Mughals by the Jat kings of Bharatpur but subsequently the area was passed on to the Marathas. The main Krishna shrine is presently the Dwarkadeesh temple, built in 1815 by Seth Gokuldas Parikh, Treasurer of Gwalior.

Jat Khaps in Mathura district


  • Source: Jat Bandhu, April 1991

Inscriptions at Mathura

James Todd writes that Some sacrificial pillars (yupa) were recently found in the bed of the Jumna near Mathura, with inscriptions dated in the twenty-fourth year of Kanishka's reign, about A.D. 102. [24]

There are some other inscriptions of Kumara Gupta I, which are not noticed by Fleet. An image of a Jaina Tirthankara was dedicated at Mathura by Kumara Gupta I, in 432 AD. In the same year, a grant or transfer of land was recorded on a copperplate in Bengal. This plate has been recovered in a fragmentary condition and nothing can be known from it beyond the name of the reigning sovereign, the date, and the name of the Vaisya, which is read as Khasapara by Bannerjee and as Khadapara by Basak. [25]

Mathura Inscription of Chandragupta II Gupta Era 61 (AD 380)

II. Mathura stone pillar inscription of Chandragupta II, year 61 (ASI)
  • (Line 8.)-By him who is the son,-accepted by him, (and) begotten on the Mahâdêvî Dattadêvî,- of the Mahârâjâdhirâja, [the glorious] Samudragupta,-
  • (L. I.)-[Who was the exterminator of all kings; who had no antagonist (of equal power)] in the world; [whose fame was] tasted [by the waters of the four oceans]; who was equal to (the gods) [Dhanada and Varuna and Indra and Antaka]; who was [the very axe] of (the god) Kritânta; who was the giver of [many] millions of [lawfully acquired cows] and gold; [who was the restorer of the ashvamêdha-sacrifice, that had been long in abeyance];-
  • (L. 5.)-Who was the son of the son's son of the Mahârâja the illustrious Gupta; the son's son of [the mahârâja, the illustrious] Ghatôtkacha; (and) the son of the Mahârâjâdhirâja [the glorious Chandragupta (I.)], (and) the daughter's son of Lichchhavi, begotten on the Mahâdêvî Kumâradêvî;-
  • (L. 11.)-[By him, the most devout worshipper of the Divine One, the Mahârâjâdhirâja, the glorious Chandragupta (II.)], . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
(The rest of the inscription is entirely broken away and lost.)

From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 27-28.

Mathura Jain Inscription of Kumaragupta I Gupta Year 113 (=A.D.432)

Ref - Epigraphia Indica II, p. 210

Mathura Stone Image Inscription of Skandagupta (454-455 CE)

  • In a century of years, increased by the thirty-fifth (year), (or in figures) 100 (and) 30 (and) 5; in the month Pushya; on the twentieth day, (or in figures) the day 20;-this is the appropriate religious gift of the Vihârasvaminî Dêvatâ. Whatever religious merit (there is) in this (act),-let it be for the acquisition of supreme knowledge by (her) parents and by all sentient beings!
  • (Line 3.)-Good fortune; the condition of being a model (worthy of imitation), abounding in virtuous qualities; fame; the destruction of the enemies (of religion); riches abounding in prosperity, births that result in happiness; (and) finally, an auspicious nirvâna;-(all these) are not permanent (?); having once fixed the thoughts upon the happiness of making gifts, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 263-264.

An insciption at Junagarh dates from about 450 CE and refers to Skandagupta, the last Gupta emperor. Old rock-cut Buddhist "caves" in this area, dating from well before 500 CE, have stone carvings and floral work. There are also the Khapra Kodia Caves North of the fort, and the Babupyana Caves South of the fort.

Another Inscription related to Maurya rulers

A fragmentary inscription from Mathura c.7th/8th century related with Yasovarman of Kanauj introduces three Maurya rulers viz Candergupta, Aryaraja and Karka Dindiraja. Karka Dindiraja Maurya is also said to have lead a successful expedition against Kanauj. [26]

Visit by Fahian

James Legge[27] writes - From this place they travelled south-east, passing by a succession of very many monasteries, with a multitude of monks, who might be counted by myriads. After passing all these places, they came to a country named Ma-t’aou-lo.1 They still followed the course of the P’oo-na2 river, on the banks of which, left and right, there were twenty monasteries, which might contain three thousand monks; and (here) the Law of Buddha was still more flourishing. Everywhere, from the Sandy Desert, in all the countries of India, the kings had been firm believers in that Law. When they make their offerings to a community of monks, they take off their royal caps, and along with their relatives and ministers, supply them with food with their own hands. That done, (the king) has a carpet spread for himself on the ground, and sits down in front of the chairman; — they dare not presume to sit on couches in front of the community. The laws and ways, according to which the kings presented their offerings when Buddha was in the world, have been handed down to the present day.

