- 1 Geography
- 2 Ancient history
- 3 Shakambhari in Mahabharata
- 4 History
- 5 Early Chauhans of Shakambhari
- 6 Chauhans of Ajmer
- 7 Jat Rulers at Sambhar
- 8 Sambhar Inscription of 12-13 th century
- 9 Sambhar Salt Lake
- 10 Demographics
- 11 External links
- 12 References
Sambhar ( officially known as Sambhar Lake Town) is located at coord|26.92|N|75.2|E|. It has an average elevation of 367 metres (1204 foot . Its importance is primarily because of it is situated along the Sambhar Lake, the largest saline lake in India.
Sambhar is known for the Salt lake, the tirtha of Devayani and Shakambhari temple. On the banks of Sambhar lake three towns are located 1. Sambhar on the east bank, 2. Nawa on the northwest bank and 3. Gudha in between these villages. The people of these village depend on salt Industry.  Archaeology department had done excavation at Sambhar on site called Naliasar which indicated its antiquity.
James Todd writes that Sambhar, A name derived from the goddess Sakambhari, the tutelary divinity of the tribes, whose statue is in the middle of the lake. Sambhar is situated on the banks of the extensive salt lake of the same name, was probably anterior to Ajmer, and yielded an epithet to the princes of this race, who were styled Sambhari Rao. These continued to be the most important places of Chauhan power, until the translation of Prithwiraja to the imperial throne of Delhi threw a parting halo of splendour over the last of its independent kings. There were several princes whose actions emblazon the history of the Chauhans. Of these was Manika Rae, who first opposed the progress of the Muhammadan arms. Even the history of the conquerors records that the most obstinate opposition which the arms of Mahmud of Ghazni encountered was from the prince of Ajmer, who forced him to retreat, foiled and disgraced, from this celebrated stronghold, in his destructive route to Saurashtra.
Shakambhari in Mahabharata
- ’ततो गच्छेत राजेन्द्र देव्या: स्थानं सुदुर्लभम, शाकम्भरीति विख्याता त्रिषु लोकेषु विश्रुता’ वन.८४,१३. 
इसके पश्चात शाकंभरी देवी के नाम का कारण इस प्रकार बताया गया है -
- ’दिव्यं वर्षसहस्रं हि शाकेन किल सुव्रता, आहारं सकृत्वती मसि मासि नराधिप, ऋषयोअभ्यागता स्तत्र देव्या भक्त्या तपोधना:, आतिथ्यं च कृतं तेषा शाकेन किल भारत तत: शाकम्भरीत्येवनाम तस्या: प्रतिष्ठितम’ वन. ८४,१४-१५-१६. 
Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 84 states in verses 11-15 as under: Shakambari - One should next proceed, O king, to the excellent spot of the Goddess celebrated over the three worlds by the name of Sakamvari. There, for the space of a thousand celestial years, she of excellent vows, month after month, had subsisted upon herbs, O king of men! And attracted by their reverence for the Goddess, many Rishis with wealth of asceticism, came thither, O Bharata. and were entertained by her with herbs. And it is for this that they bestowed on her the name of Sakamvari. O Bharata, the man who arriveth at Sakamvari, with rapt attention and leading a Brahmacharya mode of life and passeth three nights there in purity and subsisting on herbs alone, obtaineth, at the will of the goddess, the merit of him that liveth upon herbs for twelve years.
Epic Mahabharata mentions this place as part of kingdom of the demon king Brishparva, as the place where his priest Sukracharya lived, and as the place where the marriage between his daughter Devayani and king Yayati took place. A temple dedicated to Devayani can be seen near the lake.
According to a Hindu tradition, Shakambhari Devi, the tutelary goddess of Chauhans, converted the forest to a plain of precious metals. People worried about potential feuds for wealth and felt it to be a curse rather than a blessing. They requested her to retract her favor, so she converted the silver to salt. This place still has a temple dedicated to Shakambhari Devi. According to a legend, the lake was gifted to the people of the area some 2,500 years ago by the Goddess Shakambhari. A small glimmering white temple in her honour stands under a rocky outcrop jutting into the lake. 
Dalip Singh Ahlawat writes that Yayati was the ruler of Jambudwipa (Asia). The traces of Yayati rule are present historically. There is a place called Jajpur about 10 km from Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, where one finds ruins of ancient fort known as "Yayati ke Kot" means the forts of Yayati. Similarly there is a well near Sambhar lake in Rajasthan known by the name of Devyani ka Kuan in which Devyani was pushed into the well due to enmity and Yayati had rescued her from that dry well.
