Shalivahan

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Shalivahan (शालिवाहन ) (c. 78–102 CE [also Shalivahana, Salivahan (सालिवाहन), Gautamiputra Satakarni) was a Jat king around second century AD, who hailed from Punjab and was an offshoot of Takshak or Taka Naga family with capital at Sialkot. James Tod has given a due consideration to it. He, very clearly, informs us- "that in early history of the Bhatti prince of Jaisalmer, when driven from Zabulistan, they dispossessed the Takas on the Indus, and established themselves in their land, the capital of which was called Salivahanpura ; and as the date of this event is given as 3008 of the Yudhishtra era, it is by no means unlikely that Salivahana or Salbhan (who was a Takshak), the conqueror of the Tuar Vikram, was of the very family dispossessed by Bhatti who compelled them to migrate to South." [1] Shalivahana is credited with the initiation of the era known as Shalivahana Shaka to celebrate his victory against Vikramaditya of Ujjayini in the year 78 A.D.

Jat connections with Shalivahana

A silver coin of the Western Satrap ruler Rudrasena I (200-222). This coin bears a date of the Saka era in the Brahmi script on the reverse: 131 Saka era, corresponding to 219 CE. 16mm, 2.2 grams.

Thakur Deshraj writes that as per records of Bhattis of Jaisalmer, Shalivahana was son of Yaduvanshi king Gaj and he came to India after second century AD. Syalkot, Sagala of Mahabharata period, was founded by Shalivahana. Maharaja Shalendra also lived in Syalkot. But there is a gap of about two centuries between periods of these two Jat rulers.[2] The descendants of Shalivahana had left Syalkot, by the time Shalendra appears, and migrated towards Lahore and Hisar. The Bhatis of Jaisalmer, Jat rulers of Nabha, Patiala, Faridkot etc. consider themselves descendants of Shalivahana. [3]

Afghanistan was part of Bharat Varsh during Mahabharata period. The wife of Dhritrashtra, Gandhari, was from this area. Sometimes there were Indian rulers and sometimes there were Iranian rulers in Afghanistan. During Chandra Gupta’s period Saubhagsen was king in Afghanistan. Jat rulers till the invasion by Mughals ruled Kandahar. After the Mughal invasion some Jats moved to India and others were converted to Muslims. Jats from Afghanistan moved to India during the rule of Shalivahan.

According to Jat historian Ram Swarup Joon, "Afghanistan was called Upguanstan, Baluchijostan both of that are Sanskrit words. Both these countries were part of India till, as late as the Mogul period. King Seth of the Ardas branch of Yayati dynasty had a son called Arh, whose son Gandhara founded the town of Gandhar, now known as Kandhar. Gandhari, mother of Duryodhana was from this town. Jats have gotras of this dynasty named Gaina, Gaindhar, Gaindhala and Gaindhu.


Maharaja Gaj founded the Ghazni city of Afghanistan. Maharaja Gaj was killed in war with Mughals. Maharaja Gaj had sent his son Shalivahan to India before war with Mughals. The present Maharawal of Jaisalmer is descecdant of Maharaja Gaj. Mahraja Jaisalmer later on got converted to Rajput. The Gajrania gotra in jats is after Maharaja Gaj.

According to the Bards of the Hala gotra, king Shalivahan, son of Gaj founded his capital at Sorath in Gujarat, where the descendants of king Krishna, brother of king Shalbahan ruled for several generations.[4]

In the tenth generation there was a powerful King named Hala. For 22 generations thereafter this country up to Nasik was ruled by this dynasty and was called Halar. The empire included Bengal, Karnataka, Gujrat, Sindh and Kashmir. This kingdom lasted from 187 Vikram to 227 Vikram. [5]

According to Thakur Deshraj there was a great king in Andhra-vansh named Hala around 69 AD. The descendants of Maharaja Hala came from south to north and settled in Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. The Jat groups of these Kshatriyas were known as Hala. [6]

Naswaria (नसवारिया) Nasiyar (नसियर) Naswariya (नसवारिया) is gotra of Jats. It originated from place named Nasik (नासिक). Samrat Shalivahana's (शालीवाहन) brother ruled at Nasik. Nasiyar (नसियर) Jat gotra started after this.[7] Naswaria (नसवारिया) Jat gotra people live in Bharatpur district in Rajasthan and Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh.

The Shalivahana era

The Shalivahana era, also known as the Saka era, is used with Hindu calendars, the Indian national calendar, and the Cambodian Buddhist calendar. Its year zero begins near the vernal equinox of 78.