All south from this is named the Middle Kingdom.3 In it the cold and heat are finely tempered, and there is neither hoarfrost nor snow. The people are numerous and happy; they have not to register their households, or attend to any magistrates and their rules; only those who cultivate the royal land have to pay (a portion of) the grain from it. If they want to go, they go; if they want to stay on, they stay. The king governs without decapitation or (other) corporal punishments. Criminals are simply fined, lightly or heavily, according to the circumstances (of each case). Even in cases of repeated attempts at wicked rebellion, they only have their right hands cut off. The king’s body-guards and attendants all have salaries. Throughout the whole country the people do not kill any living creature, nor drink intoxicating liquor, nor eat onions or garlic. The only exception is that of the Chandalas.4 That is the name for those who are (held to be) wicked men, and live apart from others. When they enter the gate of a city or a market-place, they strike a piece of wood to make themselves known, so that men know and avoid them, and do not come into contact with them. In that country they do not keep pigs and fowls, and do not sell live cattle; in the markets there are no butchers’ shops and no dealers in intoxicating drink. In buying and selling commodities they use cowries.5 Only the Chandalas are fishermen and hunters, and sell flesh meat.

After Buddha attained to pari-nirvana,6 the kings of the various countries and the heads of the Vaisyas7 built viharas for the priests, and endowed them with fields, houses, gardens, and orchards, along with the resident populations and their cattle, the grants being engraved on plates of metal,8 so that afterwards they were handed down from king to king, without any daring to annul them, and they remain even to the present time.

The regular business of the monks is to perform acts of meritorious virtue, and to recite their Sutras and sit wrapt in meditation. When stranger monks arrive (at any monastery), the old residents meet and receive them, carry for them their clothes and alms-bowl, give them water to wash their feet, oil with which to anoint them, and the liquid food permitted out of the regular hours.9 When (the stranger) has enjoyed a very brief rest, they further ask the number of years that he has been a monk, after which he receives a sleeping apartment with its appurtenances, according to his regular order, and everything is done for him which the rules prescribe.10

Where a community of monks resides, they erect topes to Sariputtra,11 to Maha-maudgalyayana,12 and to Ananda,13 and also topes (in honour) of the Abhidharma, the Vinaya, and the Sutras. A month after the (annual season of) rest, the families which are looking out for blessing stimulate one another14 to make offerings to the monks, and send round to them the liquid food which may be taken out of the ordinary hours. All the monks come together in a great assembly, and preach the Law;15 after which offerings are presented at the tope of Sariputtra, with all kinds of flowers and incense. All through the night lamps are kept burning, and skilful musicians are employed to perform.16

When Sariputtra was a great Brahman, he went to Buddha, and begged (to be permitted) to quit his family (and become a monk). The great Mugalan and the great Kasyapa17 also did the same. The bhikshunis18 for the most part make their offerings at the tope of Ananda, because it was he who requested the World-honoured one to allow females to quit their families (and become nuns). The Sramaneras19 mostly make their offerings to Rahula.20 The professors of the Abhidharma make their offerings to it; those of the Vinaya to it. Every year there is one such offering, and each class has its own day for it. Students of the mahayana present offerings to the Prajna-paramita,21 to Manjusri,22 and to Kwan-she-yin.23 When the monks have done receiving their annual tribute (from the harvests),24 the Heads of the Vaisyas and all the Brahmans bring clothes and other such articles as the monks require for use, and distribute among them. The monks, having received them, also proceed to give portions to one another. From the nirvana of Buddha,25 the forms of ceremony, laws, and rules, practised by the sacred communities, have been handed down from one generation to another without interruption.

From the place where (the travellers) crossed the Indus to Southern India, and on to the Southern Sea, a distance of forty or fifty thousand le, all is level plain. There are no large hills with streams (among them); there are simply the waters of the rivers.


1 Muttra, “the peacock city;” lat. 27d 30s N., lon. 77d 43s E. (Hunter); the birthplace of Krishna, whose emblem is the peacock.

