The Mahabharata Tribes

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क
The Mahabharata Tribes
"Map of ancient Indian kingdoms during Mahabharata periods"

The Mahabharata Epitomizes The Indian Genre Of historical literature, known as Itihasa. It is the country's most famous history and epic poem. Yet it is far more than an ordinary narrative of events leading up to a great war, and encompasses both a philosophy of life as well as a code of conduct. The German Indologist Hermann Oldenberg observed:

"In the Mahabharata breathe the united soul of India and the individual souls of her people." The Mahabharata itself states that that which is not found here cannot be found elsewhere, so comprehensive is its treatment of dharma and the philosophy of life.

Two of the most popular prayers of the Hindus, the Vishnu Sahasranama (revealed by a dying Bhishma to Yudhisthira) and the Bhagvata Gita (enunciated by Krishna to a distraught Arjuna on the battlefield, on the very eve of the war), come down to us from the Mahabharata,

Author of Mahabharata

Reference - This content is based mainly on Ch. V of book by Sandhya Jain: Adi Deo Arya Devata - A Panoramic View of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface, Rupa & Co, 7/16, Ansari Road Daryaganj, New Delhi, 2004

[Page-110] The epic has traditionally been attributed to Vyasa, son of the sage Parasara and scion of the priestly Vasistha family, which was connected with the royal lineage of the Bharata. Vyasa is beieved to have attempted a cultural fusion of the diverse elements inhabiting the subbcontinent by incorporating the popular legends, royal eulogies and relgious poetry of the different regions, thus binding them in a geographical and cultural unity. The bard Gustavo (one who has an astonishing capacity to hear) was the first to publicly recite the epic at the sacrifice of the chancellor Saunaka (I.1.1).

The cultural material of the epic renders it an indivisible and organic whole that is intrinsic to the understanding of the Indian ethos. The Mahabharata provides a panoramic view of the society, politics and culture of the subcontinent. The present chapter is concerned with its census-like enumeration of tribes and the knowledge it reveals about their geographical location, physical and material qualities, and moral spiritual) fiber.

Dating of Mahabharata

Scholars generally concur that the Mahabharata cannot be dated with accuracy. However, the era from 1000 BC to 500 AD, during which the country's social and political institutions underwent considerable change and upheaval, is normally accepted for dating the epic There is also a view that the epic's core story hails from a much earlier period. The cultural material in Books XII and XIII possibly belong to the pre-Buddha era, while the ethnographically material (Which includes several names that remain untraced to this day ) is very ancient. K.C. Mishra believes that the list of tribes cataloged in connection with the Great War may therefore belong to a tradition prior to the Buddha. The period from 1000 BC to 500 BC broadly tallies with the age of the janapadas, wherein tiny tribal oligarchies vied for supremacy among themselves; the Mahabharata reflects the society and ethnography of thls peeriod, and depicts the thrus towards strong centralized political authority though a noteworthy political


[Page-111] integration of a large part of the country was not achieved until the rise of Mauryas.

The Vedas, Brahmanas and Puranas mention tribes of different periods. The Rigveda discusses three categories of people, namely, Arya, Dasa and Asuras The Rig Vedic Aryas comprised several tribes, which increased in number over a period of time. Some tribes listed in the Rig Veda retain their names down to the present, such as the Yadu, Puru, Shiva, among others, while others changed their names following division and migration to new lands. The famous Dasarajna yuddha (RV VII.18) probably recalls an intra-tribal feud. Brahmana literature also depicts early Indian ethnography. The Bhuvanakosa chapters of the Puranas deal with the ethnography of ancient India, and are also included in the Epic (VI.I-13).

While the Rig Veda shows little knowledge of the region outside the Saptasindhu, the epics and Puranas tend to use geographical names, such as Sindhu, Panchala, Matsya (RV 7.18.9), Chedi, Kashi, Koshala, and so on. Yet it is only in the janapada period that the land and people become closely intermeshed. The Mahabharata speaks not only of Arya peoples, but of all beings. It speaks of Deva, Danava, Gandhara, Yaksha, Rakshasa, Naga, and other groups, though scholars are not certain if these were really a class of people who played a role in the events narrated in the epic, or constitute the remnants of an antique tradition that was incorporated into the story.

The Mahabharata ethnographers classified the natives of the land into three broad categories, namely, Arya, Mleccha (alien) and Misra (mixed). The theory of a single pure racial type in India no longer enjoys academic credibility, and it is also now accepted that there was no Aryan race but an Aryan language and culture. The same is true of the Dravidas. The term Arya as used in the Mahabharata denotes a way of life, and cannot be used to delineate racial strains in the ancient Indian tribes.

Aryanization of native tribes

[Page-112] The incorporation of native tribes into Arya culture began at a very early stage. From the new evidence coming to light about tribal kingdoms in the Gupta and post-Gupta period, and their impulse towards cultural homogenization within their region through acceptance of the Sanskrit language and Brahmin priests and officers, we can surmise that this trend was most likely the result of a natural socio-cultural-political evolution rather than external stimuli. What makes the Mahabharata of special interest is the fact that it reveals a stage when the earliest tribal (kinship) grouping submitted to a larger regional national identity under the pressure of the emergence of some powerful Kshatriya kingdoms. The epic thus reflects a decline in tribal culture and transition to states.

The simplest definition of a tribe is a group of clans claiming common descent and united for a common purpose, such as war or sacrifice; it constitutes the oldest form of social organization and generally originates in a specific territory. The earliest terms used for such an organized human group in the Rig Veda were jana and vis. Zimmer regarded vis as identical with the tribe and different from grama which, he felt, represented a clan and was midway between family (kula) and tribe (vis). A.C. Das believed that an aggregation of Vedic families formed a gotra, a group, of gotras constituted a gosthi, and gosthis became a grama. A number of gramas formed a vis, (district) and an aggregate of the latter formed a jana (tribe). The word vis implies settlers and marks a change from the nomadic state; it was probably an early form of the janapada, the term used in later Vedic texts.

By the time of the Arthasastra, the word janapada (foothold of a tribe) connoted an administrative unit such as a district, country or state, which suggests that the older tribal settlers had merged into a much wider peasantry. The term rashtra, though Kautilya is not explicit about its usage, probably suggests a


[Page-113] distinction between lands cultivated by the state (sita) and private lands (rashtra). Sita lands were managed by the state agriculture department under an officer called sitadhyaksha. Kosambi observes that at one time rashtra signified small tribal oligarchies which paid tributes (bali) to the sovereign of the janapada, which Greek visitors described as the free cities in India. In later periods, the distinction between rashtra and sita land disappeared and the former came to signify country or nation. Thus, the janapadas were the last stage in the evolution of an ancient tribal organization. However, a janapada was not merely an area with a single authority for all inhabitants, but also denoted a cultural Unit.

Famous Warrior Tribes

The epic Mahabharata Parvas which mention about the tribes are as under with chapters

S.No Parva Chapters with mention of tribes
1 Adi Parva Ch: I.32, I.35, I.57, I.66, I.67, I.75, I.80, I.94, I.95, I.104, I.109, I.144, I.158, I.185, I.188,I.221
2 Sabha Parva Ch : II.9, II.13, II.23-29, II.31, II.46, II.47, II.48,
3 Vana Parva Ch: III.48, III.114, III.116.
4 Virata Parva Ch:
5 Udyoga Parva Ch: V.7, V.19, V.31, V.53, V.72, V.82, V.157,
6 Bhisma Parva Ch: VI.6, VI.9, VI.10, VI.18, VI.20, VI.46, VI.47, VI.52, VI.68, VI.83, VI.112
7 Drona Parva CH: VII.15, VII.61, VII.66, VII.67, VII.68, VII.165
8 Karna Parva Ch: VIII.4 , VIII.17, VIII.30
9 Shalya Parva Ch: IX.43, IX.44
10 Sauptika Parva Ch:
12 Shanti Parva Ch: XII.29, XII.200
13 Anusasana Parva Ch: XIII.31, XIII.127
14 Aswamedha Parva Ch: XIV.8

Note - This table is compiled by Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क

The most remarkable aspect of the Mahabharata war was the recruitment by both the Pandavas and Kauravas of a veritable host of primitive tribes from jungles and inaccessible valleys, without discrimination, into their respective armies. Bands of fierce jungle tribes, known as atavika formed the bulk of the fighting forces on both sides (II.5.53; XV.7; 7). The epic duly acknowledged individual tribal warriors such as Eklayya (a Bhil) and Ghatotkacha (a Rakshasa) for their legendary courage and fighting skills.

The epic displays intimate knowledge of the different tribes in the different regions, as also of the special fighting skills for which they were renowned. Bhishma instructed Yudhisthira (XII.102) to recruit people in the various wings of the army after studying their particular modes of fighting. He expressed a preference for frontier peoples for handling different missiles, while the Gandhara, Sindhu, and Sauvira tribes were accomplished in fighting With nails and lances. The Usinaras were skilled in all weaponry, while the easterners were adept in elephant-back


[Page-114] warfare, and notorious for using unfair tricks in fighting (Kutaayodhinah, XII.102.19f).

The Yavana, Kamboja and Surasena tribes (Mathura region) were proficient in fighting duels, and were also expert infantrymen (niyuddhakusala). The southern tribes were competent with the sword (XII.102.3-5), while the northwest frontier and Central Asian tribes were expert cavalrymen. The epic made a special mention of the Kamboja horse (VI.88) and the redoubtable Kamboja warriors who were celebrated for their stiff resistance, unity, discipline and military strategy (VII. 87.42f, 95.20).

The Shakas were reputed to be as powerful as Indra (VII.111.50). The Gandhara horsemen were skilled with the lance (prasa;, VII.6.3). The Ambashthas wielded the club with dexterity (gada, VII.68.59). The fearsome Trigarta warriors (comprising the Lalittha, Malva, Mavellaka and Yaudheya tribes) took a ritual oath to "do" or "die" (VII.16). The Madra army was notable for its unique paraphernalia (V.8.3f).

The eastern tribes were experts in fighting on elephant back. The Magadha army was renowned for elephant warfare (V.164.24) and their king, Jarasandha, fought on elephant back (VII.91-26). Yet the most gifted fighters on elephant back were the tribes of Pragjyotisha (Assam), who trained their elephants to fight an offensive (not just defensive) war, as seen in the narrative about the elephant of king Bhagadatta (VII.25.26f) who led an army of Kiratas and Chinas. The Kiratas fought on elephants (VII.87.28f) and applied poison to their arrows (VII.87.30f).

Salvas were adept at the Asura mode of fighting (III.22,23), while the Shakas,Yavanas, Paradas and Balhikas were proficient in trick-fighting (VII.68.41.42). The Dravidas were capable warriors. The northern mountaineer tribes fought with stone weapons, a method of fighting (asmayuddha) unknown amongst the Kurus and other plains tribes (VII.97.29f)

Tribes in the Great War

[Page-115] The Mahabharata records the names of tribes existing at the time of the Great War, thus reflecting the power and prestige of the tribal settlements, which were then a major political and military force. The tribal inventory has great historical value for modern scholars. Broadly, there are following principal lists in Mahabharata:

  1. Names of the principal Naga chiefs:Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 35
  2. Names of all those Nagas that fell into the fire of the snake-sacrifice: Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 57
  3. Genealogy of the Danavas, Asuras, Kauravas, Pandavas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Rakshasas: Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 67
  4. Genealogies of Yadavas, Kurus, Bharatas: Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 75
  5. Kshatriyas came on Swayamvara of Draupadi : Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 188
  6. Comprising respectively the tribes defeated by Yudhisthira's four brothers (Sabha Parva, Book 2 Chapters 23-29
  7. Tribes bringing gifts at Yudhisthira's consecration as king emperor Sabha Parva, Book 2 Chapters 45-48
  8. Tribes mentioned in the 'geography' in Bhishma Parva, Book 6 Chapter X
  9. Kings and warriors of various tribes, who came to the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo: Shalya Parva, Book IX Chapter 44

The tribes that participated in the Kurukshetra War find repeated mention in the daily battle formations of both sides. Some minor list of peoples are recorded in the digvijayas undertaken by the warriors on both sides (Robert Shafer prepared thirteen lists based on the Critical Edition). However, as the epic's ethnography is coloured by the Great War, the tribes mentioned (on the battlefield or in connection with conquests) are mainly the ruling clans of warrior tribes. The Mahabharata, it is worth recollecting is the story of India's greatest war since the Rig Vedic Battle of Ten Kings, and hence documents the largest number of tribes. An almost equal number of tribes fought on both sides of the conflict. Scholars consider the "geographical list" at the beginning of the war as an archetype of similar narratives in the Puranas.

The geographical list attempts to specify the locations of the various settlements of Bharatavarsha. It was probably compiled by a geographer of Madhyadesa,who placed the Kuru-Panchala country at the centre of his efforts and enumerated the various lands and people, arriving at a fairly comprehensive ethnographic dictionary of India. The tribal tributes to Yudhisthira give an idea of the wealth of the janapadas (Upayanaparva list) and document the economic products of India. Of course, it is not possible to clearly identify all the Mahabharata tribes today


[Page-116] as tribal migrations and changes of name were fairly common. Another problem encountered is that the lists of peoples include those belonging to the pre-historic period as well as those of a later age. Altogether some 361 tribes have been listed, not all of which can be clearly located or identified; indeed, many of the tribes listed by K.C. Misra are also the names of clans, kingdoms, regions and territories.

Tribes listed on Pandava Side

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  • 1. Asmaka (अश्मक) - The Puranas associate them with the Iksvaku line of Kshatriyas and Buddhist scriptures refer to their land as a Mahajanapada. Identified with Paithan in Aurangabad district, this janapada may have comprised modern Nasik and Aurangabad. Fought with the Pandavas (VII. 61.39).
धृष्टथ्युम्नश च थुर्धर्षः शिखण्डी चापराजितः । अश्मकाः केकयाश चैव कषत्रधर्मा च सौमकिः (VII. 61.39)
Asrodh (असरोध) Jat Gotra started after The Mahabharata Tribe named Ashmaka (अश्मक).[1]
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kanana may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kanara (कंणारा) who live in Jaipur district in Rajasthan.
  • 3. Karusha (करूष) - A very ancient tribe and prominent ally of Pandavas; possibly hailed from the south of Kashi. (VI.10.39)
चेदिवत्साः करूषाश च भॊजाः सिन्धुपुलिन्थकाः । उत्तमौजा दशार्णाश च मेकलाश चॊत्कलैः सह (VI.10.39)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Karusha (करूष) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Karesia (करेसिया) who live in Chittorgarh and Tonk districts in Rajasthan.
  • 4. Kashi (काशि) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.38 and 40); were important allies of the Pandavas.
शूरसेनाः कलिङ्गाश च बॊधा मौकास तदैव च । मत्स्याः सुकुट्यः सौबल्याः कुन्तलाः काशिकॊशलाः (VI.10.38)
पाञ्चालाः कौशिकाश चैव एकपृष्ठा युगं धराः । सौधा मथ्रा भुजिङ्गाश च काशयॊ ऽपरकाशयः (VI.10.40)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kashi (काशि) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kasya (कास्या). [2] At present Kasya gotra Jats live in Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh. They are in villages Malhargarh in Mandsaur district.
  • 5. Kuninda (कुणिन्द) - A widely spread tribe in the Terai of Hardwara (III.141.25), possibly of Jat stock. Also known as Kulinda (from the river Kalindi), their coins have been found near the source of the Yamuna-Ganga. Dwelled north of the Yamuna from Dehradun to Jagadhri. They were the first tribe to be subjugated by Arjuna when he moved northwards from Khandavaprastha (II.23.13 ). Sided with the Pandavas in the war and attacked the Kauravas with a formidable army of elephants (VIII.62.33ff).
पूर्वं कुणिन्द विषये वशे चक्रे महीपतीन । धनंजयॊ महाबाहुर नातितीव्रेण कर्मणा (II.23.13 )
खशा एकाशनाज्यॊहाः परदरा दीर्घवेनवः । पशुपाश च कुणिन्दाश च तङ्गणाः परतङ्गणाः (II.48.3)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kuninda (कुणिन्द) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kunawan (कुणावां) who live in Village Renwal in Jaipur district, Rajasthan.
The Salvas were a branch of the Madras and were ruling at Sialkot. These Madras had a branch named Kuninda, who were related to Koliya Naga. We know that the Madras were Vahikas and Jartas. Since according to grammatical illustration of Chandra-gomin the Jarta defeated the Huns, which means Skanda Gupta defeated the Huns. Hence Guptas were Jartas or Jat. [3]

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  • 6. Kundivisa (कुण्डी विष) - A tribe with professional soldiers who fought on both sides, they constituted a wing in Yudhisthira's army (VI.46.49).
पिशाचा दरदाश चैव पुण्ड्राः कुण्डी विषैः सह । मडका कडकाश चैव तङ्गणाः परपङ्गणाः (VI.46.49)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kundivisa (कुण्डी विष) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kundu (कुंडू)
  • 7. Kunti (कुन्ति) - An important tribe (VI. 10.41) of the Bhojas, dwelled near Gwalior. Their king Kunti- Bhoja had matrimonial relations with Pandu; sided with the Pandavas.
जठराः कुक्कुशाश चैव सुथाशार्णाश च भारत । कुन्तयॊ ऽवन्तयश चैव तदैवापरकुन्तयः (VI. 10.41)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kunti (कुन्ति) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kuntal or Khutel (खुटेल)
  • 8. Kekaya (केकय) - Famous bowmen in the Great War (VIII.9), Linked with Madra. They were equally divided on both sides. (VII. 61.39)
धृष्टथ्युम्नश च थुर्धर्षः शिखण्डी चापराजितः । अश्मकाः केकयाश चैव कषत्रधर्मा च सौमकिः ।।39।।
The Kekayas were often associated with the Madras, the Usinaras, the Sibis etc and their territory had formed a part of the Vahika (Jat) country, according to the evidence furnished by Panini [4].
  • 9. Kerala (केरल) - A southern Dravida people (VI.10.57) who stood by Yudhishthira in the war (VIII. 8 .15).
दरविडाः केरलाः पराच्या भूषिका वनवासिनः । उन्नत्यका माहिषका विकल्पा मूषकास तदा ।।57।।
  • 10. Chedi (चेदि) - An ancient tribe and power of Madhyadesa, probably Bundelkhand region. Their king, Sishupala allied with Jarasandha, but after the latter's death, his son became an ally of the Pandavas and sided with them in the Great War. (VI.10.39)
चेदिवत्साः करूषाश च भॊजाः सिन्धुपुलिन्थकाः । उत्तमौजा दशार्णाश च मेकलाश चॊत्कलैः सह (VI.10.39)
  • 11. Chola (चॊल) - Hailed from present Tanjore and sided with the Pandavas under the influence of the Pandya king. (VI.46.50)
बाह्लिकास तित्तिराश चैव चॊलाः पाण्ड्याश च भारत । एते जनपथा राजन थक्षिणं पक्षम आश्रिताः (VI.46.50)
बाह्लिकास तित्तिराश चैव चॊलाः पाण्ड्याश च भारत । एते जनपथा राजन थक्षिणं पक्षम आश्रिताः ।।50।। (VI.46.50)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Chola (चॊल) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Choyal (चोयल) Chol (चोल).
  • 12. Tangana (तङ्गण)/Paratangana (परतङ्गण) - Famous pair of northern mountaineer tribes (III.141.24), they fought on both sides (VI.46.49; VII.197.36; etc.).
पिशाचा दरदाश चैव पुण्ड्राः कुण्डी विषैः सह । मडका कडकाश चैव तङ्गणाः परपङ्गणाः (VI.46.49)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Tangana (तङ्गण) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Tangal (तंगल) or Tangar (तंगड़).
  • 13. Tamralipta (ताम्रलिप्त) - In the tribute list (II.48.17), probably modern Tamluk, Bengal. They joined the Pandavas in the war (VIII.17.2).
वङ्गाः कलिङ्ग पतयस ताम्रलिप्ताः सपुण्ड्रकाः । दुकूलं कौशिकं चैव पत्रॊर्णं परावरान अपि (II.48.17)
पराच्याश च दाक्षिणात्याश च परवीरा गजयॊधिनः । अङ्गा वङ्गाश च पुण्ड्राश च मागधास ताम्रलिप्तकाः (VIII. 17.2)
  • 14. Tittira (तित्तिर) - A northwestern tribe that sided with Yudhisthira (VI.46.50). Their land was famous for its fine horses (VI.86.4), (IX.44.80).
बाह्लिकास तित्तिराश चैव चॊलाः पाण्ड्याश च भारत । एते जनपथा राजन थक्षिणं पक्षम आश्रिताः (VI.46.50)
कॊकिला वदनाश चान्ये शयेनतित्तिरिकाननाः । कृकलास मुखाश चैव विरजॊऽमबरधारिणः (IX.44.80)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Tittira (तित्तिर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Tatran (तातरान) or Titarwal (तीतरवाल)

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  • 15. Tumbupa (तुम्बुप) - Sided with Yudhisthira (VI.46.51); probably hailed from the region north of Narwar stretching from the foothills of the Vindhyas.
अग्निवेष्या जगत तुण्डा पलथाशाश च भारत । शबरास तुम्बुपाश चैव वत्साश च सह नाकुलैः (VI.46.51)
  • 16. Dandaka (दण्डक) - Defeated by Sahdeva (II.28.43); they belonged to the forest regions of Bundelkhand. Joined both sides in the war (Pandavas VI.46.49; Kaurava, Vl.47.16)
ततः शूर्पारकं चैव गणं चॊपकृताह्वयम । वशे चक्रे महातेजा दण्डकांश च महाबलः (II.28.43)
Though Dandaka was mentioned in the epic Ramayana, with great detail, a few mentions of this kingdom is found in the epic Mahabharata. In Sahadeva's conquests - Sahadeva, the Pandava general, and younger brother of Pandava king Yudhisthira, came to southern regions to collect tribute for the Rajasuya sacrifice of the king. Sahadeva, having exacted jewels and wealth from king Rukmin (ruling at the second capital of Vidarbha, named Bhojakata), marched further to the south. There he, reduced to subjection, Surparaka and Talakata, and the Dandakas also. The Kuru warrior then vanquished and brought under his subjection numberless kings of the Mlechchha tribe living on the sea coast (2,30). [5]


The Mahabharata Tribe - Dandaka (दण्डक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Dandak (दांदक).
  • 17. Dashara/Dasharna (दशार्ण)- Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.39); possibly from the western Vindhya region. Sided with Yudhishthira (VI.4).
चेदिवत्साः करूषाश च भॊजाः सिन्धुपुलिन्थकाः । उत्तमौजा दशार्णाश च मेकलाश चॊत्कलैः सह (VI.10.39)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Dasharna (दशार्ण) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Dashpuria (दशपुरिया)
  • 18. Dasheraka (दाशेरक) - A northern tribe, sided with the Pandavas (VI.112.108)(VI.46.46).
ते विदेहाः कलिङ्गाश च दाशेरक गणैः सह । अभिपेतुर निषाथाश च सौवीराश च महारणे (VI.112.108)
दाशार्णकाः परयागाश च दाश्रेरक गणैः सह । अनूपगाः किराताश च गरीवायां भरतर्षभ (VI.46.46)
  • 19. Dravida (दरविड) - A southern tribe (VI.10.57), joined the Pandavas (viii.8.14).
दरविडाः केरलाः पराच्या भूषिका वनवासिनः । उन्नत्यका माहिषका विकल्पा मूषकास तदा (VI.10.57)
  • 20. Nishada (निषाद) - In the 'geography' (VI. 10.50); subdued by Bhima (II.27.10) and also Sahdeva (II.28.5). Fought on both sides in the Great War (Pandava, VI.46.47; Kaurava, VI.112.108). Their strongholds covered the entire Vindhya ranges.
शका निषादा निषधास तदैवानर्तनैरृताः । दुगूलाः परतिमत्स्याश च कुशलाः कुनटास तदा (VI. 10.50)

सुकुमारं वशे चक्रे सुमित्रं च नराधिपम । तदैवापरमत्स्यांश च वयजयत स पटच चरान (II.28.4)

उथीच्यभॊजाश च तदा कुलान्य अष्टा थशाभिभॊ । जरासंध भयाथ एव परतीचीं थिशम आश्रिताः (II.13.24)
शूरसेना भद्र कारा बॊधाः शाल्वाः पतच चराः । सुस्दराश च सुकुट्टाश च कुणिन्थाः कुन्तिभिः सह (II.13.25)
पटच चरैशहुण्डैश च राजन पौरवकैस तदा । निषाथैः सहितश चापि पृष्ठम आसीथ युधिष्ठिरः (VI.46.47)
Patachchara (पटच चर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pachar (पचार)
  • 22. Pamsu Rashtra (पांशुराष्ट्र) - Gave rich tributes to Yudhisthira (II.48.26). Joined the Pandavas (V.II.20).
पांशुराष्ट्राथ वसु थानॊ राजा षड विंशतिं गजान । अश्वानां च सहस्रे थवे राजन काञ्चनमालिनाम (II.48.26)
  • 23. Panchala (पाञ्चाल) - Major allies of the Pandavas; they played an important part in the epic.
पाञ्चालाः कौशिकाश चैव एकपृष्ठा युगं धराः । सौधा मथ्रा भुजिङ्गाश च काशयॊ ऽपरकाशयः (VI.10.40)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Panchala (पाञ्चाल) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pachare (पचहरे).

