Samma

From Jatland Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Genealogy of Samma

Samma (Hindi: सम्मा, Sindhi: سمو, Urdu: سما) is a Muslim Jat clan found in Pakistan. Samma are a Baloch tribe settled in the provinces of Sindh, Balochistan and Punjab of Pakistan. They are part of the larger Jamot tribe and speak the Sindhi, Balochi, and Seraiki. Jam (Urdu: جام) means Sardar, Nawab or King. It is not a tribe, but the title given to the leading Royal family of a Jamot tribe or state.

Origin

There are various theories about the origins of Samma tribe.

  • Some believe they were descendants of Sam (Shem), the eldest of the three surviving sons of the prophet Nuh (Noah).
  • According to others they were the descendants of Sam, the son of Umar, son of Hashim, son of Abu Lahab, an uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
  • Yet others believe Sam was the son of Umar, son of Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl, son of Abu Jahl, the tormentor of Islamic prophet Muhammad.
  • Some argue that as the Samma rulers used the title of Jam, then Sammas are the descendants of Jamshid, the legendary king of Persia who could see in his wine cup (Jām-e Jam).
  • Another theory makes them to be sons of Sames of Sophene. Sames or Samos I was the founder of the Kingdom of Sophene and the city of Samosata first mentioned by Eratosthenes in 245 BC. Ziaelas of Bithynia took refuge at the court of Satrap (Governor) Sames in Samosata in 260 BC. He was succeeded by his son Arsames I. Sama tribe migrated from Samosata and built a city of Samasata, Sind, Pakistan.
  • Another theory makes them out to be Jadaun or Yaduvanshi Rajputs.

History

Between 1351-1551 C.E. the Samma Dynasty ruled in Sindh and parts of Punjab region and Balochistan, with their capital at Thatta. The most famous of these rulers was Jam Nizamuddin. The Samma dynasty left its mark in Sindh and Balochistan by building magnificent structures including the necropolis of kings and royalties in Thatta and many more ruins.

Bhim Singh Dahiya [1] mentions that After these successive defeats came the campaigns of Mohd.Bin Kasim who succeeded where others had failed and in his success the share of the local population of Buddhist Jats and Mers was significant. Too much oppression breeds revolt and disloyalty.

However, after the conquerors' first acquisition, we find that the Arabs were also indifferent about retaining the goodwill of their allies. They imposed the same conditions upon the Jats as were imposed by the earlier Brahmana rulers. 51 The result was the same. When these insults also crossed the limits of tolerance, the Sumra or Samra clan of the Jats overthrown the Muslims and re-established their kingdoms. These Samra are still existing and according to Ain-i-Akbari 52 36 kings of Sumra clan ruled for 500 years when they were superseded by another Jat clan, the Sammas. Another authority mentions the period as 550 years.53 At first they were nominal tributaries to the Abbasid Khaliphs and enjoyed full independence in internal affairs. In 1351 A.D. the Sammas obtained power, thus ending the rule of Sumras. But in 1521 A.D. the Sammas were themselves driven out from power. The Sammas used to take the title of Jam and in later period many Sammas as well as Sumras became Muslims and their genealogy was concocted (in the manner of Rajput genealogy), connecting them with Hazrat Mohd. and others from Arabia. But Tarikh-i-Tahiri expressly mentions them as Hindus.


48. ihid.,p.425.

49. See Note III at the end of this section.

50. ibid., Vol. I, p. 432.

51. ibid., p. 435.