2 This must be the Jumna, or Yamuna. Why it is called, as here, the P’oo-na has yet to be explained.

3 In Pali, Majjhima-desa, “the Middle Country.” See Davids’ “Buddhist Birth Stories,” page 61, note.

4 Eitel (pp. 145, 6) says, “The name Chandalas is explained by ‘butchers,’ ‘wicked men,’ and those who carry ‘the awful flag,’ to warn off their betters; — the lowest and most despised caste of India, members of which, however, when converted, were admitted even into the ranks of the priesthood.”

5 “Cowries;” {.} {.}, not “shells and ivory,” as one might suppose; but cowries alone, the second term entering into the name from the marks inside the edge of the shell, resembling “the teeth of fishes.”

6 See chapter xii, note 3, Buddha’s pari-nirvana is equivalent to Buddha’s death.

7 See chapter xiii, note 6. The order of the characters is different here, but with the same meaning.

8 See the preparation of such a deed of grant in a special case, as related in chapter xxxix. No doubt in Fa-hien’s time, and long before and after it, it was the custom to engrave such deeds on plates of metal.

9 “No monk can eat solid food except between sunrise and noon,” and total abstinence from intoxicating drinks is obligatory (Davids’ Manual, p. 163). Food eaten at any other part of the day is called vikala, and forbidden; but a weary traveller might receive unseasonable refreshment, consisting, as Watters has shown (Ch. Rev. viii. 282), of honey, butter, treacle, and sesamum oil.

10 The expression here is somewhat perplexing; but it occurs again in chapter xxxviii; and the meaning is clear. See Watters, Ch. Rev. viii. 282, 3. The rules are given at length in the Sacred Books of the East, vol. xx, p. 272 and foll., and p. 279 and foll.

11 Sariputtra (Singh. Seriyut) was one of the principal disciples of Buddha, and indeed the most learned and ingenious of them all, so that he obtained the title of {.} {.}, “knowledge and wisdom.” He is also called Buddha’s “right-hand attendant.” His name is derived from that of his mother Sarika, the wife of Tishya, a native of Nalanda. In Spence Hardy, he often appears under the name of Upatissa (Upa-tishya), derived from his father. Several Sastras are ascribed to him, and indeed the followers of the Abhidharma look on him as their founder. He died before Sakyamuni; but is to reappear as a future Buddha. Eitel, pp. 123, 124.

12 Mugalan, the Singhalese name of this disciple, is more pronounceable. He also was one of the principal disciples, called Buddha’s “left-hand attendant.” He was distinguished for his power of vision, and his magical powers. The name in the text is derived from the former attribute, and it was by the latter that he took up an artist to Tushita to get a view of Sakyamuni, and so make a statue of him. (Compare the similar story in chap. vi.) He went to hell, and released his mother. He also died before Sakyamuni, and is to reappear as Buddha. Eitel, p. 65.

13 See chapter xii, note 2.

14 A passage rather difficult to construe. The “families” would be those more devout than their neighbours.

15 One rarely hears this preaching in China. It struck me most as I once heard it at Osaka in Japan. There was a pulpit in a large hall of the temple, and the audience sat around on the matted floor. One priest took the pulpit after another; and the hearers nodded their heads occasionally, and indicated their sympathy now and then by an audible “h’m,” which reminded me of Carlyle’s description of meetings of “The Ironsides” of Cromwell.

16 This last statement is wanting in the Chinese editions.

17 There was a Kasyapa Buddha, anterior to Sakyamuni. But this Maha-kasyapa was a Brahman of Magadha, who was converted by Buddha, and became one of his disciples. He took the lead after Sakyamuni’s death, convoked and directed the first synod, from which his title of Arya-sthavira is derived. As the first compiler of the Canon, he is considered the fountain of Chinese orthodoxy, and counted as the first patriarch. He also is to be reborn as Buddha. Eitel, p. 64.

18 The bhikshunis are the female monks or nuns, subject to the same rules as the bhikshus, and also to special ordinances of restraint. See Hardy’s E. M., chap. 17. See also Sacred Books of the East, vol. xx, p. 321.