Thakur Deshraj has given an analysis of Jat population in Rajasthan as on 1931. After that census was not by castes. As per 1931 census the population of Jats in Rajasthan in Jaipur state was highest i.e. 313609 In Jaipur state also the highest Jat density areas, according to Thakur Deshraj in the earstwhile Jaipur state were – Malpura, Sambhar, Shekhawati, Torawati, Khetri and Sikar. 
सांभर झील शाकंभरी देवी के नाम पर प्रसिद्ध है. यहां शाकंभरी का प्राचीन मंदिर भी है. १२ वीं शती के अंतिम चरण में सांभर के प्रदेश में चौहानों का राज्य था. अर्णोराज चुअहान यहां के प्रतापी राजा थे. इनकी रानी देवलदेवी गुजरात के राजा कुमारपाल की बहिन थी. एक छोटी सी बात पर रुष्ट होकर अर्णोराज पर आक्रमण कर दिया. जिसके परिणाम स्वरूप अर्णोराज को कैद कर लिया. किन्तु उनके मंत्री उदयमहता और देवलदेवी के प्रयत्न से वे छूट गये और अंत में शाकंभरी नरेश ने अपनी कन्या मीनलकुमारी का विवाह कुमरपाल के साथ कर दिया. 
Early Chauhans of Shakambhari
In the tenth century A.D. when Pratiharas became weak the Chahamanas established its kingdom in Sambhar area. The Harsh Inscription of s.v.1030 (973) tells us that they were rulers of the area. Shakambhari was their capital, and hence this dynasty was actually called Chahamanas dynasty of Sakambhari. The early branch of Chauhans ruled in Lat Pradesh and second branch was in Shakambhari.
1.Vasudeva (551 A.D.) : The earliest ruler of the Sapadalaksha line mentioned in our records is Vasudeva. He was, in some way, connected with the Salt Lake of Sambhar. According to the mythical account in the fourth canto of the Prithwirajavijaya, he received the gift of the Salt Lake of Sambhar from a Vidyadhara :whom he had befriended. In the Bijolia inscription, the lake is said to have been born of him.  The Prabandhakosa genealogy puts him in V. 608 or 551 A.D. As the number of generations, however, which scparated him from Vigraharaja II (V. 1030), the first ruler of Sambhar with a definite date, is unknown, it is not easy to decide whether the date V. 608 for Vasudeva’s reign is right. Dr. D.R. Bhandarkar would, on the basis of coin of Vasudeva Bahman, identified by him with this ruler (Vasudeva Chahamana), put him in V. 627 A.D. This view is untenable has been shown above.  Dasharatha Sharma  referes Prithvirajavijaya and writes that the description there shows that Vasudeva passed the night in the temple of Sakambhari. (See the last verse of Canto IV.) Early in the morning, he started from there for his capital which he reached a little after sunrise. So naturally Vasudeva's capital could not have been at a hard day's ride from Sambhar, at least according to the Prithvirajavijaya.
2. Samanta. In Vasudeva's family was born Samanta who is described in the Bijolia inscription as a Brahmana noble or Ananta (the tract near Harsha in Shekhawati) born in the Vatsa gotra at Ahichchhatrapura.  It is not now easy to identify the town. But, as already pointed out above, it might once have been the capital of the Ananta Province.  Samanta's exact date is uncertain. But as he precrded Guvaka I, a contemporary of Pratihara ruler Ngabhatta II (V. 872) by six generations, his reign might be assumed to have ended about V. 725. The same date will also be arrived at, if we assign 25 years for each reign and count backwards from Vigraharaja II (V.1030)
3. Naradeva : The next ruler was Naradeva who ruled at Purnatalla, most probably the village Puntala in the Jodhpur state. He is mentioned by the name Nrpa in the Bijolia inscription  and as Naradeva in Hammiramahakavya, the Sujanacharita, and the Prabandhakosha genealogy. Dr. R.CBhandarkar and Mr.Akshaya Keerty Vyasa put one Puranatalla as successor of Samanta.  But actually Purnatalla of the Bijolia inscription, wherein alone the name is mentioned, as the name of a person but of a locality where Nripa or Naradeva flourished. (V.12:Purntalle Nripastatah) The well known Jaina scholar Hemachandra belonged to Purnatalla-gachchha, i.e. branch which had its origin at Purnatalla or Puntalla in Jodhpur state. The real succession of the next four rulers after Naradeva, who are no more than mere names to us, can be tabulated as follows:
- 4. Jayaraja, son of Samanta > 5. Vigrharaja I > 6. Chandraraja I > 7. Gopendraraja or Gopendraka
8. Durlabharaja I (788 AD): Gopendraka’s son Durlabharaja I achieved greater fame than his immediate predecessor. According to the prithvirajavijaya, he bathed his sword at the confluence of the Gnga and the Ocean and enjoyed the Gauda land. As his son Guvaka-I was an honoured courtier of the- Imperial Pratihara Nagabhatta II.
