TENURES AND SETTLEMENTS. 135 (Bannu district)
The peasantry of this District are probably as deficient as any in the Punjab in agricultural knowledge and energy ; indeed Pathans are proverbially worse cultivators than Sikhs, Awans, Jats, or Eajpiits. Three years' study has opened my eyes considerably, and has dispelled many prejudices. Instead of being the lazy ignorant beings I once thought them, the majority of the agriculturists of the District have proved, on better acquaintance, to be a shrewd, hard-working, and intelligent class, who understand thoroughly how to make use of their slender means in extracting full measure from their soil.
When I state — and, remember, I am writing of Pathans, kSwredgetnd perhaps the worst cultivators as a race in Upper India — p^^^^^^ces. that they appreciate the value of fallows, rotation of crops, selection of seed, deep ploughing and manuring, and can tell to a nicety which of their known cereals or pulses are best suited for each soil, I shall hardly be believed, but it is a fact nevertheless. In Bannu Proper fallows are seldom resorted to, because the Kurm is ever renovating the soil with fertilizing silt, and manure is everywhere used to supplement it. So highly is house and farm manure valued, that disputes concerning the right to a share of that of dependents — one of the last manorial dues which remain to the descendants of the original founders of each village — are a fruitful source of long and bitter litigation. Even with such powerful auxiliaries as water silt and manure, the soil would soon be impover- ished and exhausted, but for the system of rotation which Rotations, is practised, whereby two crops, which withdraw similar constituents from the soil, are seldom grown in succession. The number of crops is so various — wheat, barley, peas, tobacco, and clover in spring or early summer, and rice.
136 LAND REVENUE SYSTEM—
sugar-cane, turmeric, cotton, and maize in autumn or winter — that the husbandman has a wide field to select from ; and every year he always raises two, and sometimes three, crops on every rood of land he possesses. In the unirri- gated parts of the district gram is rotated with wheat in light soils, and bdjra with wheat in stiff" soils ; or fallowing is practised, intentionally or involuntarily, for rain is seldom abundant in two successive years. In at least one village, occupied by Thalokar Jats, and not Pathans, the truth has, however, dawned that the rearing of cattle is not incompatible with the growing of corn. In it many hundred head of buffaloes are fed, to a great extent on Kiwi, a kind of grass, and other green crops are grown for them on the best lands of the village, which, in the following year, produce first-class wheat crops.
Distribution in Pakistan
Talokar/Thalokar - The Talokar/Thalokar are a clan of Jat who claim to be the brothers of Sial and Tiwana (Tila.Sila and Taloka). That tribe accepted Islam on the hand of Baba Farid Shukar Gunj, who came from India and first settled near Bhera, village known as Kalara and Kurrar Talokar. Later they came west and settled permanently on the east side of the Indus River, known as Bakharra (Kacha) and Ding/Khola (Thal), now in Mianwali.