19 The Sramaneras are the novices, male or female, who have vowed to observe the Shikshapada, or ten commandments. Fa-hien was himself one of them from his childhood. Having heard the Trisharana, or threefold formula of Refuge — “I take refuge in Buddha; the Law; the Church — the novice undertakes to observe the ten precepts that forbid —(1) destroying life; (2) stealing; (3) impurity; (4) lying; (5) intoxicating drinks; (6) eating after midday; (7) dancing, singing, music, and stage-plays; (8) garlands, scents, unguents, and ornaments; (9) high or broad couches; (10) receiving gold or silver.” Davids’ Manual, p. 160; Hardy’s E. M., pp. 23, 24.

20 The eldest son of Sakyamuni by Yasodhara. Converted to Buddhism, he followed his father as an attendant; and after Buddha’s death became the founder of a philosophical realistic school (vaibhashika). He is now revered as the patron saint of all novices, and is to be reborn as the eldest son of every future Buddha. Eitel, p. 101. His mother also is to be reborn as Buddha.

21 There are six (sometimes increased to ten) paramitas, “means of passing to nirvana:— Charity; morality; patience; energy; tranquil contemplation; wisdom (prajna); made up to ten by use of the proper means; science; pious vows; and force of purpose. But it is only prajna which carries men across the samsara to the shores of nirvana.” Eitel, p. 90.

22 According to Eitel (pp. 71, 72), “A famous Bodhisattva, now specially worshipped in Shan-se, whose antecedents are a hopeless jumble of history and fable. Fa-hien found him here worshipped by followers of the mahayana school; but Hsuan-chwang connects his worship with the yogachara or tantra-magic school. The mahayana school regard him as the apotheosis of perfect wisdom. His most common titles are Mahamati, “Great wisdom,” and Kumara-raja, “King of teaching, with a thousand arms and a hundred alms-bowls.”

23 Kwan-she-yin and the dogmas about him or her are as great a mystery as Manjusri. The Chinese name is a mistranslation of the Sanskrit name Avalokitesvra, “On-looking Sovereign,” or even “On-looking Self-Existent,” and means “Regarding or Looking on the sounds of the world,”=“Hearer of Prayer.” Originally, and still in Thibet, Avalokitesvara had only male attributes, but in China and Japan (Kwannon), this deity (such popularly she is) is represented as a woman, “Kwan-yin, the greatly gentle, with a thousand arms and a thousand eyes;” and has her principal seat in the island of P’oo-t’oo, on the China coast, which is a regular place of pilgrimage. To the worshippers of whom Fa-hien speaks, Kwan-she-yin would only be Avalokitesvara. How he was converted into the “goddess of mercy,” and her worship took the place which it now has in China, is a difficult inquiry, which would take much time and space, and not be brought after all, so far as I see, to a satisfactory conclusion. See Eitel’s Handbook, pp. 18-20, and his Three Lectures on Buddhism (third edition), pp. 124-131. I was talking on the subject once with an intelligent Chinese gentleman, when he remarked, “Have you not much the same thing in Europe in the worship of Mary?”

24 Compare what is said in chap. v.

25 This nirvana of Buddha must be — not his death, but his attaining to Buddhaship.


Visit by Xuanzang 635 AD

During Harsha's reign ( 606-647 A.D.), the Chinese pilgrim, Hiuen Tsang, traveled from Bairat to Mathura in 635 AD.

Alexander Cunningham[28] writes that in the seventh century the famous city of Mathura was the capital of a large kingdom, which is said to have been 5000 li, or 833 miles, in circuit.[29] If this estimate is correct, the province must have included not only the whole of the country lying between the districts of Bairat and Atranji, but a still larger tract beyond Agra, as far as Narwar and Seopuri on the south, and the Sindh river on the east. Within these limits the circuit of the province is 650 miles measured direct, or upwards of 750 miles by road distance. It includes the present district of Mathura, with the small states of Bharatpur, Kiraoli, and Dholpur, and the northern half of the Gwalior territory. To the east it would have been bounded by the kingdom of Jijhaoti, and on the south by Malwa, both of which are described by Hwen Thsang as separate kingdoms.

