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Map of Scandinavia

Scandinavia is a region in northern Europe that includes Denmark, Norway and Sweden, though Finland is often considered a Scandinavian country in common English usage, with Iceland and the Faroe Islands sometimes also included. It is named after the province of Scania in southern Sweden. Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region in Northern Europe consisting of the Scandinavian and Jutland peninsulas and the islands inbetween.Scandinavia and Jutland were founded by Asiagh Jats and they were known as Asii at that time.

Mahabharata Shalya Parva section 45

Kartikeya (कार्तिकेय) was son of Shiva and the brother of Ganesha. He is also known as Skanda. Skanda is believed to give name to Scandinavia. Mahabharata Shalya Parva section 45 describes about all the gods and combatants who came to the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo. This list includes not only Jat god but also number of combatants of various Jat clans. [1] This has been illustrated in following shlokas in the online edition of Mahabharata in Sanskrit alongwith Devanagari as under:

अक्षसंतर्जनॊ राजन कुनदीकस तमॊ ऽभरकृत akṣasaṃtarjano rājan kunadīkas tamo 'bhrakṛt [2]
एकाक्षॊ द्वादशाक्षश च तदैवैक जटः परभुः ekākṣo dvādaśākṣaś ca tathaivaika jaṭaḥ prabhuḥ [3]

Translation- O Rajan! Akshaḥ, santarjana, kundīka, tamonnakrata, ekāksha, dwādashāksha and a 'Jat' the chief lord offered to Swami Kartikeya.

Historical facts

Migration of Jats to Scandinavia

Thakur Deshraj has mentioned in his book on History of Jats 'Jat Itihas (Hindi) (1934) that the country Assyria gets its name from Asiagh gotra Jats. The origin of word Asiagh is from Sanskrit word ‘Asi’ meaning sword. According to Kautilya the people who depended on ‘Asi’ (sword) for their living were known as Asiagh. The Asiaghs moved from Asirgarh in Malwa to Europe. Those who settled in Jangladesh were called Asiagh and those who moved to Scandinavia were known as Asi. Jats entered Scandinavia around 500 BCE and their leader was Odin. James Tod considers Odin to be derived from Buddha or Bodan. The Asi Jats founded Jutland as their homeland in Scandinavia. The religious book of Scandinavia ‘Edda’ mentions that the ancient inhabitants of Scandinavia were Jats or Jits who were Aryans known as Asi people and came to this land from Asirgarh. Asirgarh is a site of an ancient fort situated in Burhanpur district of Malwa region in Madhya Pradesh, India. Thakur Deshraj further quotes Scandinavian writer Mr Count Johnsturn who says that Scandinavians came from India. According to James Tod Scandinavia is derived from Sanskrit word ‘Skandhnabh’ (स्कन्दनाभ) which was the name of a Rishi.

The above view is further supported by Mangal Sen Jindal (1992): History of Origin of Some Clans in India (with special Reference to Jats), (ISBN 81-85431-08-6) that the people of Scandinavia were Jats and they founded Jutland as their homeland.

Mangal Sen Jindal quotes Professor Cothburn Oneal in his work “Conquests of Tamerlane” published by Avon Publications Inc. 575 Madison Avenue – New York 22. This book mentions following cities as ‘Jat Strongholds’ in Russia and near about:

1. Almalyk (Alma – Ata): Pages 97, 232

2. Bokhara: Page 125,

3. Khojend (Khokand) now Ferghana, page 125,

4. Karshi (now BekBudi): Page 125,

5. Samarkand: Pages 103, 104, 106

6. Tashkant: Pages 108, 110

7. Otrar: Page 108

Jats who were residing there in strongholds in large numbers and were a source of permanent trouble to Timur-lung settled Uzbekistan.

According to Jat historian Ram Swarup Joon, The name Scandanavia has been derived from Skandh Nabh, Todd, while quoting Triner, writes that the Angle Saxons were Shah Nagavanshi Jattias or Uties. After invading Scandanavia they founded Jutland. James Tod writes that the greatest community of Scandinavia was Shiva Vanshi Jats. The customs of Sati and Johar were common amongst them and they had brought these with them from India. The non-Jat Population of Jutland used to call these customs barbarous.

On the death of Baldeer, a Jat leader, his elder wife Nanna was allowed the right to perform Sati but his younger wife Udan was not allowed the honour.

Quoting Herodotus Todd writes that these people 'worshipped according to Indian customs and swore on their weapons. They named their capital Asigarh. It is of interest that the ancient name of Hansi in Hissar district of Haryana was also Asigarh.