Samma tribe Clans

  • Abro - Abro (Urdu: ابڑو ) is a Samma tribe, settled in Balochistan as well as the Sindh province of Pakistan. During the rule of Kalhora Dynasty in Sindh (1701 to 1783 CE) the Abro and Airi tribe were the ruling tribes of Kachhi (Bhag). Mian Sháh Alí better known as Sháhal Muhammad, the Kalhora king, gave important jobs to the Abro tribe in the state and divided it among his children and brothers. He himself selected his residence in the village of Habibani. Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro started his career from this small village with the support of the Abro tribe who remained a powerful force behind him. Sardar Khabar Abro, was the first person to enrol as his follower. This small village became the centre for learning for the Mehdvis.
  • Buriro - The Burdha (Urdu:برڑو or برہ) clan living in the Punjab speak the Saraiki language and are well aware of there culture, traditions and are highly educated vast majority is doctors, engineers and lawyers, in Sindh and Balochistan people from this tribe are also spell it as Burriro instead of Burdha.
  • Chutta - Chutta (Urdu:چھٹو) is a Samma tribe settled in Balochistan and Sindh provinces of Pakistan. The Chief of the tribe is Sardar Saleh Bhootani (chief minister of Balochistan province). They were rulers of Dureji until Bagbana (Khuzdar) during the samma dynasty.
  • Jadeja - Jadeja (Urdu:جاڑيجو) is the name of a major clan of Rajputs. After the demise of the Samma dynasty the Nawab migrated along with his brothers and tribal members leaving their once thriving land of Nagar-Samma to parts of India and settled in Gujarat. A large village in Gujrat is now settled by the descendants of the 4 tribal leaders who were also blood brothers. One of the brothers is recorded to have migrated back to Sindh and settled the lands on the outskirts of Thatta known as Sikhaat - famous for its rose farms. The village in Gujarat known also Nagar-Samma consists of many thousand of acres of cultivatable and non cultivatable land an accurate size is not known. All these tribes are part of Sindh.
  • Junejo - Junejo (Urdu:جونیجو) is the name of a Samma tribe in Sindh, and in some parts of India mostly in Rajasthan. Junejo are also known as Jam in some circles. They are mostly involved in agriculture-related industries and the political arena. Junejos were the descendants of Jam Juno, brother of Jam Tamachi also an avid lover of Noori (Sindhi folklore, see Noori Jam Tamachi) who became King of Sindh after Jam Tamachi. Jam Tamachi and Jam Juno fought and those who were in favour (sons and followers alike) of Jam Juno came to be known as Junejo. Junejo literally means Sons of Juno; Jo means 'of' in Sindhi and June refers to 'Jam Juno' meaning descendants of Jam Juno, they belonged originally to dadu, thatta and badin side. Jam Sunjar was king of Sindh and his direct family history connects to Junejo tribe.
  • Jokhio - Jokhio, Jokhia or Jokhiya (Urdu:جوکھيو) is the Samma tribe settled in Sindh and Balochistan, Pakistan. Chaukhandi tombs (چوکنڈی) are attributed to Jokhio tribes and were built between 15th and 18th centuries, situated 29 km east of Karachi on N-5 National Highway near Landhi Town. Chaukhandi cemetery, consisting of names or Quranic Verse. Some of the Jams who were named were said to belong to the Jokhio tribe still resident in the area.and the 1st compiler Mr, Ali Muhammad Jokhio of Jokhio History
  • Unar - The Unar (Urdu:انر) are a clan of the Samma tribe settled in Sindh, Pakistan. According to The News International, the tribe is regarded "as the highest tribe or 'elder brother' of all the Samat tribes of Sindh". The clan traces its lineage back to the 14th century Jam Unar, the founder and first ruler of the Samma Dynasty. As of 2009, the current chieftain is Jam Tamachi, a descendant of the ruler of the same name. [2]
  • Simair - The simair is a small samma tribe having villages in pano aqil taluka of Sukkur district, the people belonging to this tribe are educated, religious and mostly practice agriculture. The tribe is known to have resisted against the British, who punished them by forcibily taking away their lands from them.

Distribution in Pakistan

According to 1911 census the Samma were the principal Muslim Jat clan in Bahawalpur State with population of Samma (1,072) . [3]

Notable persons

References

  1. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Harsha Vardhana : Linkage and Identity,p.217
  2. Tamachi on politics, Sindh and the past, February 22, 2009, The News International
  3. Census Of India 1911 Volume xiv Punjab Part 2 by Pandit Narikishan Kaul

Back to Gotras