9. Guvaka-I (815 AD): Also known as Govindaraja, He was the samanta of Nagabhata II and according to Nagavaloka he had been honoured in the court of Nagabhata.It is learned from Prithvirajavijaya that Guvaka had married his sister Kalavati with king Nagabhata II of Kannauj. According to Gwalior inscription Guvaka had fought against the Muslims on behalf of Nagabhata, and had defeated Sultan Beg Varisa.
10. Chandraraj II : After Guvaka I, his son Chandraraj II, grandson Guvaka II and grand son-in-law Chandana ruled over his kingdom. Chandana had defeated and killed Tomara king Rudradeva. At that time Tomara dynasty ruled over Delhi. This indicates that after Rudradeva, Chahamana dynasty established its authority over Delhi.
11. Guvaka II (880 AD) :
12. Chandana : The successor of Guvaka II was Chandana who was very illustrious. He killed a Tomar Raja named Rudrena. (Harsha Inscription, verse-14).
13. Vakapatiraj I: Chandana was succeeded by his son Vakapatiraj I and started opposing the Pratihara dynasty i.e. Mahipala I. Vakapatiraj was a Shaiva and had built a Siva temple in Pushkar. The Harsh inscription confirms that Harsha Nagari was central place for the later Chauhan rulers. Verse 16 reveals that a representative of Pratiharas named Tantrapala came to see Vakpati, who was present at Anantagochar. Dr Dasharath Sharma considers Anantagochar as the area around Harshagiri.
14. Singhraja': The maharajadhiraja : Vakapatiraj was succeeded by his son Singhraj :the first maharajadhiraja. He was the first of the Chahamana dynasty who adopted the title of maharajadhiraja. This also indicates that he had declared himself independent from the Pratihara dynasty. Harsha inscription indicates that Singhraj had defeated Tomara leader Salban and had made many princes and samantas as his prisoner. Pratihara king had come to Singhraj for the release of the said provinces and samantas. Singhraj was a very generous and charitable man. He had donated several villages to the temple of Harshnath.
15. Vigraharaj II: Singhraj was succeeded by his son Vigraharaj. He was a very powerful ruler. He had attacked king Mookerjee I of Chalukya dynasty and after conquering Sarasvat Mandala and later he had extended his empire up to river Narmada. But according to `Hamir mahakavya` of Nayachandra, Suri Vigraharaj had killed Moolaraj. This does appear to be correct. However, it is certain that Vigraharaj had built a temple of Ashapuri Devi in Bhriguka at the bank of river Narmada.
16. Durlabhraj II (999 AD): After the death of Vigraharaj his younger brother Durlabhraj ascended the throne and he defeated Chahamanas of Naddul branch and incorporated Rasoshittan Mandal into his empire. At the end of 10th century Durlabharaja was a powerful Chauhan ruler. It is said that his empire extended to Jaipur in the east, Jodhpur in the west, Sikar in the north and Ajmer in the south.
17. Govindaraj II: Durlabhraj II was succeeded by his son Govindaraj II. During his reign the attack of Mahmud Ghaznavi had started and they were getting prominence. He suffered not much loss.
18. Vakapati II: After him two other kings, Vakapati II and Viryarama came.
20. Chamundaraj : After Viryarama three other rulers, Chamundaraj, Singhatdushala and Durlabhraj III came one by one.
21. Durlabharaj III: He was killed while fighting against the mlechchas. Other kings who came after him were Vir Singh and Vigraharaj III.
Chauhans of Ajmer
24. Ajairaj II: Prithviraj I was succeeded by his son Ajairaj II who was a famous ruler of his time. He founded Ajmer and also attacked Malava captured Sulhana and made the senapati of Parmar king Naravarman as his prisoner. He killed rulers Chachig, Sindhul and Yashoraj.