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  • 24. Pandya (पण्ड्या) - A Tamil people defeated by Sahdeva (II.28.48) and Karna.(III.241.50). Joined Yudhisthira's army (VI.46.50).
बाह्लिकास तित्तिराश चैव चॊलाः पाण्ड्याश च भारत । एते जनपथा राजन थक्षिणं पक्षम आश्रिताः (VI.46.50)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Pandya (पण्ड्या) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pandya (पंड्या) who live in Tonk district in Rajasthan.
थरॊणाथ अनन्तरं यत्तॊ भगथत्तः परतापवान । मागधैश च कलिङ्गैश च पिशाचैश च विशां पते (VI.83.8)
पिशाचा थरथाश चैव पुण्ड्राः कुण्डी विषैः सह । मडका कडकाश चैव तङ्गणाः परपङ्गणाः (VI.46.49)
पराच्याश च दाक्षिणात्याश च परवीरा गजयॊधिनः । अङ्गा वङ्गाश च पुण्ड्राश च मागधास ताम्रलिप्तकाः (VIII. 17.2)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Pundra (पुण्ड्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pundir (पुन्डीर). [6]
  • 27. Paurava (पौरव) - The Cr. Ed. reads Parada, who brought tribute to Yudhisthira (II.47.10 and II.48.12). The Pauravas joined the Pandavas (VI.46.47 and VI.52.13). Arjuna conquered a Paurava settlement near Kashmir.
पटच चरैश च हुण्डैश च राजन पौरवकैस तदा । निषाथैः सहितश चापि पृष्ठम आसीथ युधिष्ठिरः (VI.46.47)
  • 28. Prayaga (परयाग) - Were in the army of Yudhisthira (VI.46.46); could hail from Prayag region.
दाशार्णकाः परयागाश च थाश्रेरक गणैः सह । अनूपगाः किराताश च गरीवायां भरतर्षभ (VI.46.46)
चित्रसेनेन सहिताः सहिताः पाणिभद्रकैः । भीष्मम एवाभिरक्षन्तु सह सैन्यपुरस्कृताः (VI.47.9)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Bhadra (भद्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Bhadu (भादु)
  • 30. Magadha (मागध) - Magadha was the most powerful country before the rise of the Pandavas at Indraprastha, but after the fall of Jarasandha, the empire was divided. Jarasandha's son Sahdeva was installed by Pandavas at their capital Giribraja (Rajgir) and supported them in the War. His brother Jalasandha and other princes of Magadha sided with the Kauravas (V.64.6, 164.9).
पराच्याश च दाक्षिणात्याश च परवीरा गजयॊधिनः । अङ्गा वङ्गाश च पुण्ड्राश च मागधास ताम्रलिप्तकाः (VIII. 17.2)
पिशाचा थरथाश चैव पुण्ड्राः कुण्डी विषैः सह । मडका कडकाश चैव तङ्गणाः परपङ्गणाः (VI.46.49)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Madaka (मडक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Madkalya (मड़काल्या) who live in Tonk district in Rajasthan.


832. Matsya (मत्स्य) - An ancient people from time of the Rig Veda. The Mbh (II.13.27) records their defeat at the hands of Jarasandha. They were prominent allies of the Pandavas who lived incognito for one year at the court of King Virata.

तदॊत्तरां दिशं चापि परित्यज्य भयार्थिताः । मत्स्याः संन्यस्तपाथाश च दक्षिणां दिशम आश्रिताः (II.13.27)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Matsya (मत्स्य) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Machhar (माछर) found in Jaipur and Alwar districts in Rajasthan [7]

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The Mahabharata Tribe - Marudha (मरुध) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mirdha (मिर्धा).


  • 34. Ladaka - Fierce northern tribes who joined the army of Yudhisthira (VI.46.18).
  • 35. Vatsa (वत्स) - A prominent ancient people from modern Allahabad, mentioned in the 'geography' (VI. 10.39). They sided with Yudhisthira in the War (VI.50.51).
चेदिवत्साः करूषाश च भॊजाः सिन्धुपुलिन्थकाः । उत्तमौजा दशार्णाश च मेकलाश चॊत्कलैः सह (VI.10.39)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Vatsa (वत्स) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vats (वत्स) found in District Muzaffarnagar in Uttar Pradesh. This gotra originated after an ancient kingdom of the same name. [8]
  • 36. Vrishnis (वृष्णि) - The principal branch of the Yadava confederacy, which ruled in Anarta. Krishna belonged to this tribe (Vrsninam Vasudevosmi, Gita, X.37). Satyaki, an important leader, fought valiantly for the Pandavas. They are mentioned in the tribute list as a northwestern people, and numismatic evidence suggests a Vrishni settlement in northern Punjab. It is likely that a branch of the Vrishnis and Kukuras migrated from Dwarka after its downfall and settled in Punjab.
महारदैर अन्धकवृष्णिभॊजैः; सौराष्ट्रकैर नैरृतैर आत्तशस्त्रैः । बृहथ्बलः कृतवर्माभिगुप्तॊ; बलं तवथीयं थक्षिणतॊ ऽभिपाति (VI.20.14)
  • 37. Shavara (शवर)- A southern tribe, they joined the Pandavas in the war (VI. 46.51).
51 अग्निवेष्या जगत तुण्डा पलथाशाश च भारत । शबरास तुम्बुपाश चैव वत्साश च सह नाकुलैः (VI. 46.51)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Shavara (शवर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Shiwar (शीवर).[9]

38. Huna (हूण) - A wild northwestern tribe (I. 165.35) which joined the army' of Yudhisthira. Indian Hunas came from the east of Lake Mansarovar in Nari-Khorsam.

यवनाश च स काम्बॊजा थारुणा मलेच्छ जातयः । सक्षथ्थ्रुहः कुन्तलाश च हूणाः पारतकैः सह (VI .10.64)

Tribes listed on Kaurava

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1. Anga (अङ्ग) - An ancient eastern tribe and one of the Mahajanapadas in the Bauddha period, it constituted the core of the confederacy of five kingdoms of Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Suhma and Pundra. According to the Mbh. and other sources, Anga comprised the present districts of Bhagalpur and Monghyr. It was under the suzerainty of the Kuru king, and hence Duryodhana could make Karna its ruler. Anga supported the Kauravas in the Great War.

पराच्याश च दाक्षिणात्याश च परवीरा गजयॊधिनः । अङ्गा वङ्गाश च पुण्ड्राश च मागधास ताम्रलिप्तकाः (VIII. 17.2)

2. Andhaka (अन्धक) - A branch of the Yadava confederacy, headed by Krtavarma. They alone sided with the Kauravas among the Yadavas (V.19.17).

महारदैर अन्धकवृष्णिभॊजैः; सौराष्ट्रकैर नैरृतैर आत्तशस्त्रैः । बृहथ्बलः कृतवर्माभिगुप्तॊ; बलं तवथीयं थक्षिणतॊ ऽभिपाति (VI.20.14)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhaka (अन्धक) may be identified with Jat Gotras - Andar, Andhala, Andhi, Audhran, Odhran, Oka, Ond etc.

3. Andhra (अन्ध्र) - A very ancient tribe mentioned as Dasyus in the Aitareya Brahmana (VII.18), as the result of a curse by Vishwamitra. Linked with Pulinda, Khasa, Nishada and other low peoples, they fought for Duryodhana (VIII. 51.17). The Mbh. (XII.200.40) describes them as natives of the south. (VI.10.48)

अन्ध्राश च बहवॊ राजन्न अन्तर्गिर्यास तदैव च । बहिर्गिर्य आङ्गमलथा मागधा मानवर्जकाः (VI.10.48)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhra (अन्ध्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - [[Taka] or Takhar, Name of their tribe was Andhra. [10]
According to Thakur Deshraj there was a great king in Andhra-vansh named Hala around 69 AD. The descendants of Maharaja Hala came from south to north and settled in uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. The Jat groups of these Kshatriyas were known as Hala.[11]
The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhra (अन्ध्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Andar (अंदार) or Andara (अंदार) is Jat gotra same a Andhak. [12]
The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhra (अन्ध्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Andhrana (आंध्राणा).[13]
The Mahabharata Tribe - Andhra (अन्ध्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vadiar (वाडियार) .[14]

4. Abhisara(अभिसार) - Mentioned in Rajatarangini, which locates their territory in the hill states of Rajapuri ( Rajauri). An infamous and barbarous tribe in Mbh. (VII.68.42); their clans fought on both sides, but were generally with the Kauravas. (VI.10.52)

यॊ यॊनिप्रभवा मलेच्छाः कालकल्पाः परहारिणः । दार्वाभिसारा थरथाः पुण्ड्राश च सह बाह्लिकैः (VII.68.42)
काश्मीराः सिन्धुसौवीरा गान्धारा दर्शकास तदा । अभीसारा कुलूताश च शौवला बाह्लिकास तदा (VI.10.52)

5. Ambastha (अम्बष्ठ) - A very ancient people, mentioned in Aitareya Brahmana (VIII.11). Ptolemy refers to them as Ambastai; they settled on the lower Chenab in Punjab and were important in the Kaurava army.

अम्बष्ठाः कौकुरास तार्क्ष्या वस्त्रपाः पह्लवैः सह । वसातयः समौलेयाः सह कषुद्रकमालवैः (II.48.14)

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6. Avanti (अवन्ति) - Joined the Kaurava army and hailed from western Malwa (capital Ujjain). Linked with the Haihaya dynasty in Furanic genealogy.

7. Ashvataka (अश्वातक) - Sided with Duryodhana (Mbh. VI 47.15).

ततॊ थुर्यॊधनॊ राजा सहितः सर्वसॊथरैः । अश्वातकैर विकर्णैश च तदा शर्मिल कॊसलैः VI 47.15).
The Mahabharata Tribe - Ashvataka (अश्वातक) may be identified with nagavanshi Jat Gotras - Ashwatar (अश्वतर) .[15]

8. Ajaneya (आजानेय) - Part of the Gandhara king's army (VIII.4.96); fought for the Kurus.

आजानेयैः सैन्धवैः पार्वतीयैर; नथीज काम्बॊजवनायु बाह्लिकैः । गान्धारराजः सवबलेन युक्तॊ; वयवस्दितॊ यॊथ्धुकामस तवथर्दे
Anjai (आंजई) is a place in Uttar Pradesh. It was the kingdom of Andhaka or the Antal gotra Jats.

9. Abhira (अभीर) - Ancestors of the modern Ahirs; were possibly confined to the Punjab and Mathura regions in the epic period. Krishna was brought up in an Abhira family. The Mbh. (II.29.9) states they lived in the western desert where the Sarasvati dried up in Vinasana out of hatred for them (IX.37.21f).Joined the Kauravas (VII.10.7).

शूद्राभीर गणाश चैव ये चाश्रित्य सरस्वतीम । वर्तयन्ति च ये मत्स्यैर ये च पर्वतवासिनः (II.29.9)

10. Aratta (आर्त) - A north-western tribe; part of the forces of Krtavarma (VII.165.69).

विचेतसॊ हतॊत्साहाः कश्मलाभिहतौजसः । आर्तस्वरेण महता पुत्रं ते पर्यवारयन (VII.165.69)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Aratta (आर्त) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Aratt (अरट्ट) Artat (अर्टाट).[16]
H. L. Kosare after Mahabharata informs that Arattas had their three branches Takka, Vahika and Jartika. [17][18] All the tree branches belong to Jats.

11. Arevaka (आरेवक) - Fought in the Kuru army (VI.47.7). Possibly from southern Baluchistan.

संस्दानाः शूरसेनाश च वेणिकाः कुकुरास तदा । आरेवकास तरिगर्ताश च मथ्रका यवनास तदा (VI.47.7)

12. Karnapravarna (कर्णप्रावरण) - A Vindhya tribe defeated by Sahdeva (II.28.44), they brought tribute to Yudhisthira. Joined the Kaurava army (VI.47.13).

विदर्भैर मेकलैश चैव कर्णप्रावरणैर अपि । सहिताः सर्वसैन्येन भीष्मम आहवशॊभिनम (VI.47.13)

13. Kamboja (काम्बॊज) - An ancient tribe neighbouring Gandhara; in the forefront of Duryodhana's army. Their king Sudakshina was one of the maharathis in the Great Battle and died at the hands of Arjuna (VII.67.67f).

सुथक्षिणं तु काम्बॊजं मॊघसंकल्पविक्रमम । बिभेथ हृथि बाणेन पृदु धारेण पाण्डवः
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kamboja (काम्बॊज) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kamboj (काम्बोज) Kamboh (काम्बोह) who are descendants of rishi Kondilya (कोंडिल्य). They are also called Kamedia. [19]

14. Kitava (कितव) - Brought tributes to Yudhisthira (II.47.10); joined the Kauravas in the war (VI.18.12). Possibly an ancient Makran tribe as the gifts they bore match the products of Makran. Their king Uluka (IX.I.1.25) was the son of Shakuni (VI.68.5).

सहदेवस तु शकुनिम उलूकं च महारदम । पिता पुत्रौ महेष्वासाव अभ्यवर्तत दुर्जयौ (VI.68.5)
ते वैरामाः पारथाश च वङ्गाश च कितवैः सह । विविधं बलिम आथाय रत्नानि विविधानि च (II.47.10)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kitava (कितव) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kitawat (कितावत) who live in Jaipur district in Rajasthan.

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15. Kirata (किरात) - Hailed from the eastern Himalayas and played a crucial role in the epic. Their ruler Bhagadatta was a powerful ally of Duryodhana and brought a division of elephants to the Kauravas. (VI.20.13)

शारथ्वतश चॊत्तरधूर महात्मा; महेष्वासॊ गौतमश चित्रयॊधी । शकैः किरातैर यवनैः पह्लवैश च; सार्धं चमूम उत्तरतॊ ऽभिपाति (VI.20.13)

16. Kukura (कुकुर) - A very ancient northwestern tribe and branch of the Yadava confederacy. Mentioned in (geography' (VI. 10.41) and the tribute list (II.48.14). Supported Duryodhana in the war (VI. 47.7) .

संस्दानाः शूरसेनाश च वेणिकाः कुकुरास तदा । आरेवकास तरिगर्ताश च मथ्रका यवनास तदा (VI.47.7)
अम्बष्ठाः कौकुरास तार्क्ष्या वस्त्रपाः पह्लवैः सह । वसातयः समौलेयाः सह कषुद्रकमालवैः (II.48.14)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kukura (कुकुर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Khokhar which is a derivative of Kukar. Khokhars are mentioned in Vayu Purana and Visnu Purana as 'Kokarakas'. [20] [21]


17. Kuntala (कुन्तल) - There were two Kuntala countries, one in the north and another in the south. The southern Kuntalas fought with the Kauravas (VI.47.12).

पौण्ड्रकॊ वासुथेवश च वङ्गः कालिङ्गकस तदा । आकर्षः कुन्तलश चैव वानवास्यान्ध्रकास तदा (II.31.11)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kuntala (कुन्तल) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kuntal (कुंतल).[22]

18. Kuluta (कुलूत) - Hailed from the modern Kulu- Kangra region and fought on the side of the Kauravas (VI.10.52), (VII.8.45).

काश्मीराः सिन्धुसौवीरा गान्धारा दर्शकास तदा । अभीसारा कुलूताश च शौवला बाह्लिकास तदा (VI.10.52)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kuluta (कुलूत) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kulawat (कूलावत)[23] or Kalwana (कलवाना). [24]

19. Koshala (कौसल) - A famous solar dynasty of the Ramayana era; played a minor role in the Mbh. King Brahadvala joined Duryodhana (VI.83.9), but some Koshalas joined the Pandava side (in VIII.8.19; 33.22).

पराग्ज्यॊतिषाथ अनु नृपः कौसल्यॊ ऽद बृहथ्बलः । मेकलैस तरैपुरैश चैव चिच्छिलैश च समन्वितः (VI.83.9)

20. Kshudraka (कषुद्रक) / (Malava) (मालव) - Both tribes (II.48.14) supported the Kauravas (VI.83.7).

अम्बष्ठाः कौकुरास तार्क्ष्या वस्त्रपाः पह्लवैः सह । वसातयः समौलेयाः सह कषुद्रकमालवैः (II.48.14)

21. Khasa (खश) - A famous Himalayan tribe in Nepal and southwest Kashmir; sided with the Kauravas. (II.48.3)

खशा एकाशनाज्यॊहाः परदरा दीर्घवेनवः । पशुपाश च कुणिन्दाश च तङ्गणाः परतङ्गणाः (II.48.3)
शूद्राभीराद दरदाः काश्मीराः पशुभिः सह । :खशिकाश च तुखाराश च पल्लवा गिरिगह्वराः (VI.10.66)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Khasa (खश) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Khasa (खासा) Khasha (खासा) who live in Distt Sonipat in Haryana and Sikar district in Rajasthan.

22. Gandhara (गान्धार) - A northern tribe (VII.200.40) and key allies of the Kauravas. Their king Shakuni lived at the Kaurava court and guided their destinies. Gandhara generally denotes Peshawar and Rawalpindi, though Persian inscriptions reveal that it included Kabul ( Afghanistan). (VI.10.52)

काश्मीराः सिन्धुसौवीरा गान्धारा दर्शकास तदा । अभीसारा कुलूताश च शौवला बाह्लिकास तदा (VI.10.52)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Gandhara (गान्धार) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Gandhar (गान्धार) in Agra district in villages Bichpuri of Agra district.

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23. Govasana (गॊवासन) - Fought on the side of the Kauravas (VI.11.73), they also brought tribute to Yudhisthira (II.47.5).

गॊवासना बराह्मणाश च दासमीयाश च सर्वशः । परीत्यर्दं ते महाभागा धर्मराज्ञॊ महात्मनः (II.47.5)
They are from place Gavasen in district Betul in Madhya Pradesh.

24. Chichchhila (ra) (चिच्छिल) - In the Kuru army with Mekala and Traipura (VI.83.9) of the central region.

पराग्ज्यॊतिषाथ अनु नृपः कौसल्यॊ ऽद बृहथ्बलः । मेकलैस तरैपुरैश चैव चिच्छिलैश च समन्वितः
They are from place Chicholi in district Betul in Madhya Pradesh.

25. China (चीना) - A northwestern tribe (Darunamlecchajatayah VI .10.64); linked with the Kiratas in the army of Bhagadatta. Sided with the Kauravas in the war (III.174.12).

यवनाश च स काम्बॊजा थारुणा मलेच्छ जातयः । सक्षथ्थ्रुहः कुन्तलाश च हूणाः पारतकैः सह (VI .10.64)
तदैव मरधाश चीनास तदैव दश मालिकाः । कषत्रियॊपनिवेशाश च वैश्यशूथ्र कुलानि च (VI .10.65)
The Mahabharata Tribe - China (चीना) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Chheena (छीना) or China (चीना). [25]

26. Chuchupa (-ka) (चूचुप) - Figured in Duryodhana's army (VI. 47.16); a southern people.

दरदैश चूचुपैश चैव तदा कषुद्रकमालवैः । अभ्यरक्षत संहृष्टः सौबलेयस्य वाहिनीम (VI. 47.16)

27. Tushara (तुषार) - A northwestern tribe (XII. 65), sided with the Kauravas (VI.75,VIII.73). (VI.10.66)

शूद्राभीराद दरदाः काश्मीराः पशुभिः सह । खशिकाश च तुखाराश च पल्लवा गिरिगह्वराः (VI.10.66)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Tushara (तुषार) may be identified with Jat Gotras - Tushar (तुषार) Tukhar (तुखार) Tusiar (तुसियर) Tusir (तुसीर) Tushir (तुशीर). This gotra originated from Tushara (तुषार) janapada mentioned in Mahabharata. This place is now in Gilgit. There was Tusharagiri mountain also. [26]

28. Tundikera (तुण्डिकेर) - Sided with the Kauravas (VIII.4.47); from modern Tundikhera in district Narasinghpur in Madhya Pradesh.