The Satavahana king Shalivahana (sometimes identified as Gautamiputra Satakarni) is credited with the initiation of the era known as Shalivahana Saka to celebrate his victory against Vikramaditya of Ujjayini in the year 78.

Alternatively, it is thought that the Saka era (sometimes abbreviated to "SE" in numismatic circles) marked the victory of the Sakas over the dynasty of king Vikramāditya in Ujjain, Malwa. After this victory, the Sakas established the Western Satraps kingdom, which was to rule the region for more than three centuries.[8]

The era was also used by Javanese courts from Old Javanese times until 1633, when it was replaced by Anno Javanico, a hybrid Javanese-Islamic system.[9]

Satavahana dynasty

Satavahana Empire

Shalivahana is credited with the initiation of the era known as Shalivahana Shaka to celebrate his victory against Vikramaditya of Ujjayini in the year 78 A.D. The Vikrama Charita, a Sanskrit classic, composed in the eleventh century supports this view. But apart from this work and some popular legends, there is no concrete evidence to support this theory. However, history does record that Gautami Putra Shatakarni, of the Shatavahana dynasty defeated the powerful Nahapana, the Satrap king. The folklore of Maharashtra identifies Gautamiputra Shatakarni of the Shatavahana dynasty with Shalivahana. It is interesting to note that etymologically Shatavahana is derived from Shatavahana which in turn is derived from Shalivahana.[10]

After becoming independent around 230 BCE, Simuka, the founder of the dynasty, conquered Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Malwa and part of Madhya Pradesh. He was succeeded by his brother Kanha (or Krishna) (r. 207-189 BCE), who further extended his kingdom to the west and the south.

His successor Sātakarnī I was the sixth ruler of the Satavahana. He is said in the Puranas to have ruled for 56 years.

Satakarni defeated the Sunga dynasty of North India by wrestling Western Malwa from them, and performed several Vedic sacrifices at huge cost, including the Horse Sacrifice. He also was in conflict with the Kalinga ruler Kharavela, who mentions him in the Hathigumpha inscription. According to the Yuga Purana he conquered Kalinga following the death of Kharavela. He extended Satavahana rule over Madhya Pradesh and pushed back the Sakas from Pataliputra (he is thought to be the Yuga Purana's "Shata", an abbreviation of the full name “Shri Sata” that occurs on coins from Ujjain), where he subsequently ruled for 10 years.

By this time the dynasty was well established, with its capital at Pratishthānapura (Paithan) in Maharashtra, and its power spreading into all of South India.

According to some interpretations of the Puranas, the family belonged to the Andhra-jati and was the first Deccanese dynasty to build an empire in daksinapatha (southern region). The Satavahanas (also called Andhra and Shalivahan) rose to power in modern Maharashtra around 200 B.C. They remained in power, for about 400 years. Almost the whole of present day Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Orissa, Goa, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu were under Satavahana rule. Paithan in Maharashtra, formerly called Pratishthan, was the capital of the Satavahanas. The founder of the Satvahanas was Simuka. But the man who raised it to eminence was Satakarni I. Sri Yajna Satakarni was the last great king in this dynasty. After him, the empire began to decline.

Gautami-putra Satakarni was the most famous king of the Satvahana dynasty. He defeated the Sakas (Scythians), Yavanas (Greeks) and Pahlavas (Parthians). His empire extended up to Banavasi in the south, and included Maharashtra, Konkan, Saurashtra, Malwa, west Rajasthan and Vidharbha. His son, Vasishti-putra, ruled at Paithan on the banks of Godavari. Two other cities, Vaijayanti (in North Kanara) and Amravati (in the Guntur district), attained eminence during the Satvahana period. Vasishthi-putra Pulumavi, Vasishthi-putra Satakarni, Yadnya-shri Satakarni are some other Satavahana rulers who succeeded Gautami-putra Satakarni some lost many of their territories but the power of Satvahanas revived under Sri Yajna Satakarni, who was the last great king. After him, the empire began to decline.

The Satavahanas inaugurated the Shalivahana Shaka. Satavahanas were very able rulers. Their empire was divided into provinces called Aharas, each under an Amatya (minister). They had a large army. They were lovers of literature and architecture. Prakrit was the court language. Women took part in assemblies. The Karle caves in Maharashtra were built during this period. Some caves of Ajanta were also built during this period. The construction of 29 galleries of Ajantha Caves continued until 650 AD.