25. Arnoraj : Ajairaj was succeeded by his son Arnoraj before 1133 AD. Jaisingh Siddhraj, Chalukya ruler, attacked Arnoraj but later he returned the kingdom of Arnoraj and married his daughter Kanchandevi with him. Arnoraj's second wife was Sidhawa ,daughter of Marwar ruler of Avichi province. Jaisingh Siddharaj's son also fought against Arnoraj. Arnoraj entered into a treaty with king Ballal of Ujjain and attacked Siddharaj's son Kumarpal. Arnoraj had also conquered the king of Kushavarna and had successfully faced the attack of the Muslims. Near about 1155 A.D.
26. Jugdeva :Arnoraj's son Jugdeva killed his father and ascended the throne. But only after a few days his younger brother Vigraharaja IV usurped the throne from him. Kanchanadevi's son was Someshwar and Sudhawa had three sons, whose elder son Jagdev killed Arnoraj. This murder was prior to year 1153 AD. Jagdev ruled for a short period who was dethroned by Vigraharaj IV. 
27. Vigraharaj IV (1159 AD) : He ruled from 1153 to 1163 A.D. He was a powerful king and is also known as Bisaldeva. He conquered Delhi from the kings of Tomar dynasty and attacked Chalukya king Kumarpala and to avenge his father's defeat, he destroyed the areas of Pallika and Naddul. Narhar Inscription of Vigraharaja IV of s.v. 1215 (1159 AD) tells us that Vigraharaj IV ruled over wide areas of Shekhawati.
28.Amarangeya: After the death of Bisaldeva his son Amarangeya succeeded him as a king. But he died at an early age and was succeeded by Prithviraj II.
30. Someshwara: After the death of Prithviraj II, his uncle Someshwara succeeded him as a king. He was the son of Arnoraj and his mother Kanchandevi was a princess of Chalukya dynasty. Someshwara had extended his empire to Gwalior, Kannauj and to Hissar and Sarhind in the west.
31. Prithviraj III (1166-1192 CE): He was the son of Someshwara and ascended the throne at the age of 15 years. Because of his minor age, his mother Karpuradevi looked after the administration of the state for one year. During this period Nagas, who had many small states, organized and rebelled against Chauhan dynasty. Rani Karpuri Devi sent her faithful minister Bhuwanikamal and suppressed the Nagas. Later on we do not hear about Nagas in history. 
Prithviraja III defeated the Afghan ruler Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191 CE. Ghori attacked for a second time next year, and Prithviraja III was defeated and slain at the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192 CE. After his defeat Delhi came under the control of Muslim rulers.
Jat Rulers at Sambhar
Several Jat clans are associated with Sambhar as rulers. Some of them are:
Sir Henry Eliot has mentioned that after defeat of Jat Raja Sahasi Rai II, Raja Matta of Shivistan attacked Alore (the capital of Chach) with brother of Raja of Kannauj and his army. The Jat Raja Ranmal was the ruler of Kannauj at that time. He was famous as Rana. After that the other Jat rulers were eliminated except the Balharas. The Balharas were strong rulers from Khambhat to Sambhar. There are seven tanks of Balharas, Banka tank in the name of Banka Balhara and Lalani tank in name of Lalaji. 
Bhukar is a Sanskrit word comprising of 'Bhu' (land) and 'Kar' (tax), which means land-tax. Bhukars were initially settled at Sambhar in Rajasthan. They were the rulers in this area and their ruling method was that of 'Bhomia-chor'. Later on they started collecting tax on land.
A group of Chahuman descendents came to Sambhar in 9th century. The newly formed Chauhans forced them to move away from this area. Earlier Bhukars and Chauhans were same prior to their consecration of new Hindu religion at Mount Abu. Bhukar people came to Sambhar under the leadership of two brothers Khem Singh and Som Singh. Khem Singh founded the town named 'Hiras' and started increasing his influence in the area. Som Singh went to Jangladesh and founded town named 'Bhukaredi'. After many generations some of these people moved towards Panipat in Haryana.
After the fall of Chauhans at Ajmer and Delhi one of Bhukar warriors named Uday Singh was appointed as 'Bakshi'. Uday Singh was expert in land-tax collection. Uday Singh's son Kaula Singh was appointed Tehsildar of Ajmer.
Dudi Jats had ruled in Rajasthan. The Dudis are considered to be originated from Pushkar in Ajmer and ruled Didwana, Sambhar Lake, Nagaur area for 30 generations before the rule of Muslims and Rajputs. Raja Dharmpal Dudi ruled Didwana 25 generations ago in Dudi Nagavansh. Dudis founded the town Didwana in Nagaur district of Rajasthan and it was their capital. Dudis also founded Dhundhar and Dudiya Khera towns in Jaipur region. There are number of villages of Dudis in Nagaur, Bikaner, Barmer, Jaisalmer, Hanumangarh and Chittorgarh in Rajasthan. After the Jat kingdom of Rajasthan was taken over by the Rajputs, Some Dudis moved to Haryana and settled in villages around Bhiwani, Jhajjar and Hisar districts.