मावेल्लकास तुण्डिकेराः सावित्री पुत्र काञ्चलाह । पराच्यॊथीच्याः परतीच्याश च थाक्षिणात्याश च मारिष (VIII.4.47)

29. Trigarta (त्रिगर्त) - Dwelled between the Ravi and Sutlej; were major allies of the Kauravas. (VI.47.7)

संस्दानाः शूरसेनाश च वेणिकाः कुकुरास तदा । आरेवकास तरिगर्ताश च मथ्रका यवनास तदा (VI.47.7)
The Mahabharata Book 2: Sabha Parva locates them along with Dasarnas, the Sivis, the Amvashtas, the Malavas, the five tribes of the Karnatas around Rohtak in Haryana as under:
शैरीषकं महेच्छं च वशे चक्रे महाथ्युतिः । शिबींस त्रिगर्तान अम्बष्ठान मालवान पञ्च कर्पटान (II.31.6)
The Trigartas (त्रिगर्त) were ancient tribes of Mahabharata period which gave rise to many Jat clans, such as (1) Damal , Damara, Damas, Dhami, Dhamora (2) Kundu, Kadwasra, Kandoli, Kondal, Kont, Konth(3) Dangi, (4) Khanda, Khandaulia, Khandel, Khandia Khandaya, Khodiwal, (5) Jali, (6) Brahman, Brahma, Brahmayan and (7) Janar, Janvar, Janak, Janal, Janar, Janawa .[27]

30. Darvika (दर्वीक) /Darva (दर्व) - In 'geography' (VI.10.53); associated with Kashmir; fought with the Kauravas (VII.66.42).

दर्वीकाः सकचा दर्वा वातजाम रदॊरगाः । बहु वाथ्याश च कौरव्य सुथामानः सुमल्लिकाः (VI.10.53)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Tushara (तुषार) may be identified with Jat Gotras - Darv (दर्व) Darva (दर्व) Darawar (दारावार) . [28]

31. Dasam/ Dasameya - Kaurava supporters (VIII.51.22) from Punjab.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Dasam/ Dasameya) may be identified with Jat Gotras - Daseya (दसेया) who live in Nimach district in Madhya Pradesh

32. Narayaia (नारायण) - A tribe of cowherds and professional warriors from Anarta, Kathiawar. The Narayana army was the personal army of Sri Krishna who gave them to Duryodhana after being chosen by Arjuna (V.7.16). They are also called Gopala (VII.66.38). It seems that other divisions of the Narayana army joined the Pandavas (VIII. 4.59). Probably indicates Punjab, as a region watered by five rivers; conquered by Nakula

माचेल्लका ललित्दाश च केकया मद्रकास तदा । नारायणाश च गॊपालाः काम्बॊजानां च ये गणाः (VII.66.38)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Narayaia (नारायण) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Narain (नरैन) originated from place name Narei (नरेई) surrounded by Capitalia. [29] It is one of the Jat clans as described by Megasthenes.

33. Panchanada (पञ्चनद) - Probably indicates Punjab, as a region watered by five rivers; conquered by Nakula (II.29.10). Sided with the Kuru army (VI.52.5; VI.20.10).

कृत्स्नं पञ्चनदं चैव तदैवापरपर्यटम । उत्तरज्यॊतिकं चैव तदा वृण्डाटकं पुरम । दवारपालं च तरसा वशे चक्रे महाथ्युतिः (II.29.10)

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34. Pahlava (पह्लव) - A north-western tribe, defeated by Nakula (II.29.15); joined the Kaurava forces (VI.20.13).

शारथ्वतश चॊत्तरधूर महात्मा; महेष्वासॊ गौतमश चित्रयॊधी । शकैः किरातैर यवनैः पह्लवैश च; सार्धं चमूम उत्तरतॊ ऽभिपाति (VI.20.13)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Pahlava (पह्लव) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pahlawat (पहलावत).

35. Panibhadraka (पाणिभद्रक) - A tribe in Duryodhana's army (VI.47.9), probably from the north Himalayas.

चित्रसेनेन सहिताः सहिताः पाणिभद्रकैः । भीष्मम एवाभिरक्षन्तु सह सैन्यपुरस्कृताः (VI.47.9)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Panibhadraka (पाणिभद्रक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Bhadu.

36. Parada/Parataka (पारद) - In the tribute list (II.48.12); came from the west of the Indus near the ocean, and fought on the side of the Kauravas (VI.83.7).

कायव्या दरदा दार्वाः शूरा वैयमकास तदा । औदुम्बरा दुर्विभागाः पारदा बाह्लिकैः सह (II.48.12)
ततॊ ऽनन्तरम एवासीथ भारथ्वाजः परतापवान । पुलिन्थैः पारदैश चैव तदा कषुथ्रकमालवैः (VI.83.7)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Parada/Parataka (पारद) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Parodiya (पारोडिया) who live in Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh.

37. Pulinda (पुलिन्द) - A Vindhya tribe which joined the Kuru army (VI.83.7).

ततॊ ऽनन्तरम एवासीथ भारथ्वाजः परतापवान । पुलिन्दैः पारदैश चैव तदा कषुथ्रकमालवैः (VI.83.7)

38. Prasthala (परस्दल) - A Trigarta branch who fought in the Kuru army (VI.83.10); could have come from the Punjab or Sind region.

बृहथ्बलात ततः शूरस तरिगर्तः परस्दलाधिपः । काम्बॊजैर बहुभिः सार्धं यवनैश च सहस्रशः (VI.83.10)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Prasthala (परस्दल) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Paras (परस) who live in Maharashtra. [30]

39. Bhoja (भॊज) - Descendants of Yayati's son Druhyu (Mbh.I.80.26), they were closely linked With the Yadavas in the epic. (VI.20.14) One branch headed by Krtavarma sided with the Kauravas.

यदॊस तु यादवा जातास तुर्वसॊर यवनाः सुताः । दरुह्यॊर अपि सुता भॊजा अनॊस तु मलेच्छ जातयः (I.80.26)
महारदैर अन्धकवृष्णिभॊजैः; सौराष्ट्रकैर नैरृतैर आत्तशस्त्रैः । बृहथ्बलः कृतवर्माभिगुप्तॊ; बलं तवथीयं थक्षिणतॊ ऽभिपाति (VI.20.14)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Bhoja (भॊज) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Bhoj (भोज) found in Nimach district in Madhya Pradesh.

40. Malava (मालव) - The name Malava occurs separately as well as in the form of Kshudraka-Malava; they were a Punjab tribe according to the digvijaya of Karna (III.241.67). Nakula also defeated them (II.29.6). They joined the Kuru army and protected Bhishma and Drona (VI.83.6-7). The Malava tribe is famous for its resistance to Alexandaer in the region between Ravi and Chenab.

अग्रतः सर्वसैन्यानां भीष्मः शांतनवॊ ययौ । मालवैर दाक्षिणात्यैश च आवन्त्यैश च समन्वितः (VI.83.6)
ततॊ ऽनन्तरम एवासीथ भारथ्वाजः परतापवान । पुलिन्थैः पारथैश चैव तदा कषुद्रकमालवैः (VI.83.7)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Malava (मालव) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mall (मल्ल) or Malli (मल्ली).

41. Mahishmati (माहिष्मती) - Ruled by King Nila of the Haihaya dynasty and subdued by Karna (III.241.56) and later by Sahadeva (II.28.11). In the War, nila was on the Kaurava side (V.19). The city is identified with modern Mandhata on an island in the Narmada.

ततॊ रत्नान्य उपाथाय पुरीं माहिष्मतीं ययौ । तत्र नीलेन राज्ञा सचक्रे युथ्धं नरर्षभः (II.28.11)
The city of Mahishmati, Capital of King Nila,where the battle that took place between king Nila and the mighty Sahadeva. Nila (नील) is gotra of Jats found in Tonk, Jaipur districts in Rajasthan.

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42. Munda (मुण्ड) - Fought in the Kuru army (VI.52.9), and were a northwestern tribe (III.48.21). Shalya Parva (IX.44.90)

हारहूणांश च चीनांश च तुखारान सैन्धवांस तदा । जागुडान रमठान मुण्डान सत्री राज्यान अद तङ्गणान(III.48.21)
तरिशिठा दविशिखाश चैव तदा सप्त शिखाः परे । शिखण्डिनॊ मुकुटिनॊ मुण्डाश च जटिलास तदा (IX.44.90)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Munda (मुण्ड) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mund (मूंड)
Bhim Singh Dahiya writes that the Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta mentions about Munda clan.[31]

43. Mekala (मेकल) - They fought on the side of the Kauravas (VIII. 17.2, VI. 83-9; 47.13). Mekala is the hill range in Gondwana from where the Narmada flows, and has been identified with Amarkantak.

पराच्याश च दाक्षिणात्याश च परवीरा गजयॊधिनः । अङ्गा वङ्गाश च पुण्ड्राश च मागधास ताम्रलिप्तकाः (VIII. 17.2)
मेकलाः कॊशला मद्रा दशार्णा निषधास तदा । गजयुथ्धेषु कुशलाः कलिङ्गैः सह भारत (VIII. 17.3)
चेदिवत्साः करूषाश च भॊजाः सिन्धुपुलिन्थकाः । उत्तमौजा दशार्णाश च मेकलाश चॊत्कलैः सह (VI.10.39)


44. Lalittha (ललित्द) - Figure in the Kuru army (VIII.4.46); could be a Rajput tribe from Azamgarh.

मालवा मद्रकाश चैव दरविडाश चॊग्रविक्रमाः । यौधेयाश च ललित्दाश च कषुथ्रकाश चाप्य उशीनराः (VIII.4.46)

45. Vanga (वङ्ग) - Probably from Bengal, they brought tributes to Yudhisthira (II.47.10). The eastern Vangas were elephant fighters in the Kuru army (VIII. 17.2).

पराच्याश च दाक्षिणात्याश च परवीरा गजयॊधिनः । अङ्गा वङ्गाश च पुण्ड्राश च मागधास ताम्रलिप्तकाः (VIII. 17.2)

46. Vanayu (वनायु) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.54); they figured in the Kuru army as special forces of the Gandhara king (VIII.4.96) and came from the Wana valley in Pakistan.

वध्राः करीषकाश चापि कुलिन्थॊपत्यकास तदा । वनायवॊ दशा पार्श्वा रॊमाणः कुश बिन्दवः (VI.10.54)

47. Vasatis (वसाति) - Figure in the tribute list (II.48.14). They sided with the Kauravas (VI.47.14, VI. 18.12) and came from the Mula pass in Baluchistan or somewhere in Makran.

अम्बष्ठाः कौकुरास तार्क्ष्या वस्त्रपाः पह्लवैः सह । वसातयः समौलेयाः सह कषुद्रकमालवैः (II.48.14)
रदा विंशतिसाहस्रास तदैषाम अनुयायिनः । अभीषाहाः शूरसेनाः शिबयॊ ऽद वसातयः (VI. 18.12)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Vasatis (वसाति) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Basati (बसाति).

48. Vatadhana (वाटधान) - An important Jat and Brahmin tribe, In geography (VI.10.45), they sided with the Kauravas in the Great War (VI.52.4); hailed from Varana near Kurukshetra (V.19.30).

तथा मध्यमिकायांशवाटधानान द्विजान अद । पुनश च परिवृत्याद पुष्करारण्यवासिनः (II.29.7)
मल्लाः सुदेष्णाः पराहूतास तदा माहिष कार्षिकाः । वाहीका वाटधानाश च आभीराः कालतॊयकाः (VI.10.45)
अश्वत्दामा कृपश चैव शीर्षम आस्तां यशस्विनौ । तरिगर्तैर मत्स्यकैकेयैर वाटधानैश च संयुतौ (VI.52.4)
ततः पञ्चनथं चैव कृत्स्नं च कुरुजाङ्गलम । तदा रॊहित कारण्यं मरु भूमिश च केवला (V.19.29)
अहिच छत्रं कालकूटं गङ्गाकूलं च भारत । वारणा वाटधानं च यामुनश चैव पर्वतः (V.19.30)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Vatadhana (वाटधान) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vatdhan (वाटधान) Vattadhana (वाटधान) Batdhan (बाटधान) Batar (बाटड़) found in Punjab and Rajasthan. They are called Batar in Rajasthan.

49. Vikarna (विकर्ण) - Fought in the army of Kauravas (VI. 47.15); also the name of a Kaurava prince.

ततॊ थुर्यॊधनॊ राजा सहितः सर्वसॊथरैः । अश्वातकैर विकर्णैश च तदा शर्मिल कॊसलैः (VI. 47.15)

50. Vikunja (विकुञ्ज) - They were in the Kuru army (VI. 52.9).

काननाश च विकुञ्जाश च मुक्ताः पुण्ड्राविषस तदा । बृहथ्बलेन सहिता वामं पक्षम उपाश्रिताः (VI. 52.9)

51. Venika (वेणिक) - Fought in the Kuru army (VI. 47.7).

संस्दानाः शूरसेनाश च वेणिकाः कुकुरास तदा । आरेवकास तरिगर्ताश च मथ्रका यवनास तदा (VI. 47.7)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Venika (वेणिक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Beniwal (बेनीवाल) Veniwal (वेणिवाल) .

52. Shalva (शाल्व) - An important tribe associated with Madras and Matsyas, spread over western India from Yamuna to Sind. The Salva kingdom in the story of Savitri was adjacent to Kuru-Panchala and lay between the Yamuna and Sarasvati. They fought on the side of the Kauravas (VI. 18.13, VI.20.12).

शाल्वा मत्स्यास तदाम्बष्ठास तरिगर्ताः केकयास तदा । सौवीराः कितवाः पराच्याः परतीच्यॊथीच्यमालवाः (VI. 18.13)
वार्थ्धक्षत्रिः सर्वसैन्यस्य मध्ये; भूरिश्रवाः पुरुमित्रॊ जयश च । शाल्वा मत्स्याः केकयाश चापि सर्वे; गजानीकैर भरातरॊ यॊत्स्यमानाः (VI.20.12)
The Salvas were a branch of the Madras and were ruling at Sialkot. We know that the Madras were Vahikas and Jartas. Since according to grammatical illustration of Chandra-gomin the Jarta defeated the Huns, which means Skanda Gupta defeated the Huns. Hence Jartas are Jats. [32]

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53. Sura (शूरा) - Fought in the Kuru army among the tribes of the northwest (VI.20.30); considered identical with the Sur tribe of Afghanistan. (II.29.5), (II.31.13). Mahabharata Bhisma Parva mentions about these people in shloka 38 as under:

शूरसेनाः कलिङ्गाशबॊधा मौकास तदैव च । मत्स्याः सुकुट्यः सौबल्याः कुन्तलाः काशिकॊशलाः (VI.10.38)
तत्र युद्धं महद वृत्तं शूरैर मत्तमयूरकैः । मरु भूमिं च कार्त्स्न्येन तदैव बहु धान्यकम (II.29.5)
बाह्लिकाश चापरे शूरा राजानः सर्व एव ते । विराटः सह पुत्रैश च माचेल्लश च महारदः । राजानॊ राजपुत्राश च नानाजनपथेश्वराः (II.31.13)
कायव्या दरदा दार्वाः शूरा वैयमकास तदा । औदुम्बरा दुर्विभागाः पारदा बाह्लिकैः सह (II.48.12)
थिव्याश चाप्य आन्तरिक्षाश च पार्दिवाश चानिलॊपमाः । वयादिष्टा दैवतैः शूराः सकन्दस्यानुचराभवन (IX.44.109)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Sura (शूरा) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Shura (शूरा)

54. Surasena (शूरसेन) - An ancient people held in high esteem in the Mbh. (VIII.30.73); their capital was in Mathura. They sided with the [[[Kaurava]]s in the war (VI. 47.7, 57.7).

शूरसेनाः कलिङ्गाशबॊधा मौकास तदैव च
मत्स्याः सुकुट्यः सौबल्याः कुन्तलाः काशिकॊशलाः (VI.10.38)
संस्दानाः शूरसेनाश च वेणिकाः कुकुरास तदा । आरेवकास तरिगर्ताश च मथ्रका यवनास तदा (VI.47.7)
वसातयॊ महाराज थविसाहस्राः परहारिणः । शूरसेनाश च विक्रान्ताः सर्वे युधि निपातिताः (VIII.4.36)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Surasena (शूरसेन) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Shura (शूरा)

55. Samsthana - Protected Bhishma in the Kaurava army (VI. 47.7).

56. Simhala (सिंघल) - A tribe whose representatives served as bondsmen at Yudhisthira's court (III. 48.20.); also the old name of Sri Lanka. They sided with the Kauravas (VII. 19.7).

The Mahabharata Tribe - Simhala (सिंघल) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Singhal (सिंघल) who live in Sikar district of Rajasthan and in Mehrauli district of south Delhi.

57. Sindhu-Sauvira (सिन्धु-सुवीर) - An ancient people of Sind (VIII.112.108, V. 72.14) who fought on the Kaurava side. Their king Jayadratha was the son-in-law of Dhrtarastra (VIII.4.11).

अज बिन्थुः सुवीराणां सुराष्ट्राणां कुशर्थ्धिकः । अर्कजश च बलीहानां चीनानां धौतमूलकः (V.72.14)
सिन्धुराष्ट्रमुखानीह दश राष्ट्राणि यस्य वै । वशे तिष्ठन्ति वीरस्य यः सदितस तव शासने (VIII.4.11)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Sindhu (सिन्धु) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Sindhu (सिन्धु)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Sauvira (सुवीर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Siwar (सीवर)

58. Surastra (सुराष्ट्र) - A southwest tribe mentioned several times (VI. 10.47, II.28.39, II.28.40); joined the Kaurava army (VI. 20.14).

उपावृश्चानुपावृश्च सुराष्ट्राः केकयास तदा । कुट्टापरान्ता थवैधेयाः काक्षाः सामुथ्र निष्कुटाः (VI. 10.47)
आहृतिं कौशिकाचार्यं यत्नेन महता ततः । वशे चक्रे महाबाहुः सुराष्ट्राधिपतिं तदा (II.28.39)
सुराष्ट्र विषयस्दश च परेषयाम आस रुक्मिणे । राज्ञे भॊजकटस्दाय महामात्राय धीमते (II.28.40)
महारदैर अन्धकवृष्णिभॊजैः; सौराष्ट्रकैर नैरृतैर आत्तशस्त्रैः । बृहथ्बलः कृतवर्माभिगुप्तॊ; बलं तवथीयं थक्षिणतॊ ऽभिपाति (VI. 20.14)

59. Hamsamarga (हंसमार्ग) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.68); they joined the Kaurava army (VII. 19.7).

तामरा हंसमार्गाश च तदैव करभञ्जकाः । उथ्थेश मात्रेण मया थेशाः संकीर्तिताः परभॊ (VI. 10.68)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Hamsamarga (हंसमार्ग) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Hans (हंस) or Hansawat (हंसावत).

Tribes With unclear Position

Tribes in 'Geography' and 'Tributes' /Whose Position is not Known/Did not Join the War/Unknown Tribes

1. Atavisavara (अटवीशबर) - Refers to the tribes of mid- Vindhya region, and may be identical with the Atavika mentioned in the Puranas and the Allahabad Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta. Mentioned in geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.46). अपरन्ध्राश च शूद्राश च पह्लवाश चर्म खण्डिकाः । अटवी शबराश चैव मरु भौमाश च मारिष (VI.10.46). The Mahabharata Tribe - Atavi (अटवी) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Atval (अटवाल) of Jats from Punjab. The Mahabharata Tribe - Shavara (शबर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Senwar (सेंवर)) of Jats from Rajasthan.


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2.Anupaka (अनूपक) - Possibly the country of the Anupas in the Mahishmati region on the western coast, though some scholars suggest district Nimar on the banks of the Narmada. Mbh. mentions Arjuna Kartavirya of the Haihaya (Yadava) dynasty as Anupapati (III. 116. 19). कथा चित तु तदैवास्य विनिष्क्रान्ताः सुताः परभॊ । अदानूप पतिर वीरः कार्तवीर्यॊ ऽभयवर्तत (III. 116. 19)

3. Adhiraja (अधिराज)- A branch of the Matsyas; mentioned in the course of Sahdeva's conquest of the southern regions (II.28.2-4). Probably a dominion or tributary neighbour of Matsya kingdom.

स शूरसेनान कार्त्स्न्येन पूर्वम एवाजयत परभुः । मत्स्यराजं च कौरव्यॊ वशे चक्रे बलाथ बली (II.28.2)
अधिराजाधिपं चैव थन्तवक्रं महाहवे । जिगाय करथं चैव सवराज्ये संन्यवेशयत (II.28.3)
सुकुमारं वशे चक्रे सुमित्रं च नराधिपम । तदैवापरमत्स्यांश च वयजयत स पटच चरान (II.28.4)

4. Anupavrt (अनूपवृत) -

5. Antargirya - Identity not certain.

6. Aparaparyata - Conquered by Nakula. Identification not certain.

7. Aparavartaka -

8. Aparanta (अपरान्त) - Signifies frontier, identification not certain.

9. Arbuda (अर्बुद) - Were vanquished by Sahdeva (II.28.8). Also a famous mountain in the Puranas, now known as Mt. Abu.

तादृशानां सहस्राणि परयुतान्य अर्बुदानि च । अभिषिक्तं महात्मानं परिवार्यॊपतस्दिरे (IX.44.110)

Sabha Parva Mahabharata (II.47.26) mentions about Arbuda.

शकास तुखाराः कङ्काश च रॊमशाः शृङ्गिणॊ नराः । महागमान थूरगमान गणितान अर्बुदं हयान (II.47.26)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Arbuda (अर्बुद) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Avalak (अवलक) who were Nagavanshi.

10. Agreya (अग्रेय) - A janapada conquered by Karna (III. 241.67). Possibly in hisar region or near Agra.

The Mahabharata Tribes - Agreya (अग्रेय) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Agre (अग्रे)

11. Atreya (आत्रेय) - A northwestern primitive tribe (VI.10.67), possibly located in Atari, between Lahore and Amritsar. Were later initiated in the Brahmin gotras of Atri and Bharadvaja.