The Satavahanas

We know that after the great Mahabharata war, the Vedic Brahmanical culture began to decline on one band and tbe non-Aryan Naga Shraman culture began to revive on the other. The progeny of Takshakas, after a long struggle with the successors of Parikshita of Pandava tribe, recaptured Hastinapur and later Nagas subdued Kausal. Kashi and Magadha in the East. Similarly they moved towards west and South and established their rule at Tonk, Malwa (East and West), Vidisa, Eran and Padmavati, and also at Paithan. [11]

The first mention of the Satavahana is in the Aitareya Brahmana, dating back to the 8th century BCE mentioning them to be of Vishwamitra's lineage. In the Pūrānas and on their coins the dynasty is variously referred to as the Sātavāhanas, Sātakarnīs, Andhras and Andhrabhrityas. A reference to the Sātavāhanas by the Greek traveller Megasthenes indicates that they possessed 100,000 infantry, 1,000 elephants, and had more than 30 well built fortified towns:

Next come the Andarae (Andar, Andhra Jat clans), a still more powerful race, which possesses numerous villages, and thirty towns defended by walls and towers, and which supplies its king with an army of 100,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry, and 1,000 elephants.[12][13] (See - Jat clans as described by Megasthenes)

The Sātavāhanas ruled a large and powerful empire that withstood the onslaughts from Central Asia. Aside from their military power, their commercialism and naval activity is evidenced by establishment of Indian colonies in southeast Asia for the first time in history.

The Edicts of Ashoka mention the Sātavāhanas as feudatories of Emperor Ashoka. Fragment of the 6th Pillar Edicts of Ashoka (238 BCE), in Brahmi, sandstone. British Museum.

The Sātavāhanas began as feudatories to the Mauryan Empire. They seem to have been under the control of Emperor Ashoka, who claims they were in his domain, and that he introduced Buddhism among them:

Here in the king's domain among the Yavanas (Greeks), the Kambojas, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dhamma.[14]

The Satavahanas declared independence sometime after the death of Ashoka (232 BCE), as the Maurya Empire began to weaken.

The Andhra or Satavahana

Andhra or Satavahana was the only ruling family of South India, which ruled not only in South but also in some parts of North for some period. They are also credited to rule for the longest tenure in Indian history. According to Matsya Purana, they ruled for 460 years and according to Dr. V.A. Smith and Dr. Gopalachari there were 30 kings in this dynasty who ruled between 235 BC and 225 A.D. [15]

Etymology of the word Sātavāhana

According to Nilkant Sastri in the first half of the first millennium B.C. the process of basic change, in the nature of Indo-Aryan languages, was at work. In this period the Aryan languages were coming nearer to Dravidian and Kol (Munda or ancient Dravidian) languages and the Indo-Aryan, Dravidian and Kol languages were intermixing. Words of similar meaning or synonymous of both the languages were coming together to form new words such as ; Kol-Sāta, Sāda, Shāli means Ghora (horse), similarly the word Ghot or Ghora (horse) was derived from an unknown non-Aryan origin word Ghutra or Hotra and from the combination of these words (Shali and Hotra), the sanskrit word Shalihiotra (Ohora or horse) has been formed. [16][17]

All the three names viz Sātavāhan, Sādavahan and Sālivahan are of the same family and the words Sāt, Sād or Shāli, the prefix of these names are of Kol origin and they meant horse. Why these words were added to their family name by the Satavahanas. Cunningham has given another story- Sāta or Sāli was the name of a Yaksha, who thus acquired the title of Sātavāhana or Sālivāhana. [18]? In doing so they certainly must have followed the cultural tradition of their fore-fathers. It means there was some close relation of Satavahanas with the horse. In fact the relation of Nagas of Megalithic culture with the horse was surprisingly very close. This truth has come to light from the excavation of sites like Mahurjhari, Junapani, khapa, and Takalghat. Dr. S.B. Deo [19]has derived very interesting conclusions in the excavation-report of Mahurjhari. He annotates as such, "The association, of horse bones and ornaments and horse riding equipments with human skeletal remains, shows that this animal played an important role in the life of Mahurjhari Megalithians. It appears that they were skillful horse riders and possibly belonged to a - warrior clan, This view is further corroborated by the mode of burial of the dead warriors in megaliths of LOC III in which a dagger with an iron blade and copper hilt was found to have been placed on the chest of the person. The material equipment implies that Megalithic folks were predominantly iron-using warrior groups. The horse kits found with the horse remains implies that these folks were raiders." Such a character of Megalithians IS not different from Satavahanas. [20]