They considered the sight of certain birds as a good omen. Herodotus and Strabo agree that in about 2000 BC, the Jati community lived in Jutland. They built a temple there dedicated to their Goddess Ahilya. Her abode was in the garden and a cow drew her chariot. They also built the temple Apsala. The name of their God was Oven, which meant Budha the forefather of Chandravansh.

According to Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[4], It may not be out of place to mention here, as confirmed by N.S. Chaudhary[5] on the authority of Shiva-Stotra, one of the generals of Kartikeya (Skanda) carried name "Jata (जट)". It is well known fact that in the Deva-Asura war Kartikeya (Skanda) commanded the forces of the former, and it is quite plausible to believe that the warriors (later known to Panini as Ayuddhajivi ganas), led by general called Jata, became famous as Jat in history. We have also reason to believe that Panini, when used the phrase 'Jata jhata sanghate' (denoting union or federation or confederation or binding together, etc.), took his clue from the Jata general's role in fomenting unity in the warriors against Asuras. Jata general is also believed to give name Jutland.


There is one more region named Gotland. The region is considered by some historians to be the original homeland of the Goths.[6] The island is the home of the Gutar (the Gotlanders) and sites such as Ajvide show that it has been occupied since prehistory. The Gutasaga contains legends of how the island was settled by Þieluar and populated by his descendants. It also tells that a third of the population had to emigrate and settle in southern Europe, a tradition associated with the migration of the Goths, whose name has the same origin as Gutar, the native name of the people of the island. It later tells that the Gotlanders voluntarily submitted to the king of Sweden and asserts that it is based on mutual agreements, and notes the duties and obligations of the Swedish King and Bishop in relationship to Gotland. It is therefore not only an effort to write down the history of Gotland, but also an effort to assert Gotland's independence from Sweden. [7]


Thee is one more region in Scandinavia which appears to be connected with Jats It is known as Jämtland. Jämtland or Jamtland [ˈjamtˌlanː] in Jamtlandic, is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. Jämtland was originally an autonomous farmer's republic[8], an own nation[8] with its own law, currency and parliament. 'Jämtland has gotten its name from its inhabitants - the Jamts[9]. The name can be traced back to the world's northernmost runestone, the Frösö Runestone from the 11th century, where it's found as ea(m)talant (Jamtaland). The root of Jamt (Old West Norse: 'jamti), and thus Jämtland, derives from the Proto-Germanic word stem emat- meaning persistent, efficient, enduring and hardworking[9]. The Proto-Norse prefix ea(m)ta (jamta) is genitive plural of the Jamtish people. [10]

Early Scandinavian History by Thor Heyerdahl

Thor Heyerdahl, archaeologist and historian, has studied about Scandinavia. After he saw similar petroglyphs in Qobustan area in Azerbaijan, Thor Heyerdahl began forming hypothesis that Scandinavian ancestry can be traced to the region now known as Azerbaijan. He also suggested that chief Scandinavian god Odin was actually a historical figure who came to Scandinavia from Azerbaijan.

On my first visit, I came to study the reed ships that are similar to the boats of the ancient Mediterranean. But on my second visit, I learned that the people in Azerbaijan call themselves Azeri. I remembered from my school days that we have legends in Norway woven into Norwegian history in such an intricate way that we don't know where history starts and mythology ends. But the documented history of Norway dates back more than 800 years. Traditions about the original homeland of our ancestors were recorded in the 18th century in Ireland and say that we are descendants of the land of the Aser.

But I remember from my childhood that the mythology started with the god named Odin. From Odin it took 31 generations to reach the first historic king. The record of Odin says that he came to Northern Europe from the land of Aser. I started reading these pages again and saw that this was not mythology at all, but actual history and geography.

Snorre, who recorded these stories, started by describing Europe, Asia and Africa, all with their correct names, Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea with their old Norse names, the Black Sea with the names we use today again, and the river Don with its old Greek name, Tanais. So, I realized that this has nothing to do with the gods who lived with the Thunder god Thor among the clouds.

Snorre said that the homeland of the Asers was east of the Black Sea. He said this was the land that chief Odin had, a big country. He gave the exact description: it was east of the Black Sea, south of a large mountain range on the border between Europe and Asia, and extended southward towards the land of the Turks. This had nothing to do with mythology; it was on this planet, on Earth.

Then came the most significant point. Snorre says: "At that time when Odin lived, the Romans were conquering far and wide in the region. When Odin learned that they were coming towards the land of Asers, he decided that it was best for him to take his priests, chiefs and some of his people and move to the Northern part of Europe."