In the seventh century the city was 20 li, or 3.3 miles, in circuit, which agrees with its size at the present day. But the position is not exactly the same, as the houses have been gradually moving to the north and west as the Jumna encroached on the east. The old city is said to have extended from the Nabi Masjid and Fort of Raja-kansa on the north to the mounds


[p.374]: called Tila Kans and Tila Sat Rikh on the south ; but the southern half of this space is now deserted, and an equal space has been gradually built upon outside the old city to the north and west of the Nabi Masjid. The city is surrounded by numbers of high mounds ; several of which are no doubt old brick kilns ; but many of them are the remains of extensive buildings, which, having been dug over for ages in search of bricks, are now mere heaps of brick-dust and broken brick. I refer more especially to the great mound near the jail, 3 miles to the south of the city, which from its appearance was always supposed to be the remains of a brick and tile kiln. But this unpromising-looking mound has since yielded numbers of statues and inscribed pillars, which prove that it is the remains of at least two large Buddhist monasteries of as early a date as the begining of the Christian era.

The holy city of Mathura is one of the most ancient places in India. It is famous in the history of Krishna, as the stronghold of his enemy Raja Kansa ; and it is noticed by Arrian,[30] on the authority of Megasthenes, as the capital of the Suraseni. Now Surasena was the grandfather of Krishna, and from him Krishna and his descendants, who held Mathura after the death of Kansa, were called Surasenas. According to Arrian the Suraseni possessed two great cities, Methoras and Klisoboras, and the navigable river Jobares flowed through their territories. Pliny- names the river Jomanes, that is the Jumna, and says that it passed between the towns of Meihora and Clisobora. Ptolemy mentions only Mathura, under the form of Modura, Modovpa, to which he adds " the city of the gods," or holy city.

Vrindavana - Alexander Cunningham[31] writes that The city of Klisoboras has not yet been identified, but I feel satisfied that it must be Vrindavana, 6 miles to the north of Mathura.[32] Vrindavana means the " grove of basil-trees," which is famed over all India as the scene of Krishna's sports with the milkmaids. But the earlier name of the place was Kalikavartta, or " Kalika's whirlpool," because the serpent Kalika was fabled to have taken up his abode just above the town, in a Kadamb tree, overhanging the Jumna. Here he was attacked by Krishna, and the rapid convolutions of his tail in his dying struggles are said to have caused the eddy, which is now known by his name. Now, the Latin name of Clisobora is also written Carisobora and Carisoborka in different MSS., from which I infer that the original spelling was Kalisoborka, or, by a slight change of two letters, Kalikoborta or Kalilcabarta. In the Prem Sagar this whirlpool of the Jumna is attributed to the poison that was vomited forth by the serpent Kali against Krishna, when he was swimming in the river. Allusion is made to the natural increase of the serpent's poison by offerings of milk, which would seem to refer to a previous state of serpent-worship. Milk offerings are still made occasionally, but only to test the divine nature of the serpent, who is supposed to possess the most miraculous powers of drinking. In the last century, Raja Chet Singh, of Benares, is said to have poured all the milk of the two cities of Mathura and Vrindavan down the hollow Kadamb tree, and as the waters of the Jumna were not even tinged, the serpent Kalika's miraculous powers of milk- drinking were established more firmly than ever.