Dr. S.B. Deo on the basis of carbon C-14 dating has fixed the period of Mahuljhari findings as first millennium B.C., when this family came into power. Hence it shows that the progenitors, of this family were efficient horse riders and a great warrior clan; that is why the aforesaid prefixes have been used to their family name. This is further confirmed by the view of Jayaswal who says that indigenous Naga people used to organize themselves into guilds or republics [21] [22]whose every member was a great warrior. They were, infact, a Nation-in-Arms. The above conclusion, very clearly indicates that the people of megalithic culture and Satavahanas were of one and the same culture and they were Naga in origin. The horse not only played an important role in their lives but this was their close associate member. This importance given to this animal by the Satavahanas, was inherent; that is why they gave so much importance to this animal. It is possible that this importance may have inter-related with some historical event, lost in the long darkness of history. [23]

Chandrabhan Pandeya [24]has produced following different meanings of the word Sātavāhana [25]:

(1) According to Jain Muni Jin-Prabha Suri word Sanoti (Sat) means to donate, hence Satavahana means who donated Vahanas or vehicles.

(2) The word 'Vahana' is a Sanskrit form of" Han" or "Hapan" of Munda langauge which means son. Therefore Satavahan means son of horse. [26].

(3) According to Kankasbhai the words Vahana and Karni (of Satakarni) are synonymous which means elephant. Therefore Satavahana means that one who has hundreds of elephants.

(4) According to Smith in the names of many of the Satavahana kings, the pre-fix 'Sati' is a corrupt form of 'Swati'. "Swati " means sword. Therefore Satavahana means "person who wears or holds sword."

(5) Sometimes the word 'Sat' is taken to be 'shat' which means hundred. Therefore the word Satavahana is explained as "the lord of hundreds of hills or mountains. " Since they were fords of hilly region of N.W. India, hence it seems much nearer to historical fact such as Takshila means "rocks-of Takas"

The most reasonable and acceptable viewpoint is presented by Jogalekar. [27] According to him "Sat is a corrupt fonn of 'Sapta' which means seven. 'Saptavahani' is one of the names of sun, thus Satavanana was a Suryavanshi king, seven horses are the vehilcle of sun. The coins of Satavahana have a symbol of sun or Surya, known as 'Ujjaini symbol' the'S' of Satavahana can be related to its Prakrit form 'sattavahani' (Sanskrit, Saptavahan). Skand Purana Saptavahana is the name of Surya (Sun)". But Jogalekar does not produce any evidence in support. According to inscription of Kanswa, found from a well near river Chambal sout of Kota, King Shalindra calls himself of Surya race, and of Taka vansha. Prine Saliahana the Proogenitor of the royal family, was also Taka vanshii. Salindra was king of Salpoor (409 AD). Theese people of Sarya family were famous among other tribes. [28]The view that Nagas were of Suryavansh) gets support of Oldham. [29] [30]

It is obvious that these were the same Takas of Panjab who met Hieuntsang. They were lord of Malava and were also known as Surya. The land between the valleys of Satluj and Beas, in the neighborhood of Himalayas is also known as Saraj or Sewaraj. The chief deity of these people of this area is serpent or Naga and all of them worship this deity. [31] [32]

It is obvious that Satavahanas were Surya or Suryavanshi in origin. It is well confirmed. [33] [34]

The Legend of Birth of Salivahana

Salivahana was primogenitor of this royal family R.G. Bhandarkar [35] produces a legendary event explaining the origin of the Salivahana or Satavahana. -

"The period during which the Satavahanas or Andhrabhrityas ruled over Maharashtra must have been a prosperous one in the history of the country. Hence several traditions with regard to different kings of this dynasty have been preserved. But that Salivahana or Satavahana was a family name has been forgotten, and different princes of the dynasty have been identified. Thus Hemachandra in his Desikosha gives Salivahana, Salana, Hala, and Kuntala as the name of one individual; but we see from the list given above that the last two were born by different princes, and both of them were Salivahanas. In his grammar he gives Salivahana as a Prakrit corruption of Satavahana. In modern times