आत्रेयाः स भरद्वाजास तदैव सतनयॊषिकाः । औपकाश च कलिङ्गाश च किरातानां च जातयः (VI.10.67)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Atreya (आत्रेय) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Atri (अत्री)

12. Adidaya -

13. Adirashtra (आदिराष्ट्र) - Possibly from the central or eastern regions.

14. Anarta (आनर्त) - Refers to the famous land of great Yadava royal families in modern Gujarat and Kathiawar near the Rann of Kutch; ruled by many tribal oligarchies.

तम एव थिवसं चापि कौन्तेयः पाण्डुनन्थनः । आनर्तनगरीं रम्यां जगामाशु धनंजयः (V.7.4)
When Pandavas were exiled to the woods, by the Kauravas, the five sons of Pandavas, born to Draupadi, were sent to Panchala, the kingdom ruled by their maternal grandfather Drupada. They later wnet to the Anarta Kingdom, ruled by the Yadavas, so that they can stay with their step brother and dear friend, Abhimanyu, and learn military science from eminent Yadava warriors. (MBh. 3.182) After the expiry of the thirteenth year, the five Pandavas took up their abode in one of Virata’s towns called Upaplavya. Arjuna brought over Abhimanyu and Vasudeva Krishna, and also many people of the Dasarha race from the Anarta country. (Mbh 4.72) Mahabharata (MBh 5.83), it is mentioned that Pandava's mother Kunti also stayed for some time in Anarta, during the exile of the Pandavas. (V.7.4)
In geography the country of Anartas is mentioned with the Sakas, the Nishadhas, the Nairitas, the Dugalas, the Pratimasyas, the Kuntalas, and the Kusalas. (VI.10.50)
शका निषादा निषधास तदैवानर्तनैरृताः। दुगूलाः परतिमत्स्याश च कुशलाः कुनटास तदा (VI.10.50)
Satyaki was a general in the Pandava, army. He was a chief of Anartas. (9. 17).Kritavarman was a general in the Kaurava, army (9. 17). He is described as the dweller of the Anarta country, the son of Hridika, the mighty car-warrior, the foremost one among the Satwatas, the chief of the Bhojas. Vivingsati, one among the 100 Kaurava brothers, had slain hundreds of Anarta warriors.

15. Amra (आम्र) - Possibly a janapada in the Jaipur region.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Amra (आम्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Ameria (आमेरिया) who live in Jaipur district in Rajasthan.

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16. Audumbara (औदुम्बर) - An important ancient tribe, mentioned in the tribute list (II.47.12). Bauddha texts say they dwelled on the highway from Magadha to Kashmira in east Kangra district. (II.48.12)

कायव्या दरदा दार्वाः शूरा वैयमकास तदा । औदुम्बरा दुर्विभागाः पारदा बाह्लिकैः सह (II.48.12)
Audumbaras were a north Indian tribal nation east of the Punjab, in the Western Himalaya region. They were the most important tribe of the Himachal Pradesh, and lived in the lower hills between Sirmaur and Yamuna.
They issued coinage from the 1st century BCE, when they seemingly gained independence from the Indo-Greeks. Their favorite deities were Mahādeva or Shiva, and also Kārtikeya, standing with a spear in right hand. The silver coins of the Kunindas, the Vemakas and the Audumbaras closely follow the coins of Apollodotus II in their characteristics (weight, size and material). [33]

17. Avasira - Could be Ayodhya region, defeated by Karna (III.241.44).

18. Ekashana/Jyoha (ज्यॊह) - Brought tributes to Yudhisthira (II.48.3).

खशा एकाशनाज्यॊहाः परदरा थीर्घवेनवः । पशुपाश च कुणिन्थाश च तङ्गणाः परतङ्गणाः (II.48.3)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Jyoha (ज्यॊह) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Johiya (जोहिया).

19. Udra (Odra) (ओद्र) - Modern Orissa, also known as Utkala and Kalinga.

पाण्ड्यांश च थरविथांश चैव सहितांश चॊद्र केरलैः । अन्ध्रांस तलवनांश चैव कलिङ्गान ओष्ट्र कर्णिकान (II.28.48)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Odra) (ओद्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Odhran (ओधरान).

20. Utkala (उत्कल) - Utkala was separate from Odra and Kalinga (VI.10.3 9).

चेदिवत्साः करूषाश च भॊजाः सिन्धुपुलिन्थकाः । उत्तमौजा दशार्णाश च मेकलाश चॊत्कलैः सह (VI.10.39)

21. Uttama (उत्तम) - Could be a Gond tribe in Mahadeo Hills. (VI.10.39)

चेदिवत्साः करूषाश च भॊजाः सिन्धुपुलिन्थकाः
उत्तमौजा दशार्णाश च मेकलाश चॊत्कलैः सह (VI.10.39)

22. Uttarakurava (उत्तर कुरु) - Arjuna reached Uttarakuru during his northern conquest (II.25.7).

मेरुमन्दरयॊर मध्ये शैलॊदाम अभितॊ नदीम । ये ते कीचक वेणूनां छायां रम्याम उपासते (II.48.2)
उत्तरेभ्यः कुरुभ्यश चाप्य अपॊढं माल्यम अम्बुभिः । उत्तराद अपि कैलासाद ओषधीः सुमहाबलाः (II.48.6)
Dr V. S. Aggarwala thinks that the Uttarakuru was located to north of Pamirs in Central Asia and was also famous for its horses of Tittirakalamasha variety. [34]Thus it probably comprised parts of Kirgizstan and Tian-Shan. Bhishma Parava of Mahabharata attests that the country of Uttarakuru lied to the north of Mt Meru and to the south of Nila Parvata. The Mt Meru of Hindu traditions is identified with the knot of Pamirs. Mountain Nila may have been the Altai-Mt.[35]
The Mahabharata refers to the Kichaka bamboos growing on the banks of river Shailoda. (II.48.2) Mahabharata further attests that the Kichaka bamboo region was situated between Mountain Meru (Pamirs) and Mountain Mandara (Alta Tag). The river valleys between these two mountains are still overgrown with forests of Kichaka Bamboos.[36]

23. Utsavasanketa (उत्सव संकेत) - Were defeated by Arjuna (II.24.4) and Nakula (II.29.8). Possibly the Kinnar tribes between Kangra and Rampur Bushar.

गणान उत्सव संकेतान वयजयत पुरुषर्षभ । सिन्धुकूलाश्रिता ये च गरामणेया महाबलाः (II.29.8)

24. Unntyaka (उन्नत्यक) - Mentioned among the southern-most tribes (VI.10.57), possibly Karnataka region.

दरविडाः केरलाः पराच्या भूषिका वनवासिनः : उन्नत्यका माहिषका विकल्पा मूषकास तदा (VI.10.57)

25. Upavrt - Possibly a tribe of the Saurashtra region.

26. Uluka (उलूक) - Were vanquished by Arjuna (II.24.4).

सौबलेन च राजेन्थ्र तदा थुःशासनेन च । आहूयॊपह्वरे राजन्न उलूकम इथम अब्रवीत (V.157.2)
उलूक गच्छ कैतव्य पाण्डवान सह सॊमकान । गत्वा मम वचॊ बरूहि वासुथेवस्य शृण्वतः (V.157.3)
तं च तूबरकम मूढं बह्व आशिनम अविथ्यकम । उलूक मथ्वचॊ बरूया असकृथ भीमसेनकम (V.157.16)
उलूक वथनाः के चिथ गृध्रगॊमायुथर्शनाः । करौञ्चपारावत निभैर वथनै राङ्कवैर अपि (IX.43.26)
उलूक वथनैर भीमैः शयेनभासमुखैस तदा । नानावर्णमृगप्रख्यैः सर्वजातिसमन्वयैः । किंनरैर थेवगन्धर्वैर यक्षभूतगणैस तदा (XIII.127.6)
The Mahabharata Tribes - Uluka (उलूक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Aulakh (ओलख).
Aulakh (ओलख) clan of Jats are descendants of Uluka. [37] Mahabharata mentions a country called Uluka. [38] The Mahabharata mentions them as Uluka. [39] As per grammar rules the name Aulak, is derived from Uluk, the name of the country. [40] Perhaps the Iranian Uruk, Indian Uraga was their country. [41]

27. Uraga (उरगा) - A northern tribe, possibly from Kashmir, vanquished by Arjuna (II.24.18).

अभिसारीं ततॊ रम्यां विजिग्ये कुरुनन्थनः । उरगावासिनं चैव रॊचमानं रणे ऽजयत (II.24.18)

28. Usinara (उशीनर) - An ancient tribe known from Rig Vedic times (X.59.1O), they hailed from Kanakhala, south east of Madra. The Brahmanas list them as a tribe of Madhyadesa.

शिबिम औशीनरं चैव मृतं शुश्रुम सृञ्जय । य इमां पृदिवीं कृत्स्नां चर्मवत समवेष्टयत (XII.29.35)
यावथ अथ्य गवाश्वं सयाथ आरण्यैः पशुभिः सह । तावतीः परथथौ गाः स शिबिर औशीनरॊ ऽधवरे (XII.29.37)
नॊथ्यन्तारं धुरं तस्य कं चिन मेने परजापतिः । न भूतं न भविष्यन्तं सर्वराजसु भारत । अन्यत्रौशीनराच छैब्याथ राजर्षेर इन्थ्र विक्रमात (XII.29.38)
There are many references to Usinaras in the Epic poetry Mahabharata. At several places, it refers to king Usinara and his son prince Sibi or Sivi whose charity has been enormously glorified by sage Markandeya.[42].

29. Ustrakarnika (उष्ट्र कर्णिक) - Were defeated by Sahdeva in the south (II.28.48) and were probably a Telugu tribe.

पाण्ड्यांश च थरविथांश चैव सहितांश चॊथ्र केरलैः । अन्ध्रांस तलवनांश चैव कलिङ्गान ओष्ट्र कर्णिकान (II.28.48)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Ustrakarnika (उष्ट्र कर्णिक) may be identified with present Utkanya (उटकाण्या) Jat Gotra living in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

30. Ekapada (एकपाद) - Mentioned in Sahdeva's conquest of the southern quarters (II.28.47).

एकपादांश च पुरुषान केवलान वनवासिनः । नगरीं संजयन्तीं च पिच्छण्डं करहाटकम
दूतैर एव वशे चक्रे करं चैनान अदापयत (II.28.47)

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31. Ekaprastha (एकपृष्ठ) - Mentioned in the 'geography' (VI.10.40); of them, Ekacharana has been identified as a branch of Kiratas.

पाञ्चालाः कौशिकाश चैव एकपृष्ठा युगं धराः । सौधा मद्रा भुजिङ्गाश च काशयॊ ऽपरकाशयः (VI.10.40)

32. Aupaka (Opa-) (औपक) - Mentioned in geography (VI. 10.67) and were possibly a northern mountaineer tribe. Location uncertain.

आत्रेयाः स भरथ्वाजास तदैव सतनयॊषिकाः । औपकाश च कलिङ्गाश च किरातानां च जातयः (VI. 10.67)

33. Kaksha (काक्ष)/ (Kaccha) (कच्छ) - Both Kaksha and Kaccha are mentioned twice in the 'geography' (VI. 10.47 and 55), and denote the dry grasslands of the Rann of Kutch, being mentioned between Dvaipeya and Samudra niskuta (people living on the sea-shore). Occupied by cowherds, Gopalakaksha.

उपावृश्चानुपावृश्च सुराष्ट्राः केकयास तदा । कुट्टापरान्ता थवैधेयाः काक्षाः सामुथ्र निष्कुटाः (VI. 10.47)
कच्छा गॊपाल कच्छाश च लाङ्गलाः परवल्लकाः । किराता बर्बराः सिथ्धा विथेहास ताम्रलिङ्गकाः (VI. 10.55)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kaccha) (कच्छ) may be identified with present Jat Gotra - Kachha (काछा) who live in Maharashtra. [43]

34. Karantha (करण्ठ) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.61); possibly northerners. The name bears affinity with Kharot, a tribe of caravan traders between Central Asia and lndia.

मालका मल्लकाश चैव तदैवापरवर्तकाः । कुलिन्थाः कुलकाश चैव करण्ठाः कुरकास तदा (VI.10.61)

35. Kara Bhanjaka (करभञ्जक) - Appear in 'geography' (VI.10.68); a northern hill tribe.

तामरा हंसमार्गाश च तदैव करभञ्जकाः । उथ्थेश मात्रेण मया थेशाः संकीर्तिताः परभॊ (VI.10.68)

36. Karishaka (करीषक) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.54) with tribes inhabiting the northwestern region; also a gotra name.

वध्राः करीषकाश चापि कुलिन्थॊपत्यकास तदा । वनायवॊ दशा पार्श्वा रॊमाणः कुश बिन्थवः (VI.10.54)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Karishaka (करीषक) may be identified with present Jat Gotra - 'Karig (करीग) Kari (करी). There was a republic called Karishaka (करीषक) during Mahabharata period, who lost it and moved here and there and were called Karig. [44]

37. Karkakhanda (कर्कखंड) - Mentioned In Karna's conquests (III.241.43) after Magadha, and before Sravasti and Ayodhya; possibly a name for Koshala.

38. Karkotaka (कर्कॊटक) - Mentioned by Karna as an impure people (VII.30.45); a southern tribe probably occupying a Vindhya range. Karkotaka has been mentioned amongst the names of the naga kings who attended the Sabha of Yudhishthira. (II.9.9), Mentioned in (VIII.30.45).

कम्बलाश्वतरौ नागौ धृतराष्ट्र बलाहकौ । मणिमान कुण्डलधरः कर्कॊटक धनंजयौ (II.9.9)
कारः करान महिषकान कलिङ्गान कीकटाटवीन । कर्कॊटकान वीरकांश च थुर्धर्मांश च विवर्जयेत (VIII.30.45)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Karkotaka (कर्कॊटक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Katewa (कटेवा).

39. Karnata ( Karahataka) - The Mahabharata Book 2: Sabha Parva SECTION XXXI locates The Trigartas, the Dasharnas, the Sivis, the Amvashtas, the Malavas, the five tribes of the Karnatas around Rohtak in Haryana as under:

शैरीषकं महेच्छं च वशे चक्रे महाथ्युतिः । शिबींस त्रिगर्तान अम्बष्ठान मालवान पञ्च कर्पटान (II.31.6)

40. Kalinga (कलिङ्ग) - Lived south of the Vaitarani river (III.114.4), in the area between Vaitarani and Vijagapattam in modern Orissa. Shalya Parva (IX.44.59)

एते कलिङ्गाः कौन्तेय यत्र वैतरणी नथी । यत्रायजत धर्मॊ ऽपि थेवाञ शरणम एत्य वै (III.114.4)
पुत्र मेषः परवाहश च तदा नन्दॊपनन्दकौ । धूम्रः शवेतः कलिङ्गश च सिद्धार्दॊ वरदस तदा (IX.44.59)

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41. Kalkala (कल्कल) - A Vindhya tribe listed in the 'geography' (VI.10.60).

तर्यङ्गाः केकरकाः परॊष्ठाः परसंचरकास तदा । तदैव विन्ध्यपुलकाः पुलिन्थाः कल्कलैः सह (VI.10.60)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kalkala (कल्कल) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kalkal (कलकल)

42. Kaka (काक) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.63).

हृषीविथर्भाः कान्तीकास तङ्गणाः परतङ्गणाः । उत्तराश चापरे मलेच्छा जना भरतसत्तम (VI.10.63)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kaka (काक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kak (काक)

43. Kanka (कङ्क) - Mentioned in the tribute list (II.47.26) as wearing horns, a practice among some Iranian tribes of Central Asia. A Jat tribe living between Beas and Sutlej in Punjab is as Kang; claims descent from solar race of Ayodhya.

शकास तुखाराः कङ्काश च रॊमशाः शृङ्गिणॊ नराः । महागमान थूरगमान गणितान अर्बुथं हयान (II.47.26)
Jat Gotra Kang in Mahabharata, is mentioned as Kankas. (IX.44.69)
अचलः कनकाक्षश च बालानाम अयिकः परभुः । संचारकः कॊक नथॊ गृध्रवक्त्रश च जम्बुकः (IX.44.69)

44. Karnika (कर्णिक) - Listed in the 'geography' (VI.10.58).

कर्णिकाः कुन्तिकाश चैव सौब्धिथा नलकालकाः । कौकुट्टकास तदा चॊलाः कॊङ्कणा मालवाणकाः (VI.10.58)

45. Karvata - Possibly a Bengal tribe whose king was conquered by Bhima (II.27.22).

46. Karaskara (कारस्कर) - Served as tributaries in the palace of Yudhishthira (II.46.21). Mentioned as people (VIII.30.45).

आवर्जिता इवाभान्ति निघ्नाश चैत्रकि कौकुराः । कारः करा लॊहजङ्घा युधिष्ठिर निवेशने (II.46.21)
कारः करान महिषकान कलिङ्गान कीकटाटवीन । कर्कॊटकान वीरकांश च थुर्धर्मांश च विवर्जयेत (VIII.30.45)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Karaskara (कारस्कर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Karaskar (कारस्कर)

47. Kayavya (कायव्य) - A northwestern tribe in the tribute list (II.48.12).

कायव्या दरदा दार्वाः शूरा वैयमकास तदा । औथुम्बरा दुर्विभागाः पारदा बाह्लिकैः सह (II.48.12)

48. Karpasika (कार्पासिक) - Brought tributes to Yudhisthira (II.47.7); possibly hailed from the Vidisha region in Central India.

शतं दासी सहस्राणां कार्पासिक निवासिनाम । शयामास तन्व्यॊ थीर्घकेश्यॊ हेमाभरण भूषिताः । शूथ्रा विप्रॊत्तमार्हाणि राङ्कवान्य अजिनानि च (II.47.7)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Karpasika (कार्पासिक) may be identified with -

Kapisha (Persian: کاپيسا) which is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. Jat Gotras derived from this place are - Kapahi (कपही) Kapai (कपाई) Kapureya (कपूरेया) Kapdia (कापड़िया).

49. Kalakuta (कालकूट) - A mountain (II.23.14) conquered by Arjun. Mbh. mentions the inhabitants of Kalakuta as a neighbouring tribe of Kuru land (II.20.26, V.19.30).

आनर्तान कालकूटांश च कुणिन्थांश च विजित्य सः । सुमण्डलं पापजितं कृतवान अनु सैनिकम (II.23.14)
People who came from the side of Kalakuta (कालकूट) mountain were known as Kaler - Jat Gotra.[45]
Kaliraman (कालीरमन) jats had won the Kalakuta (कालकूट) country also. [46]

50. Kalatoyaka (कालतॊयक) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.X. 45).

मल्लाः सुथेष्णाः पराहूतास तदा माहिष कार्षिकाः । वाहीका वाटधानाश च आभीराः कालतॊयकाः (VI.X. 45)

51. Kalada (कालाद) - Possibly a minor hill tribe in the Himalayas; mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.61).

The Mahabharata Tribe - Karaskara (कारस्कर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kandwal (कंदवाल) who got this name from Kalada (कालाद). [47]


52. Kalamukha (कालमुख) - A southern tribe (II.28.45); probably a Bhil tribe.

ये च कालमुखा नाम नरा राक्षसयॊनयः । कृत्स्नं कॊल्ल गिरिं चैव मुरची पत्तनं तदा (II.28.45)

53. Kashmira (काश्मीर) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.52 and 66); were defeated by Arjuna (II.23.24). Did not join the war.

काश्मीराः सिन्धुसौवीरा गान्धारा थर्शकास तदा । अभीसारा कुलूताश च शौवला बाह्लिकास तदा (VI.10.52)
शूथ्राभीराद थरथाः काश्मीराः पशुभिः सह । खशिकाश च तुखाराश च पल्लवा गिरिगह्वराः (VI.10.66)

54. Kichaka (कीचक) - Their realms lay on the route to Ekacakra from Varnavata. The Pandavas travelled through Matsya, Trigarta and Panchala lands and entered Kichaka land (I.144.2). They were soldiers of the Matsya king, and their ruler was killed by Bhima. They seem not to have joined the war.

मत्स्यांस तरिगर्तान पाञ्चालान कीचकान अन्तरेण च । रमणीयान वनॊथ्थेशान परेक्षमाणाः सरांसि च (I.144.2)
Village Katrathal, an ancient historical village of Sikar district in Rajasthan, is believed to be associated with Kichaka.
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kichaka (कीचक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Khichad (खीचड़).

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55. Kuttaparanta - Possibly a Saurashtra tribe; mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.41).

56. Kunata (कुनटा) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI. 10.50).

शका निषाथा निषधास तदैवानर्तनैरृताः । थुगूलाः परतिमत्स्याश च कुशलाः कुनटास तदा (VI. 10.50)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kunata (कुनटा) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kunt (कूँट) who live in Jaipur district in Rajasthan and Kont (कोंट) who live in Uttar Pradesh.

57. Kundamana (कुन्दमान) - Figure in the tribute list (II.48.13)

काश्मीराः कुन्दमानाश च पौरका हंसकायनाः । शिबित्रिगर्तयौधेया राजन्या मद्रकेकयाः (II.48.13)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kundamana (कुन्दमान) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kunda (कुन्द) + Maan (मान)

58. Kumara - Possibly a version of Vatsa, their king Shrenimat was defeated by Bhima during his march from Chedi to Koshala (II.27.1).

ततः कुमार विषये शरेणिमन्तम अदाजयत । कॊसलाधिपतिं चैव बृहथ्बलम अरिंथमः(II.27.1)

59. Kuraka (-ta) (कुरक) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.61); hailed from south Kanara region known as Vidyadhar in the Jaina tradition.

मालका मल्लकाश चैव तदैवापरवर्तकाः । कुलिन्थाः कुलकाश चैव करण्ठाः कुरकास तदा (VI.10.61)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kuraka (कुरक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kuraka (कुरका) who live in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

60. Kulaka (कुलक) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.61).

मालका मल्लकाश चैव तदैवापरवर्तकाः । कुलिन्थाः कुलकाश चैव करण्ठाः कुरकास तदा (VI.10.61)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kulaka (कुलक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kuraka
Kulak (कुलक) Kulakia (कुलकिया) is a gotra of Jats. They are descendants of ancestor Kulika (कुलिक) of Nagavanshi. [48]

61. Kurontha (करण्ठ) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.61); probably lived in the border region to the northwest of Garhwal and east of Kulu valley.