Some Dudi Jats came to village Kusumdesar, according to local tradition, from Garh Sambhar. Their kuldevi is at the Randesar Pahadi. Dudi families spread from this village to villages Sitsar (200), Maihnsar (1), Chhabri Meethi (1), Hukasar (1), Rajiasar (2), Bahmani (7), Ratangarh (2), Khadyalo, Shehla (1) and Surjansar in Churu district and Bhodesar (10) in Sikar district in Rajasthan.
Seria (सेरिया) known as the Dada gaam of Ahlawat Gotra and established by Dada Shera. This Village is situated in District Jhajjar (Haryana) at a Distance of 14 km from Jhajjar city and 28 km from Rohtak city. Dada Shera were 4 brothers and he is the eldest one in all. The Village was established 1100 years back when some of the families from Dadrela (Jaisalmer – Rajasthan) came here by following the path of Gadkot (Sambhar Lake) to Kala Bad Aala (Bhiwani – Rajasthan) to Seria. They all came from the "Dadrela" village in "Jangladesh" near Sambhar Lake near Tonk District of Rajasthan...
Jhanjhar Jats have been associated with jat folk-deity Tejaji. Tejaji was married in Jhanjhar gotra jats of Paner (पनेर) village in Ajmer district in Rajasthan. Tejaji was married to Pemal, daughter of Raimal of Jhanjhar (झांझर) gotra of Paner. Raimal was the chieftain of this village and popularly known as Mehtaji or Muthaji. The historical Paner village is now abondoned and the present Paner village is situated 1 km south of it.
There is a temple of Tejaji at Paner in which three statues are placed. People believe that a statue of Tejaji came out from the ground on its own at site of Raimal's house. The magical powers of Tejaji had spread all around. Maharaja Abhay Singh of Jodhpur wanted to shift this statue to to his state Jodhpur. He got it dug out the statue for many days but could not take out this. It is believed that Maharaja Jodhpur at last saw Tejaji in dream who guided him that statue can not be taken out from here but it can be installed at boarder of Nagaur district. Later Jodhpur Maharaja got constructed a temple of Tejaji at Parbatsar and installed a statue of Tejaji here. The temple of Paner bears inscription of samvat 1885 and name of Pithaji. The pooja of this temple is done by a kumhar and not by brahman. This temple is situated near famous Sambhar lake. There is a big pond here built by Jhanjhar gotra Jats known as Jinjardab or Jhanjhardab.
Sambhar Inscription of 12-13 th century
|Sambhar Inscription of 12-13 th century |
डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा  इस शिलालेख के बारे में लिखते हैं कि यह लेख सांभर में 'शाह का कुवा' नामक कुवे पर लगा हुआ था. अब यह जोधपुर संग्रहालय में रखा है. इसमें २८ श्लोकबद्ध पंक्तियाँ हैं जिनमें से कुछ नष्ट हो गयी हैं. इसका समय अज्ञात है परन्तु जयसिंह के समय से अनुमान किया जाता है कि यह 12 वीं शताब्दी के अंतिम चरण अथवा 13 वीं शताब्दी ई. के प्रथम चरण का हो सकता है. इस लेख से सोलंकी मूलराज द्वारा अन्हिलवाडा राज्य के संस्थापना का पता चलता है. इससे मूलराज का समय वि. 998 (941 ई.) तक चला जाता है. लेख में प्रारंभ में सरस्वती तथा अन्य देवताओं की स्तुति की गयी है. और उसके पश्चात् तीन पद्यों में चालुक्य वंश की प्रशंसा की गयी है. इसमें 8वें पद्य से 11वें पद्य तक मूलदेव, चामुंडराज, वल्लभराज, दुर्लभराज, भीमदेव, कर्णदेव एवं जयसिंह का परिचय मिलता है. इसमें शाकम्भरी, डूंगरसीह, नगराजपुत्र आदि नामों का उल्लेख मिलाता है. इसका कुछ अंश साथ के बाक्स में हैं :
Sambhar Salt Lake
Sambhar Salt Lake, India's largest salt lake, sits 96 km south west of the city of Jaipur (Northwest India) and 64 km north east of Ajmer along the National highway 8 in Rajasthan.