the Saka era is called the Salivahana era, an era founded by Salivahana. When it is attributed to him, it is difficult to determine it precisely. All the copper-plate grants up to the eleventh century speak of the era as Saka nripakala, i.e. the era of the Saka king, or Sakakala, i.e., the era of the Saka, and in an inscription at Badami it is stated to be the era beginning from "the coronation of the Saka king." Subsequently, the simple expression "Saka, in the year of the Saka, " was used, and thereafter Saka, or "in the Saka." The word Saka thus came to be understood as equivalent to "an era" generally, the original sense being forgotten. And since the era had to be connected with some great king it was associated with the name of Salivahana, whom tradition had represented to be such a king; and thus we now use the expression Salivahan Saka, which etymologically can have no sense and is made up of the names of two royal families. The current legend makes Salivahana the son of a Brahman girl who was a sojourner at Paithan and lived with her two brothers in the house of a potter. On the occasion she went to the Godavari to bathe, Sesha, the king of serpents, becoming enamoured of her, transformed himself into a man and embraced her. In due course she gave birth to Salivahana, who was brought up in the house of the potter. [36]After sometime king Vikramaditya of Ujjain, to whom a certain deity had revealed that he was destined to die at the hands of the son of a girl of two years, sent about his Vetala or king of Ghosts to find out if there was such a child anywhere. The Vetala saw Salivahana playing with his girlish mother and informed Vikramaditya. Thereupon he invaded Paithan with a large army, but Salivahan infused life into clay figures of horses, elephants, and men, by means of a charm communicated to him by his father, the king of serpents, encountered Vikramaditya, and defeated him. This descent of a king of Ujjain on Paithan I have already alluded to and endeavoured to explain. The Salivahana referred to in this tradition appears to be Pulumayi who, in conjunction with his father, freed the country from the Sakas and fought with Chashtana or Jayadaman and Rudradaman whose capital appears to have been Ujjain. It was in consequence of some faint reminiscence of Pulumayi Salivahana's relation with the Sakas and their Satrap kings that his name was attached to the era first used by his adversaries. There are also several literary traditions connected with the name of Satavahana or Salivahana. A work of the name of Brahatkatha written in that form of Prakrit which is called the Pishachi or the language of goblins mentioned by Dandin in his work the Kavyadarsa. (BHUT BHASAMAIPRA HURADDHA TARTHA BRAHAT-KATHAM)'"[37] [38]

The Original Home of the Race of Satavahana

Who was this Salivahana and from where he came ? It is an important question, but most of the scholars have ignored it. James Tod has given a due consideration to it. He, [39]very clearly, informs us- "that in early history of the Bhatti prince of Jaisalmer, when driven from Zabulistan, they dispossessed the Takas on the Indus, and established themselves in their land, the capital of which was called Salivahanpura ; and as the date of this event is given as 3008 of the Yudhishtra era, it is by no means unlikely that Salivahana or Salbhan (who was a Takshak), the conqueror of the Tuar Vikram, was of the very family dispossessed by Bhatti who compelled them to migrate to South." [40] [41]

It seems from this evidence that Salivahan or Salavahan hailed from Punjab and he was an offshoot of Takshak or Taka Naga family. It is also confirmed by the name of their eastern capital Dhannakatak , [42]where word Taka apears as suffix, similarly another eexample is also notable from Venakatak one of the earliest settlements of Satavahanas. [43] [44]

But there is a gap of about three or four centuries in the period of the beginning of the rule of the Satavahanas and prince Salivahana and Vikramaditya of Ujjaini, hence this event does not seem to be historical. Some scholars have suggested that the opponent of Vikramaditya, would have been king Pulumayi or Hala, Satavahana or Salivahana instead of prince Salivahan, the founder of the dynasty. Whatever is the fact, it is shrouded in the long darkness of history. But there are evidences of Prakrit Pali text to show that Salivahana lived three or four centuries earlier than the above event. Gunadhya, the author of Brahatkatha of Pishachi is known as contemporary of Hala Satavahana (20-24 AD). He has mentioned in the introductory part of his work that he (Gunadhya) had used a legend (Katha) of Vararuchi (of Nanda Age 422-322 B.C.) as the basis of his composition. [45]It means the original legend or Katha of Brahatkatha was composed during the Nanda Age. From this information we can very easily conclude that Salivahana the hero of this work would have been contemporary of Vararuchi or of earlier period . [46] [47] [48]

This is quite in consistent with the available chronology of beginning of the reign of the Satavahana family, although Pandeya is not ready to go earlier than 235 B.C. for this date. [49] [50][51]

There are some more evidences to prove that Salivahana and his family Satavanana, also known as Andhra, was the ruler of North West India, or [[Afghanistan in the early period of history. K.P. Jayaswal [52]produces Puranic evidence to prove this truth: "It seems certain that there was a community called Andhra in the Norrth. The Matsya, in the opening verse on the enumeration of the northern countries, has Pur Andhra just in the place where Aparikas are given by the Vayu VAHlKA VATADHANASCHABHlRAH KALTOYAKAH PURANDHRA SCHAIV SHUDRASCHAPAHALVA SCHATTAKHANDIKAH [53] [54]

The Bhagwata (lX-20, 30) includes Andhras in a list of northern peoples :-

KlRATAHUNAN YAVANANAMDHRAN KANKAN KHASAN SHAKAN [55] [56][57]