मालका मल्लकाश चैव तदैवापरवर्तकाः । कुलिन्थाः कुलकाश चैव करण्ठाः कुरकास तदा (VI.10.61)

62. Kuru (कुरु) - Key people in the epic, occupying Delhi and the adjoining portion of gangetic basin.

63. Kukkuta (Kulata) - Figure as a foreign (Mleccha) tribe of the northwest.

64. Kusala (-lyah) (कुशल) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.50).

शका निषाथा निषधास तदैवानर्तनैरृताः । दुगूलाः परतिमत्स्याश च कुशलाः कुनटास तदा (VI.10.50)

65. Kushavindu (कुश बिन्दव) - Could belong to the southwest (VI.10.54).

वध्राः करीषकाश चापि कुलिन्थॊपत्यकास तदा । वनायवॊ थशा पार्श्वा रॊमाणः कुश बिन्दवः
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kushavindu (कुश बिन्दव) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kush (कुश) or Kuswan (कुसवां)

66. Krimi (कृमि) - A once important tribe in east Punjab.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Krimi (कृमि) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Karmi (करमी) or Kiram (किरम).[49]

67. Kevala (केवल) - Maybe a corrupt form of Kerala. (II.28.47)

एकपाथांश च पुरुषान केवलान वनवासिनः । नगरीं संजयन्तीं च पिच्छण्डं करहाटकम (II.28.47)


68. Kaisika (कैसिक) - A branch of the Yadavas.

69. Kokanada (कॊकनद) - A northern tribe (II.24.17). (IX.44.55)

ततस तरिगर्तान कौन्तेयॊ थार्वान कॊक नदाश च ये । कषत्रिया बहवॊ राजन्न उपावर्तन्त सर्वशः (II.24.17)
पुण्यनामा सुनामा च सुवक्त्रः परियदर्शनः । परिश्रुतः कॊक नदः परिय माल्यानुलेपनः (IX.44.55)
The Mahabharata Tribe- Kokanada (कॊकनद) may ve identified wth Kok Jat Gotra

70. Kaukuttaka (कौकुट्टक) - Possibly a Nilgiri tribe (VI.10.58).

कर्णिकाः कुन्तिकाश चैव सौब्धिथा नलकालकाः । कौकुट्टकास तदा चॊलाः कॊङ्कणा मालवाणकाः (VI.10.58)

71. Konkana (कॊङ्कण) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.58), a southern tribe, which did not fight in the war.

कर्णिकाः कुन्तिकाश चैव सौब्धिथा नलकालकाः । कौकुट्टकास तदा चॊलाः कॊङ्कणा मालवाणकाः (VI.10.58)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Konkana (कॊङ्कण) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Konkan (कोंकण) [50]

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72. Kopana (कॊपन) - A fierce southern tribe (VI.10.59).

समङ्गाः कॊपनाश चैव कुकुराङ्गथ मारिषाः । धवजिन्य उत्सव संकेतास तरिवर्गाः सर्वसेनयः (VI.10.59)

73. Kekaraka (केकरक) - (VI.10.60).

तर्यङ्गाः केकरकाः परॊष्ठाः परसंचरकास तदा । तदैव विन्ध्यपुलकाः पुलिन्थाः कल्कलैः सह
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kekaraka (केकरक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kekeraul (केकेरौल) Kakraul (ककरौल) . Their earlier name was Kukar and they were rulers in Malwa. [51]

74. Kolla-giri (कॊल्ल गिरि) - A central Indian tribe vanquished by Sahdeva (II.28.45).

ये च कालमुखा नाम नरा राक्षसयॊनयः । कृत्स्नं कॊल्ल गिरिं चैव मुरची पत्तनं तदा (II.28.45)

75. Kausija (-ka) -

76. Kratha (क्रथ) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.65), Sabha Parva (II.27.7)

यज्ञवाहः परवाहश च देव याजी च सॊमपः । सजालश च महातेजाः क्रथ करादौ च भारत (IX.44.65)
ततः सुपार्श्वम अभितस तदा राजपतिं क्रथम । युध्यमानं बलात संख्ये विजिग्ये पाण्डवर्षभः (II.27.7)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kratha (क्रथ) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kaithoria (कैथोरिया) or Kaith (कैथ) who are considered descendants of Maharaja Kratha (क्रथ) of Kuruvansh. [52]

77. Krivi (कृवि) -

The Mahabharata Tribe - Krivi (कृवि) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kharb (खर्ब)
Krivi is also a Rigvedic Tribe: (RV VIII/20/24; VIII/22/12). These people are mentioned as Kravya in Sat.Br. (Xlll/5/4.7). They are to be identified with the Kharab clan of the Jats. They are also to be identified with the Khalabes of West Asian history, who gave their name to Chalybes on the mouth of Euphrates river.

78. Gaya (गय) - Inhabitants of modern Gaya, brought tribute for Yudhisthira (II.48.15).

शौण्डिकाः कुक्कुराश चैव शकाश चैव विशां पते । अङ्गा वङ्गाश च पुण्ड्राश च शानवत्या गयास तदा (II.48.15)

79. Gargya - Were defeated by Krishna (VII.11).

80. Giri-gahvara - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.66); lived in the Hindukush caves.

81. Guha - A southern tribe (XII.200.39).

82. Goparastra (गॊप राष्ट्र) - Figure in the 'geography' (VI.10.42); possibly hailed from ancient Nasik.

गॊविन्था मन्थकाः षण्डा विथर्भानूपवासिकाः । अश्मकाः पांसुराष्ट्राश च गॊप राष्ट्राः पनीतकाः (VI.10.42)

83. Gopalakaccha (गॊपाल कच्छ) - In 'geography' (VI.10.55); conquered by Bhima (II.27.3). Lay between Koshala and north Koshala, indicating modern Gopalpur in Gorakhpur district, between Ayodhya and Kushinagara.

कच्छा गॊपाल कच्छाश च लाङ्गलाः परवल्लकाः । किराता बर्बराः सिथ्धा विथेहास ताम्रलिङ्गकाः (VI.10.55)

84. Govinda (गॊविन्दा) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.42). Probably a central Indian tribe from the Kaimur range.

गॊविन्दा मन्दकाः षण्डा विदर्भानूपवासिकाः । अश्मकाः पांसुराष्ट्राश च गॊप राष्ट्राः पनीतकाः (VI. 10.42)

85. Goshringa (गॊशृङ्ग) - A hill conquered by Sahdeva in the south (II.28.5); could be located near Ujjain; visited by the Chinese traveller Xuan Zang (Hieun Tsang).

निषाथभूमिं गॊशृङ्गं पर्वत परवरं तदा । तरसा वयजयथ धीमाञ शरेणिमन्तं च पार्दिवम (II.28.5)

86. Charmakhandika (चर्मखण्डिक) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.46) as a northwestern tribe.

अपरन्ध्राश च शूथ्राश च पह्लवाश चर्म खण्डिकाः। अटवी शबराश चैव मरु भौमाश च मारिष (VI.10.46)

87. Chitraka (चित्रक) - Waited upon Yudhisthira with tribute (II. 46.21).

आवर्जिता इवाभान्ति निघ्नाश चैत्रकि कौकुराः । कारः करा लॊहजङ्घा युधिष्ठिर निवेशने (II. 46.21)

88. Jathara (जठर) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.41). Shalya Parva (IX.44.57)

जठराः कुक्कुशाश चैव सुथाशार्णाश च भारत । कुन्तयॊ ऽवन्तयश चैव तदैवापरकुन्तयः (VI.10.41)
चतुर्थंष्ट्रॊ ऽषट जिह्वश च मेघनाथः पृदुश्रवाः । विथ्युथ अक्षॊ धनुर वक्त्रॊ जठरॊ मारुताशनः (IX.44.57)
महाजठर पादाङ्गास तारकाक्शाश च भारत । पारावत मुखाश चान्ये तदा वृषमुखाः परे (IX.44.80)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Jathara (जठर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Jathara (जठर).[53]

89. Jartika (जर्तिक) - Jartika (जर्तिक) is one of The Mahabharata Tribes, living in ancient time in the vicinity of Sakala and who are mentioned in the Karna Parva of the Mahabharata. (VIII.30.14)

शाकलं नाम नगरम आपगा नाम निम्नगा । जर्तिका नाम बाह्लीकास तेषां वृत्तं सुनिन्थितम (VIII.30.14)K R
K R Qanungo[54] mentions incidence from Mahabharata that there is a town named Sakala and river named Apaga where section of the Bahikas, known as the Jartikas, dwell.
The Mahabharata Tribe - Jartika (जर्तिक) may be identified with Jat

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90. Jaguda (जागुड) - Probably from the region south of Ghazni and north of Kandhar (III.48.21).

हारहूणांश च चीनांश च तुखारान सैन्धवांस तदा । जागुडान रमठान मुण्डान सत्री राज्यान अद तङ्गणान (III.48.21)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Jaguda (जागुड) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Jagunda (जगुन्दा) who live in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

91. Jangala (जाङ्गल) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.l0.37); refers to peoples from the forest southwest of Kurukshetra.

अत ऊर्ध्वं जनपदान निबॊध गदतॊ मम । तत्रेमे कुरुपाञ्चालाः शाल्व माद्रेय जाङ्गलाः (VI.l0.37)
पित्र्यं राज्यं महाराज कुरवस ते स जाङ्गलाः । अद वीरैर जितां भूमिम अखिलां परत्यपथ्यदाः (V.53.7)
मत्स्याः कूर्माश्च सर्पाश्च म्रियन्ते यत्र जाङ्गलाः। धनस्कन्धः स्त्रियास्तत्र सपत्नैर्विप्रलोप्स्यते ॥५४९॥ [55]
The Mahabharata Tribe - Jangala (जाङ्गल) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Jangu (जांगू), Janghala (जंघाला), Jangal (जांगल)

92. Uttarajyoti (उत्तरज्यॊति) - Defeated by Nakula in west (II.29.10); location uncertain.

कृत्स्नं पञ्चनथं चैव तदैवापरपर्यटम । उत्तरज्यॊतिकं चैव तदा वृण्डाटकं पुरम (II.29.10)

93. Jyoha (ज्यॊहा) - In the tribute list (II.48.3); could belong to the Tibet region.

खशा एकाशनाज्यॊहाः परदरा दीर्घवेनवः । :पशुपाश च कुणिन्थाश च तङ्गणाः परतङ्गणाः (II.48.3)
Jyoha (ज्यॊहा) may be identified with Johiya (जोहिया) Johil (जोहिल) Jot gotra. They are originally Yaudheya jats. Their area was Churu division. The area on the banks of Sutlej river upto Bahavalpur in Pakistan was Johiyawar (जोहियावाड़).[56]

94. Tamara (तामर) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.68); hail from the region between India and Tibet.

तामरा हंसमार्गाश च तदैव करभञ्जकाः । उथ्थेश मात्रेण मया थेशाः संकीर्तिताः परभॊ (VI. 10.68)
गदा भुशुण्डि हस्ताश च तदा तॊमरपाणयः । असि मद्गरहस्ताश च दण्डहस्ताश च भारत (IX.44.105)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Tamara (तामर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Tomar (तोमर)

95. Tamradvipa - A southern people vanquished by Sahdeva (II.28.45).

96. Taratoya (तरतॊय) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.l0.51), probably a minor tribe connected with seafare.

तीरग्राहास्तर तॊया राजिका रम्यका गणाः । तिलकाः पारसीकाश च मधुमन्तः परकुत्सकाः (VI.l0.51)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Taratoya (तरतॊय) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Talautia (तलौटिया).

97. Tarkshya (तार्क्ष्य) - Figure in the tribute list (II.48.14).

अम्बष्ठाः कौकुरास तार्क्ष्या वस्त्रपाः पह्लवैः सह । वसातयः समौलेयाः सह कषुथ्रकमालवैः (II.48.14)

98. Talakata - Cr. Ed. (II.28.43), could be from Bijapur in Mysore.

99. Talajangha (तालजङ्घ) - Once a major branch of the Haihaya dynasty, they had little importance by the time of the epic (V.72.13).

हैहयानाम उथावर्तॊ नीपानां जनमेजयः । बहुलस तालजङ्घानां कृमीणाम उथ्धतॊ वसुः (V.72.13)


100. Talavan (तलवन) - A southern tribe subdued by Sahdeva (II.28.48).

पाण्ड्यांश च थरविथांश चैव सहितांश चॊद्र केरलैः । अन्ध्रांस तलवनांश चैव कलिङ्गान ओष्ट्र कर्णिकान (II.28.48)

101. Timingila (तिमिङ्गिल) - A southern coastal tribe subdued by Sahdeva (II.28.46).

दवीपं ताम्राह्वयं चैव पर्वतं रामकं तदा । तिमिङ्गिलं च नृपतिं वशे चक्रे महामतिः (II.28.46)

102. Tilaka (तिलक) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.l0.51), possibly from Hoshiarpur, Punjab.

तीरग्राहास्तर तॊया राजिका रम्यका गणाः । तिलकाः पारसीकाश च मधुमन्तः परकुत्सकाः (VI.l0.51)

103. Tiragraha (तीरग्राह) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.51 ) .

तीरग्राहास्तर तॊया राजिका रम्यका गणाः । तिलकाः पारसीकाश च मधुमन्तः परकुत्सकाः (VI.l0.51)

104. Tripura (त्रिपुर) - A city near Vatsa (III.241.47). Tripura (meaning three cities, in Sanskrit) was constructed by the great Sura architect Mayasura. They were great cities of prosperity, power and dominance over the world, but due to their impious nature, Maya's cities were destroyed by Lord Shiva.

105. Tryanga (तर्यङ्ग) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.l0.60); possibly modern Telangana region.

तर्यङ्गाः केकरकाः परॊष्ठाः परसंचरकास तदा । तदैव विन्ध्यपुलकाः पुलिन्थाः कल्कलैः सह (VI.l0.60)

106. Tryasha (तर्यक्ष) - In tribute list (II.47.15).

दव्यक्षांस तर्यक्षाँल ललाटाक्षान नानाथिग्भ्यः समागतान । औष्णीषान अनिवासांश च बाहुकान पुरुषाथकान (II.47.15)

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107. Dasaparsva (दशा पार्श्व) - A northwestern people listed in 'geography' (VI.10.54).

वध्राः करीषकाश चापि कुलिन्थॊपत्यकास तदा । वनायवॊ दशा पार्श्वा रॊमाणः कुश बिन्थवः (VI.10.54)

108. Dasamalika - A northern tribe, possibly Rohitas of Afghanistan (VI.10.65 and II.24.16).

तदैव मरधाश चीनास तदैव दश मालिकाः। कषत्रियॊपनिवेशाश च वैश्यशूथ्र कुलानि च (VI.10.65)

109. Dasar - The Yadava clan of Krishna (III.19.120).

110. Diptaksha (दीप्ताक्ष) - (V.72.15).

हयग्रीवॊ विथेहानां वरप्रश च महौजसाम । बाहुः सुन्थर वेगानां दीप्ताक्षाणां पुरूरवाः (V.72.15)

111. Dirghavenava (दीर्घवेनव) - A Central Asian tribe mentioned in the tribute list (II.48.3).

खशा एकाशनाज्यॊहाः परथरा दीर्घवेनवः । पशुपाश च कुणिन्थाश च तङ्गणाः परतङ्गणाः (II.48.3)

112. Dugula (दुगूला) - Figure in the 'geography' (VI.10.50).

शका निषाथा निषधास तदैवानर्तनैरृताः । दुगूलाः परतिमत्स्याश च कुशलाः कुनटास तदा (VI.10.50)
Dugula (दुगूला) may be identified with Dagolya Jat Gotra.

113. Dwadashaksha (द्वादशाक्ष) - Brought tributes to Yudhisthira. (IX.44.54)

एकाक्षॊ द्वादशाक्षश च तदैवैक जटः परभुः । सहस्रबाहुर विकटॊ वयाघ्राक्षः कषितिकम्पनः (IX.44.54)

114. Dvarapala (द्वारपाल) - A northwestern region, mentioned In Nakula's conquests (II.29.10).

कृत्स्नं पञ्चनथं चैव तदैवापरपर्यटम । उत्तरज्यॊतिकं चैव तदा वृण्डाटकं पुरम । द्वारपालं च तरसा वशे चक्रे महाथ्युतिः (II.29.10)

115. Dvalpeya- (-bh) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.47), identified with the tiny island of Diu.

116. Nandivega (नन्दिवेग) - (V.72.17).

शमश च नन्दिवेगानाम इत्य एते कुलपांसनाः । युगान्ते कृष्ण संभूताः कुलेषु पुरुषाधमाः (V.72.17)

117. Navarastra (नव राष्ट्र) - Defeated by Sahdeva (II.28.6).

नव राष्ट्रं विनिर्जित्य कुन्तिभॊजम उपाथ्रवत । परीतिपूर्वं च तस्यासौ परतिजग्राह शासनम (II.28.6)

118. Nalakalaka (नलकालक) - Figure in the 'geography' (VI.10.58).

कर्णिकाः कुन्तिकाश चैव सौब्धिथा नलकालकाः । कौकुट्टकास तदा चॊलाः कॊङ्कणा मालवाणकाः (VI.10.58)

119. Nisadha (निषाद) - In 'geography' (VI.10.50), this was the kingdom of the famous King Nala of the Yadava race. The tiny realm lay at the western end of the Satpura ranges.

शका निषादा निषधास तदैवानर्तनैरृताः । दुगूलाः परतिमत्स्याश च कुशलाः कुनटास तदा (VI.10.50)

120. Nipa (नीप) - An historical people whose king janamejaya caused the ruin of his own tribe (V.72.13); were bondsmen in Yudhisthira's palace (II.46.21).

आवर्जिता इवाभान्ति निघ्नाश चैत्रकि कौकुराः । कारः करा लॊहजङ्घा युधिष्ठिर निवेशने (II.46.21)
हैहयानाम उथावर्तॊ नीपानां जनमेजयः । बहुलस तालजङ्घानां कृमीणाम उथ्धतॊ वसुः Mahabharata (V.72.13)

The Mahabharata Tribe - Nipa (नीप) may be identified as Nepa (नेपा) Jat clan.

121. Naimisha (नैमिष) - People of Naimisharanaya (modern Nimsar) in Sitapur (UP) who were called the "knowers of true religion" (VIII.30.60).

कुरवः सहपाञ्चालाः शाल्वा मत्स्याः सनैमिषाः । कॊसलाः काशयॊ ऽङगाश च कलिङ्गा मगधास तदा (VIII.30.60)

122. Nairrta (नैरृत) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.50); probably came from the southwest.

शका निषाथा निषधास तदैवानर्तनैरृताः । दुगूलाः परतिमत्स्याश च कुशलाः कुनटास तदा (VI.10.50)

Nairrta (नैरृत) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Nehra.

123. Panchakarpata (पञ्चकर्पट) - Subdued by Nakula in the west (II.29.6), and probably hailed from a small settlement of five unknown tribes in Punjab.

शैरीषकं महेच्छं च वशे चक्रे महाथ्युतिः । शिबींस तरिगर्तान अम्बष्ठान मालवान पञ्च कर्पटान (II.29.6)

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124. Panitaka (पनीतक) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.42).

गॊविन्था मन्थकाः षण्डा विथर्भानूपवासिकाः । अश्मकाः पांसुराष्ट्राश च गॊप राष्ट्राः पनीतकाः ।। (VI. 10.42)

125. Pattana - Probably a Vindhya tribe, the city was defeated by Karna in his digvijaya (III.241.47).

126. Pattibhanjaka (पत्तिपञ्जक) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.62); identification uncertain.

मूषका सतनबालाश च सतियः पत्तिपञ्जकाः । आथिथायाः सिरालाश च सतूबका सतनपास तदा (VI.10.62)

127. Parantangana - Meaning other Tangana, In the tribute list (II.48.3); probably a northwestern tribe. (VI.9.63)

हृषीविथर्भाः कान्तीकास तङ्गणाः परतङ्गणाः । उत्तराश चापरे मलेच्छा जना भरतसत्तम (VI.9.63)


128. Pasu (पशु) - In the tribute list (II.48.3); probably a northwestern tribe.

खशा एकाशनाज्यॊहाः परथरा थीर्घवेनवः।पशुपाश च कुणिन्थाश च तङ्गणाः परतङ्गणाः (II.48.3)

129. Parasika (पारसीक) - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.51); probably people of Persia or southern Iran.

तीरग्राहास्तर तॊया राजिका रम्यका गणाः ।तिलकाः पारसीकाश च मधुमन्तः परकुत्सकाः (VI.10.51)
Parasika (पारसीक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Paraswal

130. Parasika - Figure in 'geography' (VI.10.51); probably people of Persia or southern Iran.

131. Pichchhanda (पिच्छण्ड) - A southern janapada subdued by Sahdeva (II.28.47).

एकपाथांश च पुरुषान केवलान वनवासिनः । नगरीं संजयन्तीं च पिच्छण्डं करहाटकम ।दूतैर एव वशे चक्रे करं चैनान अथापयत (II.28.47)

132. Pauraka (पौरक) - A northwestern tribe in the tribute list (II.48.13), identified with a Kabuli tribe of Afghanistan.

काश्मीराः कुन्थमानाश च पौरका हंसकायनाः ।शिबित्रिगर्तयौधेया राजन्या मथ्रकेकयाः (II.48.13)
Pauraka (पौरक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Paur

133. Prakustaka (परकुत्सक) - In 'geography' (VI.10.51); possibly came from the Afghan-Pakistan border near Peshawar.

तीरग्राहास्तर तॊया राजिका रम्यका गणाः । तिलकाः पारसीकाश च मधुमन्तः परकुत्सकाः (VI.10.51)

134. Pratimatsya (परतिमत्स्य) - n 'geography' (VI.6.50); were neighbours of Matsya.

शका निषाथा निषधास तदैवानर्तनैरृताः । थुगूलाः परतिमत्स्याश च कुशलाः कुनटास तदा (VI.6.50)

135. Pradara - In the tribute list (II.48.37).

136. Prabhadraka (परभद्रक) - A Panchala tribe (VI.52.14).

धृष्टथ्युम्नः शिखण्डी च पाञ्चालाश च परभद्रकाः । मध्ये सैन्यस्य महतः सदिता युथ्धाय भारत (VI.52.14)

137. Pramuda - In 'geography' with Kiratas; probably lived in the Yamuna region.

138. Prachya (पराच्य) - A tribe near Kerala in 'geography' (VI.10.57); skilled in fighting on elephanttback.

थरविडाः केरलाः पराच्या भूषिका वनवासिनः । उन्नत्यका माहिषका विकल्पा मूषकास तदा (VI.10.57)

139. Paravrsheya (परावृषेय) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.49); possibly the region of Sahya (mountains) in the Western Ghats.