PIn Codes of villages in Mathura district

Aring 281501, • Bajna 281201, • Baldeo 281301, • Barsana 281405, • Bharatpur 281001, • Bisawar 281302, • C O D 281002, • Chata 281401, • Chatta Bazar 281001, • Chaumuha 281406, • Dampier Nagar 281001, • Darwaza 281001, • Deeg Gate 281001, • Drishnapuri 281001, • Farra 281112, • Gayatri 281003, • Girraj Bhagh 281503, • Gokul 281303, • Gopi Nath Bazar 281121, • Goverdahan 281502, • Jait 281402, • Jalesar R S 281304, • Janamasthan 281001, • Jugsena 281308, • Kosikalan 281403, • Krishnanagar(mathura) 281004, • Lal Darwaza 281001, • Latipura 281503, • Lol Bazar 281121, • Mahaban 281305, • Mant 281202, • Mathra Cantt 281002, • Mathura 281005, • Mathura Chowk 281001, • Mathura H O 281001, • Raya 281204, • Refinary 281005, • Refinary Nagar 281006, • Roberts Line 281002, • Sadabad 281306, • Sadar Bazar 281002, • Sahpau 281307, • Sancharka 281001, • Sankat Mochan 281001, • Shergarh 281404, • Sonai 281206, • Sonkh 281123, • Sri Banke Behariji 281121, • Sukh 281001, • Surir 281205, • Tapo Bhumi 281003, • Vrindaban 281121, • Adooki 281006, • Agaryala 281404, • Ahamadpur 281201, • Ahamadpur 281201, • Airakhera 281204, • Ajhai Kurd 281406, • Airakhera 281204, • Akosh 281301, • Akosh 281301, • Anyour 281502, • Anyour 281502, • Arrua 281202, • Arrua 281202, • Arya Samaj Road]] 281001, • Atasbangar 281406, • Awakhera 281201, • Bachchgaon 281123, • Bad 281006, • Badhauta 281504, • Bakla 281001, • Baldeo S.o. 281301, • Bandi 281301, • Baramai 281302,, • Barari 281005, • Barauth 281201, • Barchawali 281403, • Bardhaun 281204, • Barsana S.o. 281405, • Bathain Kalan 281403, • Bati 281004, • Bhadanwara 281205, • Bhaderua 281122, • Bhadraban 281202, • Bhagosa 281502, • Bhainsa 281005, • Bhalai 281205, • Bharana Kalan 281502, • Bharatia 281302, • Bharatpur Darwaza 281001, • Bhidoni 281205, • Bhooreka 281205, • Bisawali 281204, • Bisawar S.o. 281302, • Bishambhara 281401, • Brij Accadamy E.d.s.o. 281121, • Bukharari 281403, • Chaumuhan S.o. 281406, • Chhata Bazar 281001, • Chhatikara E.d.s.o. 281001, • Chhinparai 281203, • Dalauta 281404, • Dangoli Banger 281202, • Dautana 281401, • Deoseras 281502, • Dhamsinga 281401, • Dhanajeewana 281122, • Dhangaon 281005, • Edalgarhi 281201, • Farah S.o. 281122, • Fonder 281123, • G.b. Jatipura 281121, • Gadhya Latipur 281122, • Gajoo 281206, • Garhumrao 281302, • Gayatri Tapo Bhoomi 281003, • Gidoh 281403, • Gokul S.o. 281303, • Goverdhan S.o. 281502, • Goverdhan S.o. 281502, • Gudera 281206, • Gurkul E.d.s.o. 281121, • Harnaul 281202, • Hatana 281403, • Hathia 281405, • Hayatpur 281305, • Jab 281403, • Jabra 281202, • Jatwari 281404, • Jhanrautha 281301, • Jhudawai 281122, • Jikhangaon 281501, • Junsuti 281501, • Kadauna 281403, • Kamai 281405, • Karab 281504, • Karahari 281205, • Karnar 281403, • Khairakothi 281205, • Khamani 281501, • Kharauth 281403, • Khirari 281504, • Khonthra 281123, • Kolahar 281201, • Kosi Kalan S.o. 281403, • Kosi Khurd 281005, • Kotban 281403, • Krishna Nagar S.o. 281004, • Krishna Puri 281001, • Kumhan 281206, • Ladhpur 281401, • Leela Dham 281121, • Lohban 281204, • Loi Bazar 281121, • Madaura 281301, • Madem 281204, • Magna 281301, • Magorra Edso 281001, • Mahaban S.o. 281305, • Maharana 281405, • Mahmadpur Parasoli 281502, • Mahrauli 281502, • Managarhi 281201, • Manav Sew Shangh 281121, • Maninabalu 281204, • Mant S.o. 281202, • Matholi 281201, • Mathura Chawk 281001, • Midhawali 281302, • Mudseras 281502, • Musmuna 281203, • Nagaura 281204, • Nagla Bali 281301, • Nainu Patti 281123, • Nandgaon E.d.s.o. 281403, • Nasitte 281202, • Nauhjhil S.o. 281203, • Nawali 281205, • Ol 281122, • Paingaon 281401, • Paintha 281502, • Palson 281502, • Panigaon 281204, • Parasoli 281201, • Parkham 281122, • Parkhamgujar 281406, • Patlauni 281301, • Pchahara 281201, • Pelkhu 281504, • Phalen 281403, • Pingari 281122, • Prem Nagar 281003, • R.d. Bazar 281001, • Radhakund 281504, • Raipura Jat 281122, • Rajagarhi Khawal 281205, • Ral 281504, • Raman Rati 281121, • Ranwari 281401, • Raya S.o. 281204, • Refinery Nagar 281006, • Regimental Bazar Edso 281001, • Sahpur 281403, • Sardargarh 281204, • Sehi 281406, • Senwa 281404, • Shall 281201, • Shergarh S.o. 281404, • Sihora 281305, • Siriya Ki Nagaria 281204, • Siwal 281502, • Son 281123, • Sonai S.o. 281206, • Sonkh S.o. 281123, • Sri Bankey Bihari Ji 281121, • Sri Krishna Janam Sthan 281001, • Sukh Sancharak 281001, • Surir S.o. 281205, • Tasinga 281302, • Tentigaon 281202, • Udhar 281204, • Usfar 281004, • Vairani 281301, • Vrindaban S.o. 281121,