It may be pointed out that in the north of Afghanistan, about hundred miles to the west of Balkh, there is the district of Andha Khui (See note below) there is Audhari or Andhri, a Gilzai tribe in Afghanistan. According to Matsya. the Pur Andhra were in the Valhika group. The Andhras of Ashokan inscription "Seem to be northern". [58] [59]

These Andharkas were a sub-division of Yadavas. In Mahabharata (Sabh Parva chapter XIV and Shanti Parva chapter LXXXI) they have been called Bhoja, who were a component of Satavahana rulers. Since, Valhika [60]or Vahika is another name of Takshakas, [61]Andharas were a Branch of tribe of Takshakas. Thus it is evidently proved that Salivahana prince and his tribe Andhra or Takshaka were living in northwest region of India or Afghanistan in prehistoric period, from where the prince Salivahana moved and established his rule in Paithan and Vidarbha region in Nanda period or earlier. [62] [63]

शालीवाहन

ठाकुर देशराज लिखते हैं कि जैसलमेर के भट्टी ग्रन्थों में इसे यदुवंशी राजा गज का पुत्र माना गया है और इसका आगमन भारत में दूसरी शताब्दी के पश्चात् बताया है। श्यालकोट जिसे महाभारत का शॉकल मानते हैं, भट्टी-ग्रन्थों में इसी का बसाया हुआ बताया गया है। श्यालकोट इसका बसाया हुआ नहीं, तो इतना अवश्य मान लेना पड़ेगा कि इसने उसका पुनरुद्धार किया होगा। पिछले पृष्ठों में हमने जिन महाराज शालेन्द्रजित का जिक्र किया है, वह भी इसी स्यालकोट में रहते थे। लेकिन शालिवाहन और शालेन्द्रजित में दो शताब्दियों का अन्तर है। शालेन्द्रजित के समय


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-211


से पहले ही शालिवाहन की संतान के लोग स्यालकोट को छोड़ करके लाहौर और हिसार की ओर चले जाते हैं। जैसलमेर के भाटी लोग तथा नाभा, पटियाला, फरीदकोट आदि के जाट राजे इस शालिवाहन को भी अपना पूर्वज बतलाते हैं। कुछ लोग इन राजा शालिवाहन को शक साबित करते हैं, कुछ लोग इसे पैटन का अधीश्वर, अर्थात् सात किरण सात वाहनों में से।1 यह भी कहा जाता है कि इन शक लोगों को कालि-कार्य जैन भारत में लाए थे। जैन प्रभसूरी ने अपने ‘कल्प-प्रदीप’ नामक ग्रन्थ में लिखा है - पैठन के रहने वाले एक विदेशी ब्राह्मण की विधवा बहन से शातबहन (शालिवाहन) उत्पन्न हुआ। उसने उज्जैन के राजा विक्रम को परास्त किया और पैठन का राजा बनकर ताप्ती तक कछ देश अपने अधिकार में किया।

जैसलमेर के भाटियों की बात सही है अथवा स्मिथ और जैन प्रभसूरि (जो 1300 ई. के करीब हुआ था) में से किसकी बात सही है, इस बात पर तो हमें बहस नहीं बढ़ानी, किन्तु इतना जरूर कह देना है कि भाट लोगों के वर्णन और वंशावली निष्पक्ष, युक्ति-संगत तथा पूर्ण प्रामाणिक नहीं हैं।

भाटी जिसके गोत्र के लोग राजपूत और जाट दोनों में पाये जाते हैं, शालिवाहन के वंश का बताया जाता है। भाटी के जन्म की कथा भी बड़े विचित्र ढंग से वर्णन की जाती है। देवी के नाम पर भट्टी में सर चढ़ा देने के कारण इसका नाम भट्टी हुआ ऐसी दन्तकथा है। जाटों में जो भाटी लोग है, उनके सम्बन्ध में भी इन भाट ग्रन्थों में ऐसी ही ऊंट-पटांग बाते लिखी पड़ी हैं। पटियाला, नाभा, जींद, फरीदकोट आदि के भट्टी जाटों के सम्बन्ध में भाट-ग्रन्थों में लिखा है कि रावखेवा नाम के एक राजपूत ने जाटनी से शादी कर ली इसलिए रावखेवा की संतान के लोग जाट कहलाने लगे। खेद तो इस बात का है कि पटियाला के बुद्धिमान राजा ने भी भाट-ग्रन्थों की इस बात को सही मान लिया कि वे दोगला हैं और इसीलिए फिर से उन्होंने उस दोगला होने वाल बात की पुनरावृत्ति की। हमने भाट लोगों से करीब 500 जाट-गोत्रों का वर्णन पूछा, सब में यह बात पाई कि अमुक राजपूत ने अमुक जाटनी से शादी कर ली, इसलिए अमुक गोत्र बन गया। ये बातें बिल्कुल निराधार और बेहूदी हैं। इन बातों पर पूरा प्रकाश हम आगे डालेंगे।