मह्युत्तराः परावृषेया भार्गवाश च जनाधिप । पुण्ड्रा भार्गाः किराताश च सुथॊष्णाः परमुथास तदा (VI. 10.49)

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140. Parahuta (पराहूत) - In 'geography' (VI.10.45).

मल्लाः सुथेष्णाः पराहूतास तदा माहिष कार्षिकाः । वाहीका वाटधानाश च आभीराः कालतॊयकाः (VI.10.45)

141. Parostha (परॊष्ठ) - A central Indian tribe (VI.10.60).

तर्यङ्गाः केकरकाः परॊष्ठाः परसंचरकास तदा । तदैव विन्ध्यपुलकाः पुलिन्थाः कल्कलैः सह (VI.10.60)

142. Barbara ( बर्बर) - A northern Himalayan tribe (uttarajtha janmarah, XII. 200.39-40), (II.29.15) .

उत्तरा पदजन्मानः कीर्तयिष्यामि तान अपि । यौन काम्बॊजगान्धाराः किराता बर्बरैः सह (XII.200.40)
ततः सागरकुक्षिस्दान मलेच्छान परमदारुणान । पह्लवान बर्बरांश चैव तान सर्वान अनयथ वशम (II.29.15)
Babbar (बब्बर) Jat Gotra found in Punjab when Sanskritised is Barbara.

143. Balirastra (बलिराष्ट्र) - In 'geography' (VI.10.43), a variant of Malla; a janapada in the Vidarbha region.

आथि राष्ट्राः सुकुट्टाश च बलिराष्ट्रं च केवलम । वानरास्याः परवाहाश च वक्रा वक्रभयाः शकाः (VI.10.43)

144. Baliha (बलीह) - (V.72.14).

अज बिन्थुः सुवीराणां सुराष्ट्राणां कुशर्थ्धिकः । अर्कजश च बलीहानां चीनानां धौतमूलकः (V.72.14)

145. Bahurvadya(बहु वाद्य) - In 'geography' (VI.10.53).

दर्वीकाः सकचा थर्वा वातजाम रदॊरगाः । बहु वाद्याश च कौरव्य सुथामानः सुमल्लिकाः (VI.10.53)

146. Bahlika - An ancient people known from the time of Atharva Veda and Satapatha Brahmana; closely connected with the Kurus of Mbh. Scholars identify them with the Bactrians of Balkh.

147. Bodha (बॊध) - In 'geography;' a Yadava branch who fled westwards out of fear of Jarasandha (II.13.25).

शूरसेना भद्र कारा बॊधाः शाल्वाः पतच चराः । सुस्दराश च सुकुट्टाश च कुणिन्थाः कुन्तिभिः सह (II.13.25)
Badhwar (बधवार) or Bodh Jat Gotra may be identified with Bodha (बॊध).

148. Bharga (भर्ग) - In 'geography' (VL1 0.49); dwelled close to the Vats as and Nisadhas in Bhima's conquest (II.27.10).

भर्गाणाम अधिपं चैव निषाथाधिपतिं तदा । विजिग्ये भूमिपालांश च मणिमत परमुखान बहून (II.27.10)

149. Bhadrakara (Madra) - Rank among the eighteen tribes of Bhojas who fled out of fear of Jarasandha (II.13.25); were part of the Salva confederacy.

शूरसेना भद्र कारा बॊधाः शाल्वाः पतच चराः । सुस्दराश च सुकुट्टाश च कुणिन्थाः कुन्तिभिः सह (II.13.25)

150. Bhardwaja (भरद्वाज) - Probably a Garhwal tribe, listed in 'geography' (VI.10.67).

आत्रेयाः स भरद्वाजास तदैव सतनयॊषिकाः । औपकाश च कलिङ्गाश च किरातानां च जातयः (VI.10.67)

Bhardwaj (भारद्वाज) Jat Gotra may be identified with The Mahabharata Tribes - Bhardwaja (भरद्वाज).

151. Bhargava - In 'geography (VI.10.49), could be from the western Ghats.

मह्युत्तराः परावृषेया भार्गवाश च जनाधिप । पुण्ड्रा भार्गाः किराताश च सुथॊष्णाः परमुथास तदा (VI.10.49)

152. Bhulinga -

153. Madaviraka (मदविरक) - Figure in the description of countries vanquished by Bhima (II.27.9).

निवृत्य च महाबाहुर मदर्वीकं महीधरम । सॊपथेशं विनिर्जित्य परययाव उत्तरा मुखः । वत्सभूमिं च कौन्तेयॊ विजिग्ये बलवान बलात (II.27.9)
May be Mada + Viraka tribes.

154. Madra (मद्र) - A Vedic people of high status. At the time of the epic, their king was Bahlika, and probably hailed from a tribe that migrated from Iran or Bactria and settled in Punjab.

ततः शाकलम अभ्येत्य मद्राणां पुटभेथनम । मातुलं परीतिपूर्वेण शल्यं चक्रे वशे बली (II.29.13)

The Mahabharata Tribes - Madra (मद्र) has may be identified with Jat Gotra - Maderna (मदेरणा) or Madrayana (मद्रेणा)

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155. Madhumanta (मधुमन्त) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 1 0.51), they came from Afghanistan.

तीरग्राहास्तर तॊया राजिका रम्यका गणाः । तिलकाः पारसीकाश च मधुमन्तः परकुत्सकाः (VI. 1 0.51)

156. Madhyamikeya (मध्यमिकेय) - Probably indicates a place called Nagri near Chittor. Its ancient name was Madhyamika nagari (मध्यमिका नगरी).

काश्मीराः कुन्थमानाश च पौरका हंसकायनाः । शिबित्रिगर्तयौधेया राजन्या मथ्रकेकयाः (II. 48.13)
The Shivis (शिवि) or Sibia Jats ruled this area. The classical writers locate Shivis (Siboi) at the confluence of Beas and Chenab. [57] Later they migrated to Rajasthan in the area of Madhyamika near Chittor from their coins bearing the legend Shibi janapadas have been found. [58] The Shivis tribe is known by several variants-Shiva in the Rigveda as one of the tribes defeated by the Bharata king Sudas; Sivi in the Aitreya Brahmana (VIII.23.10), Mahabharata (II.48.13), Sibi in Mahabharata (II. 48.13) Sibi in Mahabhashya on Panini (IV.2.52) where as Shaiba or Shaibayah as vishaya has been mentioned. Classical writers call them Siboi (Diodous 3, XVIII, 96; Strabo XV,1; Curtius IX,41)[59]There are ruins of an ancient town called 'Tamva-vati nagari' 11 miles north of Chittor. Ancient coins of Shivi people are found near this town bearing 'Majhamikaya Shivajanapadas' (मझमिकाय शिवजनपदस ), which means coins of 'Shiva janapada of Madhyamika'. The 'Tamvavati nagari' (तम्वावती नगरी) was called as 'Madhyamika nagari'. These coins are of the period first to second century BCE. [60]

157. Mandaka (मन्दक) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.42); a tribe of cowherds from central India.

गॊविन्था मन्दकाः षण्डा विदर्भानूपवासिकाः । अश्मकाः पांसुराष्ट्राश च गॊप राष्ट्राः पनीतकाः (VI.10.42)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Mandaka (मन्दक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Manda (मन्डा).

158. Murachipattana (मुरची पत्तन) - Subdued by Sahdeva in the south (II.28.45); identified with Muchuri, a famous port near Calicut.

ये च कालमुखा नाम नरा राक्षसयॊनयः । कृत्स्नं कॊल्ल गिरिं चैव मुरची पत्तनं तदा (II.28.45)

159. Malada (मलद) - In 'geography' (VI.10.48); was defeated by Bhimasena in the east (II.27.8); probably people from central India.

अन्ध्राश च बहवॊ राजन्न अन्तर्गिर्यास तदैव च । बहिर्गिर्य आङ्गमलदा मागधा मानवर्जकाः (VI.10.48)
ततॊ मत्स्यान महातेजा मलयांश च महाबलान । अनवथ्यान गयांश चैव पशुभूमिं च सर्वशः (II.27.8)

160. Malla (मल्ल) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.45) and in Bhima's conquest after northern Koshala (II.27.3) The Malla resided in district Deoria (UP) and had their metropolis at Kushinagar and Pava, sacred sites of the Bauddhas and the Jainas.

मल्लाः सुथेष्णाः पराहूतास तदा माहिष कार्षिकाः । वाहीका वाटधानाश च आभीराः कालतॊयकाः (VI.10.45)
ततॊ गॊपाल कच्छं च सॊत्तमान अपि चॊत्तरान । मल्लानाम अधिपं चैव पार्दिवं वयजयत परभुः (II.27.3)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Malla (मल्ल) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mahla(महला)/Mall (मल्ल).

161. Mahishakarshika (माहिष कार्षिक) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.45). Probably hailed from the region near the ancient city of Mahishmati.

मल्लाः सुथेष्णाः पराहूतास तदा माहिष कार्षिकाः । वाहीका वाटधानाश च आभीराः कालतॊयकाः (VI.10.45)

162. Mahechchha (महेच्छ) - A janapada conquered by Nakula in the west, near the desert (II.29.6); could indicate the Maheya region of Ahmadabad where the river Mahi flows.

शैरीषकं महेच्छं च वशे चक्रे महाथ्युतिः । शिबींस तरिगर्तान अम्बष्ठान मालवान पञ्च कर्पटान (II.29.6)
Could be Meham (मेहम) town in Rohtak district in Haryana, as it is close to Sirsa town in Haryana.

163. Maradha (मरधा) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.65).

तदैव मरधाश चीनास तदैव दश मालिकाः । कषत्रियॊपनिवेशाश च वैश्यशूथ्र कुलानि च (VI.10.65)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Maradha (मरधा) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mirdha (मिर्धा) found in Jodhpur region of Rajasthan.

164. Manavarjaka (मानवर्जक) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.48); could refer to the Purulia and Dhanabad regions.

अन्ध्राश च बहवॊ राजन्न अन्तर्गिर्यास तदैव च । बहिर्गिर्य आङ्गमलदा मागधा मानवर्जकाः (VI. 10.48)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Manavarjaka (मानवर्जक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Maan (मान) + Bardak (वर्डक)

165. Malaka (मलक) - In 'geography' (VI.10.61); a central Indian tribe.

मालका मल्लकाश चैव तदैवापरवर्तकाः । कुलिन्थाः कुलकाश चैव करण्ठाः कुरकास तदा (VI.10.61)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Malaka (मालक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Malik (मलिक)

166. Malavanaka (मालवाणक) - In 'geography' (VI.10.58); scholars place them between Broach and Kutch (approx. modern Ahmedabad).

कर्णिकाः कुन्तिकाश चैव सौब्धिथा नलकालकाः । कौकुट्टकास तदा चॊलाः कॊङ्कणा मालवाणकाः (VI.10.58)

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167. Mavellaka (मावेल्लक) - Mentioned among groups slain by Arjuna (VIII.4.47).

मावेल्लकास तुण्डिकेराः सावित्री पुत्र काञ्चलाह । पराच्यॊथीच्याः परतीच्याश च थाक्षिणात्याश च मारिष (VIII.4.47)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Mavellaka (मावेल्लक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mavala (मावला)

168. Mahishaka (महिषक) - In 'geography (VI.10.57);' identified with the people of Mysore.

दरविडाः केरलाः पराच्या भूषिका वनवासिनः । उन्नत्यका माहिषका विकल्पा मूषकास तदा (VI.10.57)
आखु बभ्रुक वक्त्रश च मयूरवदनास तदा । मत्स्यमेषाननाश चान्ये अजावि महिषाननाः (IX.44.77)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Mahishaka (महिषक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Bains (बैंस).

169. Mudgala (मुदगल) - Defeated by Krishna (VII.11.39), they are a Brahmin clan descended from the Paurava dynasty'.

170. Mushaka (मूषक) - Listed in 'geography' as a southern people (VI.10.57). The Musaka janapada is identified with the region near modern Hyderabad, on the bank of river Musi, a tributary of the Krishna. The tribe is regarded as a branch of a northern tribe documented by Alexander's historians as Musicanur, who were settled in Sind.

थरविडाः केरलाः पराच्या भूषिका वनवासिनः । उन्नत्यका माहिषका विकल्पा मूषकास तदा (VI.10.57)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Mushaka (मूषक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mushasela (मुशासेला) gotra Jats living in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

171. Moka/(Mau-kah) (मौका) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.38); could be a Kshatriya tribe from Kutch or Mewar regions.

शूरसेनाः कलिङ्गाश च बॊधा मौकास तदैव च । मत्स्याः सुकुट्यः सौबल्याः कुन्तलाः काशिकॊशलाः (VI. 10.38)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Moka (मौका) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Moga (मौगा)

172. Mohana (Modana) (मोदाणा) - Mentioned in Karna digvijaya (III. 241.47).

The Mahabharata Tribe - Modana (मोदाणा) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Modana (मोदाणा) who live in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

173. Modapura (मॊदापुर)- A tribal city subdued by Arjuna in the Himalayas (II. 24.10).

मॊदा पुरं वामथेवं सुथामानं सुसंकुलम । कुलूतान उत्तरांश चैव तांश च राज्ञः समानयत (II. 24.10)

174. Moda-giri (मॊदा गिरि) - Defeated by Bhima (II. 27.19); probably modern Monghyr.

अद मॊदा गिरिं चैव राजानं बलवत्तरम । पाण्डवॊ बाहुवीर्येण निजघान महाबलम (II. 27.19)

175. Mauleya (मौलेय) - Paid tribute to Yudhisthira (II. 48.14); dwelled on the banks of the Mula river in Baluchistan.

अम्बष्ठाः कौकुरास तार्क्ष्या वस्त्रपाः पह्लवैः सह । वसातयः समौलेयाः सह कषुथ्रकमालवैः (II. 48.14)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Mauleya (मौलेय) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mola (मोला) who live in Nimach, Mandsaur districts in Madhya Pradesh.

176. Yakrilloma (यकृल लॊम) - Mentioned in Virata Parva (IV.5.4) in Matsya Kingdom. Hail from a region between dasharna in the south and Panchala in the north, near Surasena, through which Pandavas passed to the country of Matsya. Also in 'geography' (VI. 10.44);

अन्तरेण यकृल्लॊमाञ शूरसेनांश च पाण्डवाः । लुब्धा बरुवाणा मत्स्यस्य विषयं पराविशन वनात
विथेहका मागधाश च सुह्माश च विजयास तदा । अङ्गा वङ्गाः कलिङ्गाश च यकृल लॊमान एव च (VI. 10.44)

177. Yavana (यवन) - Mentioned frequently as peoples of the northwest, and said to be descendants of Yayati's son Turvasu (I. 80.26).

यदॊस तु यादवा जातास तुर्वसॊर यवनाः सुताः । दरुह्यॊर अपि सुता भॊजा अनॊस तु मलेच्छ जातयः (I. 80.26)

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178. Yugandhara (युगंधर) - Figure in 'geography'. (VII.15.30-31)

युगंधरस ततॊ राजन भारथ्वाजं महारदम । वारयाम आस संक्रुथ्धं वातॊथ्धूतम इवार्णवम (VII.15.30)
युधिष्ठिरं स विथ्ध्वा तु शरैः संनतपर्वभिः । युगंधरं च भल्लेन रदनीडाथ अपाहरत (VII.15.31)
ततॊ विराटथ्रुपथौ केकयाः सात्यकिः शिबिः । वयाघ्रथत्तश च पाञ्चाल्यः सिंहसेनश च वीर्यवान (VII.15.32)

179. Yaudheya (यौधेय) - A prominent and ancient people; mentioned in the tribute list (II.48.13). yaudheya coins and a mint site have been found near Rohtak. Cunningham identified them with Johia Kshatriyas from Johiabar near Multan.

काश्मीराः कुन्थमानाश च पौरका हंसकायनाः । शिबित्रिगर्तयौधेया राजन्या मथ्रकेकयाः (II.48.13)
They are identified with the Jats clan Joiyas or Johiya[61] of Bahawalpur and Multan Divisions (Pakistan) and Bikaner, Rajasthan (India). Yaudheyas were the rulers of South-Eastern Punjab and Rajasthan. Even today these areas are inhabited by the Johiyas.

180. Ramatha (रमठा) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.65) and in the Nakula digvijaya (II. 29.11).

रमठान हारहूणांश च परतीच्याश चैव ये नृपाः । तान सर्वान स वशे चक्रे शासनाथ एव पाण्डवः (II. 29.11)

181. Rathoraga (रदॊरग) - A northwest frontier tribe. (VI.10.53)

दर्वीकाः सकचा थर्वा वातजाम रदॊरगाः । बहु वाथ्याश च कौरव्य सुथामानः सुमल्लिकाः (VI.10.53)

182. Rasyakagana - A vagrant tribe in the southwest.


183. Rajanya राजन्य) - In the tribute list (II. 48.13); probably from Hoshiarpur region.

काश्मीराः कुन्थमानाश च पौरका हंसकायनाः । शिबित्रिगर्तयौधेया राजन्या मथ्रकेकयाः (II. 48.13)

184. Rajika -

185. Ramaka (रामक) - The people of the Ramaka mountain who were subdued by Sahdeva (II. 28.46) in the south.

थवीपं ताम्राह्वयं चैव पर्वतं रामकं तदा । तिमिङ्गिलं च नृपतिं वशे चक्रे महामतिः (II.28.46)

186. Roma (रोम) - A Roman city mentioned in Sahdeva's conquest.

अन्ताखीं चैव रॊमां च यवनानां पुरं तदा । दूतैर एव वशे चक्रे करं चैनान अथापयत (II.28.49)


187. Romaka (-sah)/Romana (रॊमाण) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.54); probably a variant of Vahuka (Cr. Ed. II. 47.15).

वध्राः करीषकाश चापि कुलिन्थॊपत्यकास तदा । वनायवॊ थशा पार्श्वा रॊमाणः कुश बिन्थवः (VI. 10.54)

188. Rohitaka (रॊहीतक) - Listed in Karna digvijaya (III. 241.67); people of modern Rohtak in Haryana, the capital of Yaudheyas; it was subdued by Nakula (II. 29.4).

ततॊ बहुधनं रम्यं गवाश्वधनधान्यवत । कार्तिकेयस्य दयितं रॊहीतकम उपाथ्रवत (II. 29.4)

189. Rshika (ऋषिक) - An important Central Asian people of Chinese origin, conquered by Arjuna (II. 24.24).

लॊहान परमकाम्बॊजान ऋषिकान उत्तरान अपि । सहितांस तान महाराज वयजयत पाकशासनिः (II. 24.24)

190. Lampaka - A variant of Loha (II. 24.23); a northern people.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Lampaka may be identified with Jat Gotra - Lamba (लांबा)
Ashoka's inscriptions chiseled on rocks and stone pillars located at strategic locations throughout his empire--such as Lampaka (Laghman in modern Afghanistan), Mahastan (in modern Bangladesh), and Brahmagiri (in Karnataka)--constitute the second set of datable historical records.[62]

191. Lalataksha (ललाटाक्ष) - A northwestern tribe (II.47.15).

दव्यक्षांस तर्यक्षाँल ललाटाक्षान नानाथिग्भ्यः समागतान । औष्णीषान अनिवासांश च बाहुकान पुरुषाथकान (II.47.15)

192. Langala(लाङ्गल) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.l0.55).

कच्छा गॊपाल कच्छाश च लाङ्गलाः परवल्लकाः । किराता बर्बराः सिथ्धा विथेहास ताम्रलिङ्गकाः (VI.l0.55)

193. Lata (लाट) - Mentioned in Anusasana Parva (XIII. 34.17); hailed from. southern Gujarat.


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194. Loha (लॊह) - Vanquished by Arjuna (II.24.24); possibly Kashmir or an Afghan region.

लॊहान परमकाम्बॊजान ऋषिकान उत्तरान अपि । सहितांस तान महाराज वयजयत पाकशासनिः (II.24.24)
Loha is a village in Ratangarh tehsil of Churu ditrict in Rajasthan.

195. Lohita (लॊहित) - Subdued by Arjuna after Kashmir (II 24.16); could indicate modern Leh.

ततः काश्मीरकान वीरान कषत्रियान कषत्रियर्षभः । वयजयल लॊहितं चैव मण्डलैर थशभिः सह (II 24.16)
Lohita (लोहित) was a Nagavanshi mahapurusha . (II.9.8)
वासुकिस तक्षकश चैव नागश चैरावतस तदा
कृष्णशलॊहितश चैव पद्मश चित्रश च वीर्यवान ।।8।।
Jat Gotras originated from Lohita - Lohamsher (लोहमशेर), Lohmarod (लोहमरोड़), Loat (लोअत), Lohit (लोहित), Loa (लोअ)

196. Lohajangha (लॊहजङ्घ) - Bondsmen at Yudhisthira's court (II.46.21); hailed from Logar valley, south of Kabul.

आवर्जिता इवाभान्ति निघ्नाश चैत्रकि कौकुराः । कारः करा लॊहजङ्घा युधिष्ठिर निवेशने (II.46.21)

197. Vakra (वक्र) / Vakrabhaya (वक्रभय) - A fierce tribe listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.43).

आथि राष्ट्राः सुकुट्टाश च बलिराष्ट्रं च केवलम । वानरास्याः परवाहाश च वक्रा वक्रभयाः शकाः (VI. 10.43)

198. Vadhra (वध्र) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.54).

वध्राः करीषकाश चापि कुलिन्थॊपत्यकास तदा । वनायवॊ थशा पार्श्वा रॊमाणः कुश बिन्थवः (VI. 10.54)

199. Vanavasina (वनवासि) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.57); hail from north Kanara.

दरविडाः केरलाः पराच्या भूषिका वनवासिनः । उन्नत्यका माहिषका विकल्पा मूषकास तदा (VI. 10.57)

200. Aparavartaka (अपरवर्तक) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.61).

मालका मल्लकाश चैव तदैवापरवर्तकाः । कुलिन्थाः कुलकाश चैव करण्ठाः कुरकास तदा (VI.10.61)

201. Varmaka (वर्मक) - A warrior clan, figures in Bhima's conquest of eastern countries (II.27.12).

शर्मकान वर्मकांश चैव सान्त्वेनैवाजयत परभुः । वैथेहकं च राजानं जनकं जगतीपतिम । विजिग्ये पुरुषव्याघ्रॊ नातितीव्रेण कर्मणा (II.27.12)

202. Vastrapa (वस्त्रप) - Figure in the tribute list (II.48.14) and probably came from the Girnar region in Junagarh.

अम्बष्ठाः कौकुरास तार्क्ष्या वस्त्रपाः पह्लवैः सह । वसातयः समौलेयाः सह कषुथ्रकमालवैः (II.48.14)

203. Vanarasya (वानरस्य) - Listed in the 'geography' (VI. 10.43).

आथि राष्ट्राः सुकुट्टाश च बलिराष्ट्रं च केवलम । वानरास्याः परवाहाश च वक्रा वक्रभयाः शकाः (VI. 10.43)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Vanarasya (वानरस्य) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vanar (वानर)

204. Vatajama (वातजाम) - In 'geography' (VI.10.53); came from the northwest frontier.

दर्वीकाः सकचा थर्वा वातजाम रदॊरगाः । बहु वाथ्याश च कौरव्य सुथामानः सुमल्लिकाः (VI.10.53)

205. Vahika (वाहीक) - In 'geography' (VI.9.45), A northwestern janapada (VIII.30.27); indicates the whole of Punjab.

मल्लाः सुदेष्णाः पराहूतास तदा माहिष कार्षिकाः । वाहीका वाटधानाश च आभीराः कालतॊयकाः (VI.9.45)
ईथृशा बराह्मणेनॊक्ता बाह्लीका मॊघचारिणः । येषां षड्भागहर्ता तवम उभयॊः शुभपापयॊः (VIII.30.27)
Bahik (बाहिक) Bahika (बाहिक) Vahik (वाहिक) Vahika (वाहिक) Valhika (वाल्हीक) is used for the Jats of Punjab.