It becomes clear from the above that Asiagh Jats were known as Aser in the central Asia where they founded the country Azerbaijan. It is interesting to note that ‘S’ becomes ‘Z’ in this region of Central Asia.

Sanskrit and Scandinavia

Reference -

Dr.Keshava Deva Shastri from Benares, India, president for International Congress of Religious Philosophies (San Francisco, California, 1915) stated that the forefathers of the Scandinavian people came directly from India under the leadership of Óðinn (Odinn) about 5500 years BC - He says between Ramanaya (as its influence shows) and Mahabharata (of which no trace is found here in the North).

Here below are listed some of his quoted Sanskrit words directly to be found in Icelandic and in the myths, culture and sacred texts of ásatrú (asatru): Veda (Edda); Skand nabia (Scandinavia); Asigarh (Ásgarður); Jyotirheim (Jötunheimar); Gurudham (Goðheimar); Uttragard (Útgarðar); Medhgard (Miðgarður); vala, bala (vala); Gargya (Grágás); Lokreta (Lögrétta); Baut-sthan (bautasteinn); etc.,etc.,

The following Icelandic words are claimed to have come directly from Sanskrit: Óðinn (Odinn), Huginn, Muninn, Ásgarður (Asgardur), Miðgarður (Midgardur), Grágás (Gragas), Útgarður (Utgardur), Jötunheimar (jotunheimar), Rígur (í Rígsþulu; Rigur), vala (völva; volva), Alfaðir (alfadir, Ymir, Gautur, hlautbolli, Lögrétta (Logretta), Æsir (aesir), Auðumbla (Audumbla), Ægir (Aegir), Baldur, brynja, Edda, faðir (fadir), bróðir (brodir), móðir (modir; these last ones to be found in most Indo-European languages), kvæði (kvaedi), bautasteinn, Skaði (Skadi), Skandinavía (Skandinavia), Ymir, Vani. Óðsmál (Odsmal) is meant to promote research in etymology, as we know there is a lot of Sanskrit words in Icelandic, and this tells us a lot. Óðinn (Odinn) is from Sanskrit yodhin (conqueror, warrior), Huginn and Muninn (Odin's two ravens) from Sanskrit yogin and muni, Edda from Veda, asman is hammer, Thor's hammer, Sanskrit asigarh is Ásgarður (Asgardur).

Dr. C.A.Holboe, wrote extraordinary articles in 1846-1852 on etymology and on the striking resemblance between Sanskrit and Icelandic grammar. For some reason or other this aspect of the cultural inheritance - the Eddas and the northern myths - is always left out when it comes to the educational system in Iceland. That we must remedy. Det norske Sprogs væsentligste Ordforraad, sammenlignet med Sanskrit og andre Sprog af samme Æt : bidrag til en norsk etymologisk Ordbog, Holmboe, C.A., Wien, 1852, Det odlnorske Verbum, oplyst ved Sammenligning med Sanskrit og andre Sprog af samme Æt., Holmeboe. C.A., Christiania 1848, Sanskrit og oldnorsk : en sprogsammenlignende afhandling / af C.A. Holboe, Christiania: Fabritius, 1846. And there are other thesises too on the corresponding concepts in Sanskrit and Iclandic.

Óðsmál (Odsmal) is meant to promote research in ethnology, as Grýla (Gryla) might be Gerður (Gerdur) from Skírnismál (Skirnismal in the Edda), jólasveinar (jolasveinar, yule-boys; julenisse) might be our ancestors in disguise, as they are said to steal food in Iceland. But that actually might have been prohibited food-giving to reverent ancestors.


  1. Mahabharata Shalya Parva section 45
  2. Mahabharata in Sanskrit Ch-44/53
  3. Mahabharata in Sanskrit Ch-44/54
  4. Hukum Singh Panwar(Pauria):The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations, Rohtak, 1993, p. 342 ISBN 81-85235-22-8
  5. Niranjan Singh Chaudhary, Jat Prasanottari (Hindi), Jat Hitkari Prakashan, Vrindavan, New Delhi, p. 14
  6. See Goths and Scandza for more information on this matter.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Ekerwald, Jämtarnas historia p. 124 Svaret är att Jämtland före 1178 var ett självständigt bondesamfund, "dei vart verande ein nasjon för seg sjöl", för att nu citera Halfdan Koht.. Jämtland var en bonderepublik..
  9. 9.0 9.1 Hellquist, Svensk etymologisk ordbok p. 285

Further reading

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