भाट-ग्रन्थों में लिखा है कि भट्टीराव के नाम से सारे यादव भट्टी कहलाने लग गए लेकिन हम देखते हैं कि भट्टीराव कोई प्रसिद्ध ऐतिहासिक पुरुष नहीं। भाटों के कथनानुसार भी हमें उसका कोई ऐसा बड़ा काम दिखलाई नहीं देता, जिसके कारण यादवों को भट्टी कहलाने में गौरव जान पड़ा हो। वास्तव में बात यह है कि गजनी से लौटने वाले यादवों का समूह पंजाब की ससबसब्ज (????) जमीन से प्रताड़ित होकर, जंगल प्रदेश की निकटवर्ती भटिड (गैर उपजाऊ, जलहीन) भूमि में बस गए,


1. ‘सरस्वती’ भाग 3 संख्या 33


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-213


जिससे वह उस देश के नाम से भाटी कहलाने लगे। जहां तक भी हमें जान पड़ा है कि भाटी नाम का कोई व्यक्ति नहीं हुआ और कुछ हुआ भी तो वह इतना प्रसिद्ध नहीं हुआ कि जिसके नाम पर पूरी कौम का नाम बदल जाता। भाटों की वंशावली में जो नाम दिए हैं, उनमें से अधिकांश असभ्य लोगों के जैसे गढ़े हुए जान पड़ते हैं। जैसे लद्धरचन्द, सधरचन्द, गूमनचन्द, अतरचन्द, दोषपाल, गेंदपाल, बुदरमल, गोधल प्रकाश साथपतप्रोकाश, साहवप्रकाश, साहरोब, आयतबल, लोधरपाल, मथुरापाल, जोगेर, ख्यूपाल आदि आदि इनमें अतरचंद और साहबचंद आधी हिन्दी और आधी उर्दू वाले नाम क्या आज से 1800 वर्ष पहले जब कि उर्दू का जन्म भी नहीं हुआ था प्रचलित थे, ऐसा कोई भी बुद्धिमान मानने को तैयार नहीं होता। ये सारे नाम हमने शालिवाहन के पहले के उद्धृत किए हैं। उस समय भारतवर्ष व अफगानिस्तान में बौद्ध-धर्म फैला हुआ था। इन नामों में बौद्ध-धर्म की सभ्यता का प्रकाश है और संस्कृत साहित्य का पुट। जैसा कि लद्धर-चन्द और सद्धर-चन्द से प्रकट होता है। श्रीकृष्ण से लेकर के भाटी तक एक सौ उनसठ पीढ़ियां भाटीग्रन्थों में वर्णित हैं। यह कभी नहीं माना जा सकता कि यह बिल्कुल सही है। भरतपुर के महाराज कृष्णसिंह को भगवान कृष्ण एक सौ दो की पीढ़ी पर उनकी वंशावली वाले बतलाते हैं, और पंजाब का मौजूदा राजा ओकगंवर दो सौ से ऊपर की पीढ़ी पर पहुंचता है। यह इतना बड़ा अन्तर ही सिद्ध कर देता है कि अनेक नाम कल्पित हैं।

हमारा यह मत निश्चय ही सही है कि गैर-उपजाऊ प्रदेश में बसने के कारण, गजनी से आया हुआ यादव-दल, भट्टी नाम को प्राप्त हुआ। गजनी में रहते हुए उधर कई विजातीय राजाओं से रक्त सम्बन्ध कर लेने पर जब यादवों की कोई जाति नहीं बदलती, तब भारत में किस कारण से रावखेवा को जाटनी के साथ शादी कर लेने के कारण जाट करार दे दिया जाता है। वास्तव में रावखेवा के साथी आरम्भ से ही जाट थे। किन्तु यों कहना चाहिए कि राजा शालिवाहन स्वयं जाट थे। उनके वंशजों में से जिन लोगों ने बौद्ध-धर्म को छोड़कर नवीन प्रचलित पौराणिक धर्म को स्वीकार कर लिया अर्थात् बाप-दादे के समय से चली आई हुई रिवाज, विधवा विवाह, जातीय-समानता की रिवाज को छोड़ दिया और बलिदान-प्रथा तथा बहुदेव पूजा को स्वीकार कर लिया, कहीं राजपूत श्रेणी में गिने जाने लगे और जो अपनी पुरानी रस्मों पर डटे रहे, वे जाट भट्टी हुए। बस यही जाट भट्टी और राजपूत-भट्टी का अलग-अलग होने का कारण है।