Notable persons

  • Savi Attri: Chief Metropolitan Magistrate at Karkardooma Court, Delhi, From: Mathura, UP, M: 9910384862

External links

References

  1. तुहनश च तुहानश च चित्रथेवश च वीर्यवान ।मधुरः सुप्रसाथश च किरीटी च महाबलः IX.44.66
  2. तुहनश च तुहानश च चित्रथेवश च वीर्यवान ।मधुरः सुप्रसाथश च किरीटी च महाबलः IX.44.66
  3. Mahavansa/Chapter 6
  4. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.194-195
  5. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.242
  6. Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book I,p.5-6
  7. History of the Jats/Chapter IV ,p. 58
  8. The Harsha Charita of Bana/Chapter VI
  9. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, Chapter 2 Genealogies continued,p.36
  10. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, Chapter 2 Genealogies continued,p.36
  11. James Todd Annals/Chapter 4 Foundations of States and Cities by the different tribes,p.45-46
  12. Mathura History The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 18, p. 64.
  13. Megasthenes, fragment 23 "The Surasenians, an Indian tribe, with two great cities, Methora and Clisobora; the navigable river Iomanes flows through their territory" quoted in Arrian Indica 8.5. Also "The river Jomanes flows through the Palibothri into the Ganges between the towns Methora and Carisobora." in FRAGM. LVI. Plin. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8-23. 11.
  14. Bulletin of the Asia Institute, publisher,Wayne State University Press, p.70
  15. Kushāṇa studies: new perspectives, author-Bratindra Nath Mukherjee, publisher:Firma KLM, isbn 8171021093, p.13
  16. Ancient Indian coins, author:Osmund Bopearachchi, Wilfried Pieper, publisher- Brepols, 1998, isbn 2503507301
  17. Kshatrapasa pra Kharaostasa Artasa putrasa. See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 398, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 307, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Ancient India, 1956, pp 220–221, Dr R. K. Mukerjee; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 168, S Kirpal Singh.
  18. Ancient India, pp 220–221, Dr R. k. Mukerjee; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 168–169, S Kirpal Singh; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 306–09, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part 1, p 36, D S Konow
  19. Dr Jayaswal writes:"Mathura was under outlandish people like the Yavanas and Kambojas... who had a special mode of fighting" (Manu and Yajnavalkya, Dr K. P. Jayswal); See also: Indian Historical Quarterly, XXVI-2, p 124. Prof Shashi Asthana comments: "Epic Mahabharata refers to the siege of Mathura by the Yavanas and Kambojas (see: History and Archaeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries, from Earliest Times to 300 B.C., 1976, p 153, Shashi Asthana). Dr Buddha Prakash observes: "Along with the Sakas, the Kambojas had also entered Indian mainland and spread into whole of North India, especially in Panjab and Uttar Pradesh. Mahabharata contains references to Yavanas and Kambojas having conquered Mathura (12/105/5)....There is also a reference to the Kambojas in the Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions of Saka Satrap (Kshatrapa) Rajuvula found in Mathura " (India and the World, p 154, Dr Buddha Parkash); cf: Ancient India, 1956, p 220, Dr R. K. Mukerjee
  20. Mahabharata 12.101.5.
  21. Source: "A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc..." Rapson, p ciii
  22. Mathura Template:1911.
  23. Hsuan Tsang 1911.
  24. Chapter 6 Genealogical history of the Rajput tribes subsequent to Vikramaditya,p.93
  25. http://www.third-millennium-library.com/readinghall/UniversalHistory/INDIA/Gupta_Dynasty/5-Kumara-Skanda.html
  26. E I, Vol. XXXII, pp. 207-212
  27. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms/Chapter 16
  28. The Ancient Geography of India/Mathura, p.373-374
  29. Julien's 'Hiouen Thsang,' ii. 207. See Map No. X.
  30. 'Indica,' viii. Nat. Hist., vi. 19.
  31. The Ancient Geography of India/Mathura, p.375]
  32. See Map No. X.

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