206. Vikalpa (विकल्प) - Figure in the 'geography' (VI. 10.57).

दरविडाः केरलाः पराच्या भूषिका वनवासिनः । उन्नत्यका माहिषका विकल्पा मूषकास तदा (VI. 10.57)

207. Vijaya (विजय) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 1 0.44).

विदेहका मागधाश च सुह्माश च विजयास तदा । अङ्गा वङ्गाः कलिङ्गाश च यकृल लॊमान एव च (VI. 1 0.44)

208. Vidarbha (विदर्भ) - a famous ancient people of modern Berar, a branch of Yadavas. Their king Rukmi was the only ruler who could not join the Mbh. war, as neither the Kauravas nor the Pandavas wanted his help. His kingdom probably comprised only a portion of Vidarbha country, as the Vidarbha tribe figures on the Kaurava side (VI. 47.13 ),

विदर्भैर मेकलैश चैव कर्णप्रावरणैर अपि । सहिताः सर्वसैन्येन भीष्मम आहवशॊभिनम (VI. 47.13 )

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209. Videha (विदेह) - An ancient people of Mithila or Janakpore in Nepal. The Videha dynasty was a branch of the Ikshwakus whose main branch flourished in Koshala. Were not real participants in the Mbh. war, though their name figures in the narration of the Kuru army (VI.112.108) and Pandava army (VIII.3.18). Bhima conquered their country (11.26.4).

ते विदेहाः कलिङ्गाश च दाशेरक गणैः सह । अभिपेतुर निषाथाश च सौवीराश च महारणे (VI.112.108)

210. Vindhyap(m)/ulaka (विन्ध्यपुलक) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.60); indicates all tribes in the southern Vindhya-Satpura range.

तर्यङ्गाः केकरकाः परॊष्ठाः परसंचरकास तदा । तदैव विन्ध्यपुलकाः पुलिन्थाः कल्कलैः सह (VI. 10.60)

211. Viraka (वीरक) - Mentioned as a sinful people (VIII.30.45).

कारः करान महिषकान कलिङ्गान कीकटाटवीन । कर्कॊटकान वीरकांश च थुर्धर्मांश च विवर्जयेत (VIII.30.45)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Viraka (वीरक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Virk (विर्क) , Wirk (विर्क), Birk (बिर्क).

212. Vrika (वृक) - A prominent nortwest tribe which lived by the profession of arms. Vrkasthala was one of the five villages demanded by Pandavas (V. 31.19) and lay on Krishna's route from Upaplavya to Hastinapura (V. 82.20).

कुश सदलं वृकस्दलम आसन्थी वारणावतम । अवसानं भवेथ अत्र किं चिथ एव तु पञ्चमम (V. 31.19)
वृकस्दलं समासाथ्य केशवः परवीरहा । परकीर्णरश्माव आथित्ये विमले लॊहितायति (V. 82.20)
वृकॊदर (Vrika+Udar) निभाश चैव के चिद अञ्जनसंनिभाः । शवेताङ्गा लॊहितग्रीवाः पिङ्गाक्षाश च तदापरे
कल्माषा बहवॊ राजंश चित्रवर्णाश च भारत (IX.44.100)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Vrika (वृक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vrik (वृक), Varika (वरिक)

213. Vrndataka (वृण्डाटक) - A western tribe subdued by Nakula (II. 29.10).

कृत्स्नं पञ्चनथं चैव तदैवापरपर्यटम । उत्तरज्यॊतिकं चैव तदा वृण्डाटकं पुरम (II. 29.10).

214. Vaiyamaka (वैयमक) - Figure in the tribute list (II. 48.12) and identified with Aimaks of central Afghanistan.

कायव्या थरथा थार्वाः शूरा वैयमकास तदा । औथुम्बरा थुर्विभागाः पारथा बाह्लिकैः सह (II. 48.12)

215. Vairama (वैराम) - Figure in the tribute list as dwellers of wastelands near the mouth of the Indus (II.47.10).

ते वैरामाः पारथाश च वङ्गाश च कितवैः सह । विविधं बलिम आथाय रत्नानि विविधानि च (II.47.10)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Vairama (वैराम) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vaire (वैरे)

216. Shaka (शक) - A northwestern tribe. (VI.20.13), (VI.10.50)

शारथ्वतश चॊत्तरधूर महात्मा; महेष्वासॊ गौतमश चित्रयॊधी । शकैः किरातैर यवनैः पह्लवैश च; सार्धं चमूम उत्तरतॊ ऽभिपाति (VI.20.13)
शका निषादा निषधास तदैवानर्तनैरृताः । दुगूलाः परतिमत्स्याश च कुशलाः कुनटास तदा (VI.10.50)

217. Sakala (सकल) - The capital of the Madra tribe, identified with modern Sialkot. But Sakaladvipa is mentioned in Aruna's conquest of the north, the vicinity of the Himalayas (II. 23.15) and could indicate a group of tiny free hill states around Shimla.

स तेन सहितॊ राजन सव्यसाची परंतपः । विजिग्ये सकलं थवीपं परतिविन्ध्यं च पार्दिवम (II. 23.15)

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218. Sarmaka - An eastern tribe vanquished by Bhima (II.24.12).

219. Shanavatya (शानवत्य) - In the tribute list (II.48.15); identified with modern Santhals.

शौण्डिकाः कुक्कुराश चैव शकाश चैव विशां पते । अङ्गा वङ्गाश च पुण्ड्राश च शानवत्या गयास तदा (II.48.15)

220. Shivis (शिबी) - An ancient Punjab people vanquished by Nakula in the west (II. 29.6).

शैरीषकं महेच्छं च वशे चक्रे महाथ्युतिः । शिबींस तरिगर्तान अम्बष्ठान मालवान पञ्च कर्पटान (II. 29.6)

221. Shirisaka (शिरीषक) - Listed in Nakula's conquest of the west (II.29.6); identified as modern Sirsa in Hissar, Haryana.

शैरीषकं महेच्छं च वशे चक्रे महाथ्युतिः । शिबींस तरिगर्तान अम्बष्ठान मालवान पञ्च कर्पटान (II. 29.6)

222. Sundaka - Listed in Karna digvijaya (III.241.42).

223. Shukara (शूकर) - A rare ethnic name in the tribute list (II. 48.24); presented hundreds of elephants to Yudhisthira.

कृती तु राजा कौरव्य शूकराणां विशां पते । अथथथ गजरत्नानां शतानि सुबहून्य अपि (II. 48.24)

224. Sudra (शूद्र) - An ancient tribe from the region of Aparanta in 'geography' (VI. 10.46). Nakula vanquished them near the Sarasvati (II. 29.9).

अपरन्ध्राश च शूद्राश च पह्लवाश चर्म खण्डिकाः । अटवी शबराश चैव मरु भौमाश च मारिष (VI. 10.46)
शूद्राभीर गणाश चैव ये चाश्रित्य सरस्वतीम । वर्तयन्ति च ये मत्स्यैर ये च पर्वतवासिनः (II. 29.9)

225. Surparaka (शूर्पारक) - Refers to the people of modern Sopora, listed in Sahdeva's conquest of the southern region (II.28.43).

ततः शूर्पारकं चैव गणं चॊपकृताह्वयम । वशे चक्रे महातेजा थण्डकांश च महाबलः (II.28.43)

226. Saundika (शौण्डिक)- In the tribute list (II.48.15). Saundika means a dealer in wine and the modern Sunri caste of Bihar and UP claim decent from ancient Saundikas. Sondhi, a Khatri sub-caste in Punjab, is also identified with them.

शौण्डिकाः कुक्कुराश चैव शकाश चैव विशां पते । अङ्गा वङ्गाश च पुण्ड्राश च शानवत्या गयास तदा (II.48.15)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Saundika (शौण्डिक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Sunda (सुण्डा)

227. Shanda (षण्ड) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.42).

गॊविन्था मन्थकाः षण्डा विथर्भानूपवासिकाः । अश्मकाः पांसुराष्ट्राश च गॊप राष्ट्राः पनीतकाः (VI. 10.42)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Shanda (षण्ड) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Sunda (सुण्डा)

228. Sakshaddruha (सक्षद्थ्रुह) - Listed in 'geography' as a northwest tribe (VI. 10.64).

यवनाश च स काम्बॊजा थारुणा मलेच्छ जातयः । सक्षद्थ्रुहः कुन्तलाश च हूणाः पारतकैः सह (VI. 10.64)

229. Para Samcaraka (परसंचरक) - Figure in 'geography' (VI. 10.60); possibly a nomadic tribe from central India.

तर्यङ्गाः केकरकाः परॊष्ठाः परसंचरकास तदा । तदैव विन्ध्यपुलकाः पुलिन्थाः कल्कलैः सह (VI. 10.60)

230. Sanjayanti - A city-state of wild tribes defeated by Sahdeva in the south (II.28.11); linked with the old village of Sanjana or Sanjaya in Thana, Bombay.


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231. Samanga - Listed in 'geography'.

232. Satiya (सतिय) - A southern tribe (VI. 10.62).

मूषका सतनबालाश च सतियः पत्तिपञ्जकाः । आथिथायाः सिरालाश च सतूबका सतनपास तदा (VI. 10.62)

233. Sarvasenaya (सर्वसेनय) - A Salva branch; listed in the 'geography' (VI. 10 59).

समङ्गाः कॊपनाश चैव कुकुराङ्गथ मारिषाः । धवजिन्य उत्सव संकेतास तरिवर्गाः सर्वसेनयः (VI. 10 59)

234. Sairindhra (सैरन्ध्र) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.56).

ओष्ट्राः पुण्ड्राः स सैरन्ध्राः पार्वतीयाश च मारिष । अदापरे जनपथा थक्षिणा भरतर्षभ (VI. 10.56)

235. Sahyottara - Probably the people of Khandesh.

236. Satvata - An ethnic name of the great Yadava confederacy in Anarta. Satvata was a great King whose sons established at least four distinct lineages of Kshatriyas, viz. Bhoja, Andhaka, Kukura and Vrishni.

237. Savitriputraka (सावित्री पुत्र) - A Salva branch defeated in battle by Arjuna (VIII.4.47) in the northwest; known as the hundred sons of Savitri and Satyavan (III.279.15).

मावेल्लकास तुण्डिकेराः सावित्री पुत्र काञ्चलाह । पराच्यॊथीच्याः परतीच्याश च थाक्षिणात्याश च मारिष (VIII.4.47)

238. Simhapura (सिंहपुर) - A northwest settlement subdued by Arjuna (II. 24.19).

ततः सिंहपुरं रम्यं चित्रायुधसुरक्षितम । परामदथ बलम आस्दाय पाकशासनिर आहवे (II. 24.19)

239. Siddha (सिद्ध) - A Himalayan people in 'geography' (VI. 10.55); also known as celestial ascetics. Shalya Parva (IX.44.59)

कच्छा गॊपाल कच्छाश च लाङ्गलाः परवल्लकाः । किराता बर्बराः सिद्धा विथेहास ताम्रलिङ्गकाः (VI. 10.55)
पुत्र मेषः परवाहश च तदा नन्दॊपनन्दकौ । धूम्रः शवेतः कलिङ्गश च सिद्धार्दॊ वरदस तदा (IX.44.59)

240. Sirala (सिराल) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.62).

मूषका सतनबालाश च सतियः पत्तिपञ्जकाः । आथिथायाः सिरालाश च सतूबका सतनपास तदा (VI. 10.62)

241. Sukatya (सुकुट्य) - In 'geography' (VI. 10.38); one of the tribes who fled westwards in fear of Jarasandha.

शूरसेनाः कलिङ्गाश च बॊधा मौकास तदैव च । मत्स्याः सुकुट्यः सौबल्याः कुन्तलाः काशिकॊशलाः (VI. 10.38)

242. Sudamana (सुदामान) - A northwest janapada in geography (VI.10.53)

थर्वीकाः सकचा थर्वा वातजाम रदॊरगाः । बहु वाथ्याश च कौरव्य सुदामानः सुमल्लिकाः (VI.10.53)

243. Sudesna (सुदेष्ण) - Listed in 'geography' (VI.10.45).

मल्लाः सुदेष्णाः पराहूतास तदा माहिष कार्षिकाः । वाहीका वाटधानाश च आभीराः कालतॊयकाः (VI.10.45)

244. Sundaravega (सुन्दर वेगान) - A name of a family or clan (V.72.15).

हयग्रीवॊ विथेहानां वरप्रश च महौजसाम । बाहुः सुन्दर वेगानां थीप्ताक्षाणां पुरूरवाः (V.72.15)

245. Suparsva (सुपार्श्व) - Bhima subdued king Kratha in Suparshva, between Kashi and Matsya (II.27.7); probably a Yadava settlement in Berar.

ततः सुपार्श्वम अभितस तदा राजपतिं करदम । युध्यमानं बलात संख्ये विजिग्ये पाण्डवर्षभः (II.27.7)

246. Sumallika (सुमल्लिक) - Listed in 'geography' with other northhwestern peoples (VI. 10.53); could be the inhabitants of Mulla pass.

थर्वीकाः सकचा थर्वा वातजाम रदॊरगाः । बहु वाथ्याश च कौरव्य सुथामानः सुमल्लिकाः (VI. 10.53)

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247. Susthara(-lah) (सुस्दर) - They rank among the tribes who fled westward after being defeated by Jarasandha (II.13.25).

शूरसेना भथ्र कारा बॊधाः शाल्वाः पतच चराः । सुस्दराश च सुकुट्टाश च कुणिन्थाः कुन्तिभिः सह (II.13.25)

248. Suhma (सुह्म) - One of the five Anava tribes of the east, mentioned in connection with digvijayas (of Pandu I. 105; Arjuna II 24.20). The country is identified with Radha in Bengal.

ततः सुह्मांश च चॊलांश च किरीटी पाण्डवर्षभः । सहितः सर्वसैन्येन परामदत कुरुनन्थनः ( II 24.20)

249. Srnjaya/Somaka (सॊमक) - They were two main branches of Panchalas who joined the Pandavas; their leader was Dhrstadyumna (I. 185.1).

ततस तदॊक्तः परिहृष्टरूपः; पित्रे शशंसाद स राजपुत्रः । धृष्टथ्युम्नः सॊमकानां परबर्हॊ; वृत्तं यदा येन हृता च कृष्णा (I. 185.1)

250. Seka/Aparaseka - Defeated by Sahdeva (II. 28.8) in the south; possibly from the region between the Chambal and Narmada rivers.

251. Saindhava (सैन्धव) - Amongst the tribes of the extreme northwest (III. 48.21, VIII. 4.96).

हारहूणांश च चीनांश च तुखारान सैन्धवांस तदा । जागुडान रमठान मुण्डान सत्री राज्यान अद तङ्गणान (III.48.21)
आजानेयैः सैन्धवैः पार्वतीयैर; नथीज काम्बॊजवनायु बाह्लिकैः । गान्धारराजः सवबलेन युक्तॊ; वयवस्दितॊ यॊथ्धुकामस तवथर्दे (VIII. 4.96)

252. Shauvala (शौवल) - In 'geography' among northwest tribes (VI. 10.52).

काश्मीराः सिन्धुसौवीरा गान्धारा दर्शकास तदा । अभीसारा कुलूताश च शौवला बाह्लिकास तदा (VI. 10.52)

253. Sopadesa (सॊपदेश) - Conquered by Bhima (II. 27.9).

निवृत्य च महाबाहुर मथर्वीकं महीधरम । सॊपदेशं विनिर्जित्य परययाव उत्तरा मुखः (II. 27.9)

254. Saubdhida (सौब्धिद) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.58).

कर्णिकाः कुन्तिकाश चैव सौब्धिदा नलकालकाः । कौकुट्टकास तदा चॊलाः कॊङ्कणा मालवाणकाः (VI. 10.58)

255. Saudha (सौध) - Listed in 'geography' (VI. 10.40); could indicate Saudha, capital of the Salvas.

पाञ्चालाः कौशिकाश चैव एकपृष्ठा युगं धराः । सौधा मथ्रा भुजिङ्गाश च काशयॊ ऽपरकाशयः (VI. 10.40)

256. Saubalya (सौबल्य) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI. 10.38).

शूरसेनाः कलिङ्गाश च बॊधा मौकास तदैव च । मत्स्याः सुकुट्यः सौबल्याः कुन्तलाः काशिकॊशलाः (VI. 10.38)

257. Stanapa (सतनप) - A wild northern tribe (VI. 10.62).

मूषका सतनबालाश च सतियः पत्तिपञ्जकाः । आथिथायाः सिरालाश च सतूबका सतनपास तदा (VI. 10.62)

258. Satrirajya (सत्री राज्य) - Mentioned in the list of tribes whom Sanjaya saw in the court of Yudhisthira, in Rajasuya (III. 48.21); probably a trans-Himalayan kingdom.

हारहूणांश च चीनांश च तुखारान सैन्धवांस तदा । जागुडान रमठान मुण्डान सत्री राज्यान अद तङ्गणान (III. 48.21)

259. Hamsakayana (हंसकायन) - Figure as northwestern peoples in the tribute list (II. 48.13); identified with modern Hunza and Nagar in the extreme northwest of Kashmir.

काश्मीराः कुन्थमानाश च पौरका हंसकायनाः । शिबित्रिगर्तयौधेया राजन्या मथ्रकेकयाः (II. 48.13)

260. Harivarsa (हरिवर्ष) - The last spot in the north which Arjuna could reach in his digvijayas (II. 25.7), after which lay the utopian land of Uttarakurus.

उत्तरं हरिवर्षं तु समासाथ्य स पाण्डवः । इयेष जेतुं तं थेशं पाकशासननन्थनः (II. 25.7)

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261. Hataka (हाटक) - Gandharva territory near Kailash mountain and Manasa lake, subdued by Arjuna on his way back from the conquest of northern countries (II. 25.3).

तं जित्वा हाटकं नाम थेशं गुह्यक रक्षितम । पाकशासनिर अव्यग्रः सह सैन्यः समासथत (II. 25.3)

262. Harahuna (हारहूण) - Figure in Nakula's conquest of western quarters (II. 29.11) and in the tribute list (II.47.19; III. 48.21); could be tribes from the banks of Aragandava river in southhwest Afghanistan, known as Harahvaiti in old Iranian languages, though the name suggests a link with Hunas.

रमठान हारहूणांश च परतीच्याश चैव ये नृपाः । तान सर्वान स वशे चक्रे शासनाथ एव पाण्डवः (II. 29.11)
चीनान हूनाञ शकान ओडून पर्वतान्तरवासिनः । वार्ष्णेयान हारहूणांश च कृष्णान हैमवतांस तदा (II.47.19)
हारहूणांश च चीनांश च तुखारान सैन्धवांस तदा । जागुडान रमठान मुण्डान सत्री राज्यान अद तङ्गणान (III. 48.21)

263. Haimavata ( हैमवत) - Himalayan people in the tribute list (II. 47.19).

चीनान हूनाञ शकान ओडून पर्वतान्तरवासिनः । वार्ष्णेयान हारहूणांश च कृष्णान हैमवतांस तदा (II.47.19)

264. Haihaya (हेहय) - An ancient people famous in the time of Arjuna Kartavirya, who once occupied the whole of central and northern India barring a few parts in the east. They occupied the Chamba basin. (XIII.31.7-8)

तस्यान्ववाये थवौ राजन राजानौ संबभूवतुः । हेहयस तालजङ्घश च वत्सेषु जयतां वर (XIII.31.7)
हेहयस्य तु पुत्राणां थशसु सत्रीषु भारत । शतं बभूव परख्यातं शूराणाम अनिवर्तिनाम (XIII.31.8)

Non-martial Tribes

Not all the tribes that fought in the Great War enjoyed wild and barbarous reputations. Some appear to have been pastoral communities, such as the Abhira, Narayana and Gopala. Indeed, a goparastra (kingdom of cowherds) is mentioned in the 'geography' (VI. 10.42), and possibly indicated the region of ancient Nasik. Though these tribes were wholly engaged in cattle rearing, they took up arms in moments of war and served as hired soldiers to various rulers.

The Abhiras probably hailed from the Punjab and Mathura regions; Krishna was raised in an Abhira family. The Narayanas, also known as Gopalas, came from Kathiawar and were both cowherds and professional warriors. The Narayana army was the

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personal army of Sri Krishna, who gave them to Duryodhana after being chosen by Arjuna (V.7.16) to side with the Pandavas in the Great War. While Krishna joined the war as the personal charioteer of Arjuna, the epic suggests that some divisions of the Narayana army nonetheless fought under the Pandavas (VIII.4.59).

Notes

  1. The above English text used for study and research is mainly based on the book Adideo Arya Devata, A Panoramic view of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface by Sandhya Jain Published in 2004 by Rupa & Co, 7/16, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi, who has based almost wholly on K.c. Mishra's exhaustive study Tribes in the Mahabharata. A Socio-Cultural Study, National Publishing House, Delhi, 1987.
  2. Only the English text about each tribe before the sanskrit text is from above author. The sanskrit text has been compiled from Mahabharata Index Online - The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, published between 1883 and 1896
  3. In each tribe entry, after the sanskrit text, identification with Jat Gotras has been done from Clan histories on Jatland Wiki.


