Bhagat Singh Sandhu

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Shaheed Bhagat Singh Sandhu
Shaheed Bhagat Singh Sandhu

Shaheed Bhagat Singh Sandhu (September 28,[1] 1907 - March 23, 1931) was A freedom fighter, considered to be one of the most famous revolutionaries Of the Indian Independence Movement. For this reason, he is often referred to as Shaheed-i-Azam Bhagat Singh (the word shaheed means "martyr"). He is also believed by many to be one of the earliest Marxists in India.[2] He was one of the leaders and founders of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA).

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Revolutionary Bhagat Singh

Born in a family which had been involved in revolutionary activities against the British Raj in India, Bhagat Singh, as a teenager, had studied European Revolutionary Movements and was attracted to anarchism and communism.[3] He became involved in numerous revolutionary organizations. He quickly rose in the ranks of the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) and became one of its leaders, converting it into the HSRA. Singh gained wide spread support when he underwent a 63 day fast in jail, demanding equal rights for Indian and British political prisoners. He was hanged for shooting a police officer in response to the killing of veteran social activist Lala Lajpat Rai. His legacy prompted youth in India to begin fight for Indian independence and also increased the pace of the rise of socialism in India.[4] He is a very popular public figure in Pakistan as well.[5] Recently, to honour the revolutionary, a busy round-about has been named after him, adjacent to the Lahore central jail where Bhagat Singh was hanged along with Rajguru and Sukhdev, by the Britishers.[6]

Early life

Bhagat Singh (college).jpg

On September 28, 1907, Bhagat Singh was born into a Sandhu family to Sardar Kishan Singh Sandhu and Vidyavati in the Khatkar Kalan village near Banga in the present Nawanshahr district in Punjab. [7][8][9][10] of Punjab. Singh's given name of Bhagat meant "devotee". His family background was that of a patriotic Sikh family which had participated in numerous movements supporting independence of India.[11] His father was influenced by the Hindu reformist Arya Samaj. His uncles, Sardar Ajit Singh and Swaran Singh, as well as his father were both part of the Ghadr Party led by Kartar Singh Sarabha. Ajit Singh was forced to escape to Iran because of pending cases against him while Swaran Singh was hanged.[12][11]

As a child, he was deeply affected by the Jalianwala Bagh Massacre that took place in Punjab in 1919.[12] When Mahatma Gandhi started the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920, he became an active participant at the age of 13. He had great hopes that Gandhi would bring freedom in India. But he was disappointed when Gandhi called off this movement following the Chauri Chaura riot in 1922. At this point he had openly defied the British and had followed Gandhi's wishes by burning his government-school books and any British-imported clothing. In 1923, Bhagat famously won an essay competition set by the Punjab Hindi Sahitya Sammelan. This grabbed the attention of members of the Punjab Hindi Sahitya Sammelan including its General Secretary Professor Bhim Sen Vidyalankar. At this age, he quoted famous Punjabi literature and discussed the Problems of the Punjab. He read a lot of poetry and literature which was written by Punjabi writers and his favourite poet was an Indian freedom fighter Allama Iqbal from Sialkot.[13]

Statue of Sardar Bhagat Singh at his ancestral village Khatkar Kalan, Punjab

In his teenage years, Bhagat Singh started studying at the National College in Lahore,[12] but ran away from home to escape early marriage, and became a member of the organization Naujawan Bharat Sabha (Translated to 'Youth Society of India').[12] In the Naujawan Bharat Sabha, Singh and his fellow revolutionaries grew popular amongst the youth. He also joined the Hindustan Republican Association at the request of Professor Vidyalankar, which was then headed by Ram Prasad Bismil and Shahid Ashfaqallah Khan.[12] It is believed that he had knowledge of the Kakori Train Robbery. He wrote for and edited Urdu and Punjabi newspapers published from Amritsar.[12] In September 1928, a meeting of various revolutionaries from across India was called at Delhi under the banner of the Kirti Kissan Party. Bhagat Singh was the secretary of the meet. His later revolutionary activities were carried out as a leader of this association. The capture and hanging of the main HRA Leaders also allowed him and Sukhdev to be quickly promoted to higher ranks in the party.[11]

Postal stamp on Bhagat Singh

Bhagat Singh was hanged with two other revolutionaries - Sukhdev and Rajguru - March 23, 1931 for their involvement in what came to be known as the Lahore Conspiracy Case.

Postal stamp

शहीद भगत सिंह के नाम पर पाक का लाहौर चौक

लाहौर -पाकिस्तान ने लाहौर के शादमन चौक का नाम बदलकर शहीदे आजम भगत सिंह के नाम पर कर दिया है। इस चौक के पास कभी लाहौर की सेंट्रल जेल होती थी। वहीं 23 मार्च 1931 को भगत सिंह, राजगुरु और सुखदेव को फांसी दी गई थी। साल 1961 में इस जेल को ध्वस्त कर दिया गया। वहां शादमन कालोनी बनाई गई। शादमन चौक पर हर साल 23 मार्च को दोनों देशों के लोग यहां मोमबत्ती रैली निकालते हैं। भारत-पाकिस्तान दोस्ती मंच से जुड़े लोगों और भगत सिंह के परिजनों ने इस चौक का नाम बदले जाने का स्वागत किया है। सन्दर्भ - भास्कर न्यूज नेटवर्क, 1 अक्टूबर 2012 , http://www.bhaskar.com/article/CHH-266645-3861506.html

Photo Gallery

References

  1. Tribune Chandigarh In memory of Bhagat Singh
  2. Communist Party of India (Marxist)
  3. Revolutionary Democracy IBhagat Singh and the Revolutionary Movement
  4. Tribune India What if Bhagat Singh had lived
  5. BBC Hindi - विदेश - पाकिस्तान का वो हिंदुस्तानी क्रांतिकारी 'हीरो' | शुक्रवार, 28 सितंबर, 2012 को 19:20 IST तक के समाचार
  6. लाहौर में चौक शहीद भगत सिंह के नाम पर - दैनिक भास्कर
  7. http://nawanshahr.nic.in/html/freedom.htm#khatkar
  8. Jang: Pakistan's Number One News Source
  9. Bhagat Singh Biography
  10. Martyrdom of Shaheed Bhagat Singh
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Bharat Desam Biographies Bhagat Signh
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 Martyrdom of Sardar Bhagat Singh by Jyotsna Kamat. Cited by University of California Berkely Library on South Asian History
  13. Bhagat Singh Documents Problems of the Punjab

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