खेद तो इस बात का है कि पटियाला तथा फरीदकोट के मुस्लिम इतिहास लेखकों ने तथा किसी-किसी अंग्रेज लेखक ने भी जैसलमेर के भाटों के ग्रन्थों में लिखी हुई बेबुनियाद बातों को अपने इतिहास में स्थान देने की भूल की है।


ऊपर का दिया हुआ निर्णय, समझदार लेखकों और पाठकों के वास्ते सत्य की खोज करने के लिए, बहुत कुछ काम दे सकेगा और जो इतिहास अन्धविश्वास की भित्ति पर अब तक भाटियों का तैयार किया हुआ है, वह भी अवैज्ञानिक और मानने योग्य सामग्री के आधार पर नहीं है, इसी उद्देश्य से हमने विषयान्तर करके भी इतना प्रकाश डाला है।

External linlks

Author लेखक: Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क

References

  1. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan Part-I, p.125
  2. Thakur Deshraj :Jat Itihas, p.211
  3. Thakur Deshraj Jat Itihas, p.212
  4. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats, Rohtak, India (1938, 1967
  5. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats, Rohtak, India (1938, 1967
  6. Thakur Deshraj Jat Itihas, p.559
  7. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 260
  8. The dynastic art of the Kushans", John Rosenfield, p130
  9. M.C. Ricklefs, A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1300, 2nd ed. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993, pages 5 and 46.
  10. http://www.exoticindiaart.com/book/details/ACL54/
  11. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, P.278
  12. Pliny the Elder Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8-23. 11., quoting Megasthenes
  13. Source:fragment LVI.
  14. Edicts of Ashoka|Rock Edict Nb13 (S. Dhammika)
  15. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, P.278
  16. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.278
  17. K A Nilkant Sastri:Age of Nanda and Maurya, p. 319
  18. Ancient Geography of India, p.443, see note no. 2
  19. Dr S B Deo: "Mahurjhari Excavations" Nagpur University, 1973, pp.61,66,67
  20. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.279
  21. K P Jayaswal:Hindu Polity, p.46
  22. DR Bhandarkar:"Lecture on Ancient History of India", pp169,170
  23. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.279
  24. Chandrabhan Pandeya:Andhra Satvahana -Samrajya ka Itihas, pp1-4
  25. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.279
  26. Gopalachari, "Early History of the Andhra country" P:10
  27. Jogalekar:A B O R I Part 27, pp 255,261,272
  28. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan II, p.30
  29. C F Oldham: The Sun and the Serpent, p. 30
  30. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.280
  31. C F Oldham: The Sun and the Serpent, p. 30
  32. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.280
  33. C F Oldham: The Sun and the Serpent, p. 30
  34. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.280
  35. R G Bhandarkar:Early Historyb of Deccan, pp 64,65
  36. The story about the girl and her sepent lover is in the Kathasaritsagara mentioned with reference to Gunadhya who was the son of the girl. Satavahana origin is given differently.
  37. C F Oldham: The Sun and the Serpent, p. 30
  38. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.281-282
  39. James Todd,I, p.125
  40. C F Oldham: The Sun and the Serpent, p. 30
  41. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.282
  42. A Cunningham:P. 448,449
  43. C F Oldham: The Sun and the Serpent, p. 30
  44. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.282
  45. Chandrabhan Pandeya, pp93,94
  46. K A Nilkant Sastri:Age of Nanda and Maurya, pp.326,327
  47. C F Oldham: The Sun and the Serpent, p. 30
  48. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.282
  49. C F Oldham: The Sun and the Serpent, p. 30
  50. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.283
  51. Chandrabhan Pandeya,p.40
  52. K P Jayaswal:Hindu Polity, pp.122,130
  53. C F Oldham: The Sun and the Serpent, p. 30
  54. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.283
  55. C F Oldham: The Sun and the Serpent, p. 30
  56. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.283
  57. Nirnaya Sagar ed (923) P-414
  58. C F Oldham: The Sun and the Serpent, p. 30
  59. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.283
  60. There is a village of this name near Junar cave near Nasik which is stated to be early settlement of Satavahanas which confirms this historical fact. B G Gokhale, Buddhism in Maharashtra, p.47
  61. K P Jayaswal: History of India, p.115
  62. C F Oldham: The Sun and the Serpent, p. 30
  63. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1, P.283

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