The lake is actually an extensive saline wetland, with water depths fluctuating from just a few centimeters as 60 cm (1 inch = 2.54 centimeters) during the dry season to about 3 meters (10 ft) after the monsoon season. It occupies an area of 190 to 230 square kilometers, based on the season. It is an elliptically shaped lake 35.5 km long with a breadth varying between 3 km and 11 km. It is located in Nagaur and Jaipur districts and it also borders the Ajmer district. The circumference of the lake is 96 km, surrounded on all sides by the Aravali hiils.
The Sambhar lake basin is divided by a 5.1 km long dam made of sand stone. After salt water reaches a certain concentration, it will be released from the west side to the eastern side by lifting dam gates. To the east of the dam are salt evaporation ponds where salt has been farmed for a thousand years. This eastern area is 80 km². and comprises salt reservoirs, canals and salt pans separated by narrow widges. To the east of the dam is a railroad, built by the British (before India’s independence) to provide access from Sambhar Lake City to the salt works.
Nearest airport is Sanganer and nearest railway station is Sambhar. The water is fed to lake from streams from rivers Mendha, Runpangarh, Khandel and Karian. Mendha and Rupangarh are main streams. Mendha flows from south to north and Rupangarh flows from north to south.
Temperature reaches 40 Celsius in summer and stays about 11 Celsius in winter.
It is India's largest saline lake and made the Rajasthan, the third largest salt producing state in India. It produces 196,000 tonnes of clean Salt every year, which equals 8.7% of India's Salt production. Its salt production is done by evaporation process of brine and is majorly managed by Shambar Salts Ltd.(SSL), a joint venture of the Hindustan Salts Ltd. and the state government. SSL owns 3% of the eastern lake.
There are 38 clusters of villages surrounding the lake and the major settlements are Sambhar, Gudha, Jabdinagar, Nawa, Jhak, Korsina, Jhapok, Kanseda, Kuni, Tyoda, Govindi, Nandha, Sinodiya, Arwik ki Dhani, Khanadja, Khakharki, Kerwa ki Dhani, Rajas, Jalwali ki Dhani, Devaji ki Dhani, Aau, Dudna and Ulana.
Sambhar has been designated as a Ramsar site (recognized wetland of international importance) because the wetland is a key wintering area for tens of thousands of flamingos and other birds that migrate from northern Asia. The specialized algae and bacteria growing in the lake provide striking water colours and support the lake ecology that, in turn, sustains the migrating waterfowl.
As of 2001 India census, Sambhar had a population of 22,293. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Sambhar has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 74%, and female literacy is 53%. In Sambhar, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age.
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Sambhar
- Encyclopaedia of Jainism, Volume-1 By Indo-European Jain Research Foundation p.5539
- Dr. Raghavendra Singh Manohar:Rajasthan Ke Prachin Nagar Aur Kasbe, 2010,p. 78
- Dr. Raghavendra Singh Manohar:Rajasthan Ke Prachin Nagar Aur Kasbe, 2010,p. 80
- Dr. Raghavendra Singh Manohar:Rajasthan Ke Prachin Nagar Aur Kasbe, 2010,p. 80
- James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races,pp.111
- Dharma Dhiraj, father of Bisaladeva, must have been the defender on this occasion.
- Sambhar Lake (Sambhar)
- Dalip Singh Ahlawat: Yadu athawa Jadu, Jadau vansh, Jat Samaj, July 1995, p. 11
- Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992.
- Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihasa (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992.
- विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर: ऐतिहासिक स्थानावली, वैज्ञानिक तथा तकनीकी शब्दावली आयोग, राजस्थान हिन्दी ग्रन्थ अकादमी, जयपुर , p. 893
- शाकम्भरीराजनि जनीव ततोपि विष्णो: Here Vishnu=Vasudeva
- Chapter 1, Early Chauan Dynasties by Dasharath Sharma
- "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, pp. 11-13
- See Chapter-1
- Verse 12
- EI, XXVI, p.97 12
- रतन लाल मिश्र:शेखावाटी का नवीन इतिहास, मंडावा, १९९८, पृ.39
- K.Devi Singh Mandawa:Samrat Prithviraj Chauhan,2007, pp.52-53
- Kishori Lal Faujdar: Rajasthan ke Madhyakalin Jat-vansh, Jat Samaj, Agra, June 2001.
- Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 282
- डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा: 'राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत', 1983, पृ.120
- डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा: 'राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत', 1983, पृ. 120
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