Above list in alphabetical order

Abhira (p.122), II.29.9 •Abhisara (p.121), VI.10.52 •Adhiraja (p.128), II.28.3 •Adidaya (p.128), 0 •Agreya (p.128), 0 •Ajaneya (p.122), VIII.4.96 •Ambastha (p.121), II.48.14 •Amra (p.128), 0 •Anarta (p.128), V.7.4 •Andhaka (p.121), VI.20.14 •Andhra (p.121), VI.10.48 •Anga (p.121), VIII. 17.2 •Antargirya (p.128), 0 •Anupaka (p.128), III. 116. 19 •Anupavrt (p.128), 0 •Aparanta (p.128), 0 •Aparaparyata (p.128), 0 •Aparaseka (p.145), 0 •Aparavartaka (p.128), 0 •Aparavartaka (p.141), VI.10.61 •Aratta (p.122), VII.165.69 •Arbuka (p.128), 0 •Arevaka (p.122), VI.47.7 •Asmaka (p.116), VII. 61.39 •Asvataka (p.122), VI 47.15 •Atavisavara (p.127), 0 •Atreya (p.128), VI.10.67 •Audumbara (p.129), II.48.12 •Aupaka (p.130), VI. 10.67 •Avanti (p.122), 0 •Avasira (p.129), 0 •Babbar (p.137), 0 •Bahlika (p.137), 0 •Bahurvadya (p.137), VI.10.53 •Baliha (p.137), V.72.14 •Balirastra (p.137), VI.10.43 •Barbara (p.137), XII.200.40 •Bhadra (p.119), VI.47.9 •Bhadrakara (p.137), II.13.25 •Bhardwaja (p.137), VI.10.67 •Bharga (p.137), II.27.10 •Bhargava (p.137), VI.10.49 •Bhoja (p.125), VI.20.14 •Bodha (p.137), II.13.25 •Charmakhandika (p.133), VI.10.46 •Chedi (p.117), VI.10.39 •Chichchhila (p.124), VI.83.9 •China (p.124), VI .10.65 •Chitraka (p.133), II. 46.21 •Chola (p.117), VI.46.50 •Chuchupa (p.124), VI. 47.16 •Dandaka (p.118), II.28.43 •Darva (p.124), VI.10.53 •Darvika (p.124), VI.10.53 •Dasam (p.124), 0 •Dasamalika (p.135), VI.10.65 •Dasameya (p.124), 0 •Dasaparsva (p.135), VI.10.54 •Dasar (p.135), 0 •Dasharna (p.118), VI.10.39 •Dasheraka (p.118), VI.112.108 •Diptaksha (p.135), V.72.15 •Dirghavenava (p.135), II.48.3 •Dravida (p.118), VI.10.57 •Dugula (p.135), VI.10.50 •Dvalpeya (p.135), 0 •Dvarapala (p.135), II.29.10 •Dwadashaksha (p.135), IX.44.54 •Ekapada (p.129), II.28.47 •Ekaprastha (p.130), VI.10.40 •Ekasana (p.129), II.48.3 •Gandhara (p.123), VI.10.52 •Gargya (p.133), 0 •Gaya (p.133), II.48.15 •Giri-gahvara (p.133), 0 •Gopala (p.146), 0 •Gopalakaccha (p.133), VI.10.55 •Goparastra (p.133), VI.10.42 •Gosringa (p.133), II.28.5 •Govasana (p.124), II.47.5 •Govinda (p.133), VI. 10.42 •Guha (p.133), 0 •Haihaya (p.146), XIII.31.7 •Haimavata (p.146), II.47.19 •Hamsakayana (p.145), II. 48.13 •Hamsamarga (p.127), VI. 10.68 •Harahuna (p.146), II. 29.11 •Harivarsa (p.145), II. 25.7 •Hataka (p.146), II. 25.3 •Huna (p.120), VI .10.64 •Jaguda (p.134), III.48.21 •Jangala (p.134), VI.l0.37 •Jartika (p.133), 0 •Jata (p.146), IX.44.54 •Jathara (p.133), VI.10.41 •Jyoha (p.129), II.48.3 •Jyoha (p.134), II.48.3 •Kaccha (p.130), VI. 10.55 •Kaisika (p.132), 0 •Kaka (p.131), VI.10.63 •Kaksha (p.130), VI. 10.47 •Kalada (p.131), 0 •Kalakuta (p.131), II.23.14 •Kalamukha (p.131), II.28.45 •Kalatoyaka (p.131), VI.X. 45 •Kalinga (p.130), III.114.4 •Kalkala (p.131), VI.10.60 •Kamboja (p.122), VII.67.67 •[[Kanana ]] (p.116), 0 •Kanka (p.131), II.47.26 •Kara Bhanjaka (p.130), VI.10.68 •Karahataka (p.130), 0 •Karantha (p.130), VI.10.61 •Karaskara (p.131), II.46.21 •Karisaka (p.130), VI.10.54 •Karkakhanda (p.130), 0 •Karkotaka (p.130), II.9.9 •Karnapravarna (p.122), VI.47.13 •Karnata (p.130), II.31.6 •Karnika (p.131), VI.10.58 •Karpasika (p.131), II.47.7 •Karusa (p.116), VI.10.39 •Karvata (p.131), 0 •Kashi (p.116), VI.10.38 •Kashmira (p.131), VI.10.52 •Kaukuttaka (p.132), VI.10.58 •Kausija (p.133), 0 •Kayavya (p.131), II.48.12 •Kekaraka (p.133), II.28.45 •Kekaya (p.117), VII. 61.39 •Kerala (p.117), VI.10.57 •Kevala (p.132), 0 •Khasa (p.123), 0 •Kichaka (p.131), I.144.2 •Kirata (p.123), VI.20.13 •Kitava (p.122), II.47.10 •Kokanada (p.132), II.24.17 •Kolla-giri (p.133), II.28.45 •Konkana (p.132), VI.10.58 •[[Kopana ]] (p.133), VI.10.59 •Koshala (p.123), VI.83.9 •Kratha (p.133), 0 •Krmi (p.132), 0 •Krvi (p.133), 0 •Kshudraka (p.123), II.48.14 •Kukkuta (p.132), 0 •Kukura (p.123), VI.47.7 •Kulaka (p.132), VI.10.61 •Kulata (p.132), 0 •Kuluta (p.123), VI.10.52 •Kumara (p.132), II.27.1 •Kunata (p.132), VI. 10.50 •Kundamana (p.132), II.48.13 •Kundivisa (p.117), VI.46.49 •Kuninda (p.116), II.23.13 •Kuntala (p.123), II.31.11 •Kunti (p.117), VI. 10.41 •Kuraka (p.132), VI.10.61 •Kurontha (p.132), VI.10.61 •Kuru (p.132), 0 •Kusala (p.132), VI.10.50 •Kusavindu (p.132), VI.10.54 •Kuttaparanta (p.132), 0 •Ladaka (p.120), 0 •Lalataksha (p.140), II.47.15 •Lalittha (p.126), VIII.4.46 •Lampaka (p.140), 0 •Langala (p.140), VI.l0.55 •Lata (p.140), 0 •Loha (p.141), II.24.24 •Lohajangha (p.141), II.46.21 •Lohita (p.141), II 24.16 •Madaka (p.119), VI.46.49 •Madaviraka (p.137), II.27.9 •Madhumanta (p.138), VI. 1 0.51 •Madhyamikeya (p.138), II. 48.13 •Madra (p.137), II.29.13 •Magadha (p.119), VIII. 17.2 •Mahechchha (p.138), II.29.6 •Mahishaka (p.139), VI.10.57 •Mahishakarshika (p.138), VI.10.45 •Mahishmati (p.125), II.28.11 •Malada (p.138), VI.10.48 •Malaka (p.138), VI.10.61 •Malava (p.125), VI.83.6 •Malavanaka (p.138), VI.10.58 •Malla (p.138), VI.10.45 •Manavarjaka (p.138), VI. 10.48 •Mandaka (p.138), VI.10.42 •Maradha (p.138), VI.10.65 •Marudha (p.120), 0 •Matsya (p.119), II.13.27 •Mauleya (p.139), II. 48.14 •Mavellaka (p.139), VIII.4.47 •Mekala (p.126), VI.10.39 •Moda-giri (p.139), II. 27.19 •Modana (p.139), 0 •Modapura (p.139), II. 24.10 •Moka (p.139), VI. 10.38 •Mudgala (p.139), 0 •Munda (p.126), III.48.21 •Murachipattana (p.138), II.28.45 •Mushaka (p.139), VI.10.57 •Naimisha (p.135), VIII.30.60 •Nairrta (p.135), VI.10.50 •Nalakalaka (p.135), VI.10.50 •Nandivega (p.135), V.72.17 •Narayana (p.124), VII.66.38 •Narayana (p.146), 0 •Navarastra (p.135), II.28.6 •Nipa (p.135), II.46.21 •Nishada (p.118), VI. 10.50 •Odra (p.129), II.28.48 •Pahlava (p.125), VI.20.13 •Pamsu Rashtra (p.118), II.48.26 •Panchakarpata (p.135), II.29.6 •Panchala (p.118), VI.10.40 •Panchanada (p.124), II.29.10 •Pandya (p.119), VI.46.50 •Panibhadraka (p.125), VI.47.9 •Panitaka (p.136), VI. 10.42 •Para Samcaraka (p.143), VI. 10.60 •Parada (p.125), VI.83.7 •Parahuta (p.137), VI.10.45 •Parantangana (p.136), VI.9.63 •Parasika (p.136), VI.10.51 •Parataka (p.125), 0 •Paratangana (p.117), VI.46.49 •Paravrsheya (p.136), VI. 10.49 •Parostha (p.137), VI.10.60 •Pasu (p.136), II.48.3 •Patachchara (p.118), VI.46.47 •Pattana (p.136), 0 •Pattibhanjaka (p.136), VI.10.62 •Pauraka (p.136), II.48.13 •Paurava (p.119), VI.46.47 •Pichchhanda (p.136), II.28.47 •Pishacha (p.119), VI.83.8 •Prabhadraka (p.136), VI.52.14 •Prachya (p.136), VI.10.57 •Pradara (p.136), 0 •Prakustaka (p.136), VI.10.51 •Pramuda (p.136), 0 •Prasthala (p.125), VI.83.10 •Pratimatsya (p.136), VI.6.50 •Prayaga (p.119), VI.46.46 •Pulinda (p.125), VI.83.7 •Pundra (p.119), VI.46.49 •Rajanya (p.140), II. 48.13 •Rajika (p.140), 0 •Ramaka (p.140), 0 •Ramatha (p.140), II. 29.11 •Rasyakagana (p.140), 0 •Rathoraga (p.140), VI.10.53 •Rohitaka (p.140), II. 29.4 •Roma (p.140), 0 •Romaka (p.140), VI. 10.54 •Rshika (p.140), II. 24.24 •Sahyottara (p.144), 0 •Saindhava (p.145), III.48.21 •Sairindhra (p.144), VI. 10.56 •Sakala (p.142), II. 23.15 •Sakshaddruha (p.143), VI. 10.64 •Samanga (p.144), 0 •Samsthana (p.127), 0 •Sanjayanti (p.143), 0 •Sarmaka (p.143), 0 •Sarvasenaya (p.144), VI. 10 59 •Satiya (p.144), VI. 10.62 •Satrirajya (p.145), III. 48.21 •Satvata (p.144), 0 •Saubalya (p.145), VI. 10.38 •Saubdhida (p.145), VI. 10.58 •[[Saudha ]] (p.145), VI. 10.40 •Saundika (p.143), II.48.15 •Sauvira (p.127), V.72.14 •Savara (p.120), VI. 46.51 •Savitriputraka (p.144), VIII.4.47 •Seka (p.145), 0 •Shaka (p.142), VI.20.13 •Shalva (p.126), VI. 18.13 •Shanavatya (p.143), II.48.15 •Shanda (p.143), VI. 10.42 •Shauvala (p.145), VI. 10.52 •Shirisaka (p.143), II. 29.6 •Shivi (p.143), II. 29.6 •Shukara (p.143), II. 48.24 •Siddha (p.144), VI. 10.55 •Simhala (p.127), 0 •Simhapura (p.144), II. 24.19 •Sindhu (p.127), VIII.4.11 •Sirala (p.144), VI. 10.62 •Somaka (p.145), I. 185.1 •Sopadesa (p.145), II. 27.9 •Srnjaya (p.145), 0 •Stanapa (p.145), VI. 10.62 •Sudamana (p.144), VI.10.53 •Sudesna (p.144), VI.10.45 •Sudra (p.143), VI. 10.46 •Suhma (p.145), II 24.20 •Sukatya (p.144), VI. 10.38 •Sumallika (p.144), VI. 10.53 •Sundaka (p.143), 0 •Sundaravega (p.144), V.72.15 •Suparsv (p.144), II.27.7 •Sura (p.127), 0 •Surasena (p.127), VI.47.7 •Surastra (p.127), VI. 10.47 •Surparaka (p.143), II.28.43 •Susthara (p.145), II.13.25 •Talajangha (p.134), V.72.13 •Talakata (p.134), 0 •Talavan (p.134), II.28.48 •Tamara (p.134), VI. 10.68 •Tamradvipa (p.134), 0 •Tamralipta (p.117), II.48.17 •Tangana (p.117), VI.46.49 •Taratoya (p.134), VI.l0.51 •Tarkshya (p.134), II.48.14 •Tilaka (p.134), VI.l0.51 •Timingila (p.134), II.28.46 •Tiragraha (p.134), VI.l0.51 •Tittira (p.117), VI.46.50 •Trigarta (p.124), VI.47.7 •Tripura (p.134), 0 •Tryanga (p.134), VI.l0.60 •Tryasha (p.134), II.47.15 •Tumbupa (p.118), VI.46.51 •Tundikera (p.124), VIII.4.47 •Tushara (p.124), VI.10.66 •Udra (p.129), II.28.48 •Uluka (p.129), V.157.3 •Unntyaka (p.129), VI.10.57 •Upavrt (p.129), 0 •Uraga (p.129), II.24.18 •[[Usinara ]] (p.129), XII.29.35 •Ustrakarnika (p.129), II.28.48 •Utkala (p.129), VI.10.39 •Utsavasanketa (p.129), II.29.8 •Uttama (p.129), VI.10.39 •Uttarajyoti (p.134), II.29.10 •Uttarakurava (p.129), II.48.6 •Vadhra (p.141), VI. 10.54 •Vahika (p.141), VI.9.45 •Vairama (p.142), II.47.10 •Vaiyamaka (p.142), II. 48.12 •Vakra (p.141), VI. 10.43 •Vanarasya (p.141), VI. 10.43 •Vanavasina (p.141), VI. 10.57 •[[Vanayu ]] (p.126), VI.10.54 •Vanga (p.126), VIII. 17.2 •Varmaka (p.141), II.27.12 •Vasatis (p.126), VI. 18.12 •Vastrapa (p.141), II.48.14 •Vatadhana (p.126), VI.52.4 •Vatajama (p.141), VI.10.53 •Vatsa (p.120), VI.10.39 •Venika (p.126), VI. 47.7 •Vidarbha (p.141), VI. 47.13 •Videha (p.142), VI.112.108 •Vijaya (p.141), VI. 1 0.44 •Vikalpa (p.141), VI. 10.57 •Vikarna (p.126), VI. 47.15 •Vikunja (p.126), VI. 52.9 •Vindhyap (p.142), VI. 10.60 •Viraka (p.142), VIII.30.45 •Vrika (p.142), V. 31.19 •Vrishnis (p.120), VI.20.14 •Vrndataka (p.142), II. 29.10 •Yakrllomana (p.139), VI. 10.44 •Yaudheya (p.140), II.48.13 •Yavana (p.139), I. 80.26 •Yugandhara (p.140), VII.15.30

List of Other Jat clans added by Laxman Burdak

The 18 tribes which fled due to attacks from Jarasandha Mahabharata have been mentioned in Book 2, Chapter 14. Jarasandha was a powerful Ancient Indian king who ruled Magadha. The eighteen tribes of the Bhojas, from fear of Jarasandha, have all fled towards the west; so also have the Surasenas, the Bhadrakas, the Vodhas, the Shalwas, the Patachcharas, the Susthalas, the Mukuttas, and the Kulindas, along with the Kuntis. And the king of the Salwayana tribe with their brethren and followers; and the southern Panchalas and the eastern Kosalas have all fled to the country of the Kunti Kingdom. So also the Matsyas and the Sannyastapadas, overcome with fear, leaving their dominions in the north, have fled into the southern country. And so all the Panchalas, alarmed at the power of Jarasandha, have left their own kingdom and fled in all directions.

Sabha Parva - Book II

  • Dhiman (धीमान) - Jat Gotra : Sabha Parva Mahabharata (II.28.50)
भरु कच्छं गतॊ धीमान थूतान माथ्रवतीसुतः । परेषयाम आस राजेन्थ्र पौलस्त्याय महात्मने । विभीषणाय धर्मात्मा परीतिपूर्वम अरिंथमः (II.28.50)
पूष्णा भगेनार्यम्णा च अंशेन च विवस्वता । रुद्रश च सहितॊ धीमान मित्रेण वरुणेन च (IX.44.5)
  • Chhina (चीना) - Sabha Parva Mahabharata (II.47.19), Bhisma Parva Mahabharata (VI .10.65)
चीनान हूनाञ शकान ओडून पर्वतान्तरवासिनः । वार्ष्णेयान हारहूणांश च कृष्णान हैमवतांस तदा (II.47.19)
तदैव मरधाश चीनास तदैव दश मालिकाः । कषत्रियॊपनिवेशाश च वैश्यशूद्र कुलानि च (VI .10.65)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Chhina (चीना) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Chhina (चीना).
पाण्ड्यांश च थरविथांश चैव सहितांश चॊद्र केरलैः । अन्ध्रांस तलवनांश चैव कलिङ्गान ओष्ट्र कर्णिकान (II.28.48)

Sabha Parva Mahabharata: (II.47.19)

चीनान हूनाञ शकान ओडून पर्वतान्तरवासिनः । वार्ष्णेयान हारहूणांश च कृष्णान हैमवतांस तदा (II.47.19)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Odra) (ओद्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Odhran (ओधरान).
  • Kichaka (कीचक) - Sabha Parva (II.48.2)
मेरुमन्दरयॊर मध्ये शैलॊदाम अभितॊ नदीम । ये ते कीचक वेणूनां छायां रम्याम उपासते (II.48.2)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kichaka (कीचक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Khichad (खीचड़)
  • Venu (वेणू) - Sabha Parva (II.48.2)
मेरुमन्दरयॊर मध्ये शैलॊदाम अभितॊ नदीम । ये ते कीचक वेणूनां छायां रम्याम उपासते (II.48.2)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Venu (वेणू) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Beniwal (बेनीवाल)
  • Dar (दर) - (II.48.4)
ते वै पिपीलिकं नाम वरदत्तं पिपीलिकैः । जातरूपं दरॊण मेयम अहार्षुः पुञ्जशॊ नृपाः (II.48.4)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Venu (वेणू) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Dar (दार)
  • Miya (मीया) - (II.48.4)
ते वै पिपीलिकं नाम वरदत्तं पिपीलिकैः । जातरूपं दरॊण मेयम अहार्षुः पुञ्जशॊ नृपाः (II.48.4)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Miya (मीया) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Miya (मीया)
  • Lal (लल) - Sabha Parva (II.48.5)
कृष्णाँल ललामांश चमराञ शुक्लांश चान्याञ शशिप्रभान । हिमवत्पुष्पजं चैव सवादु कषौथ्रं तदा बहु
The Mahabharata Tribe - Lal (लल) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Lal (लल)
  • Bharan (भारान) - Sabha Parva (II.48.9)
चन्दनागुरुकाष्ठानां भारान कालीयकस्य च । चर्म रत्नसुवर्णानां गन्धानां चैव राशयः (II.48.9)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Bharan (भारान) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Bharania (भरानिया) gotra Jats who live in Chhoti Sadri tahsil in Chittorgarh district in Rajasthan.
  • Kaliyaka (कालीयक) - Sabha Parva (II.48.9)
चन्दनागुरुकाष्ठानां भारान कालीयकस्य च । चर्म रत्नसुवर्णानां गन्धानां चैव राशयः (II.48.9)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kaliyaka (कालीयक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kaliyani (कलियानी). [63]
  • Suvalaya (सुबलय) - Sabha Parva (II.48.18)
तत्र समदवारपालैस ते परॊच्यन्ते राजशासनात । कृतकाराः सुबलयस ततॊ दवारम अवाप्स्यद (II.48.18)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Suvalaya (सुबलय) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Suvala (सुवाला).
  • Shailbhana (शैलाभान) - Sabha Parva (II.48.19)
ईषा दन्तान हेमकक्षान पथ्मवर्णान कुदावृतान । शैलाभान नित्यमत्तांश च अभितः काम्यकं सरः (II.48.19)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Shailbhana (शैलाभान) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Shail (शैल).
  • Basavanuga (वासवानुग) - Sabha Parva (II.48.22)
राजा चित्ररदॊ नाम गन्धर्वॊ वासवानुगः । शतानि चत्वार्य अथथथ धयानां वातरंहसाम (II.48.22)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Basavanuga (वासवानुग) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Baswan (वासवान)
  • Amra (आम्र) - Sabha Parva (II.48.23)
तुम्बुरुस तु परमुथितॊ गन्धर्वॊ वाजिनां शतम । आम्रपत्र सवर्णानाम अथथथ धेममालिनाम (II.48.23)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Basavanuga (वासवानुग) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Ameria (आमेरिया)
  • Kunjara (कुञ्जर) - Sabha Parva (II.48.25)
विराटेन तु मत्स्येन बल्यर्दं हेममालिनाम । कुञ्जराणां सहस्रे दवे मत्तानां समुपाहृते (II.48.25)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kunjara (कुञ्जर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kunjar (कंजर).
  • Kanchana (कञ्चन) - Sabha Parva (II.48.26)
पांशुराष्ट्राथ वसु दानॊ राजा षड विंशतिं गजान । अश्वानां च सहस्रे थवे राजन काञ्चनमालिनाम (II.48.26)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kanchana (कञ्चन) may be identified with Jat Gotra - kanchap (कञ्चप)
  • Sinhala (सिन्हल) - Sabha Parva (II.48.30)
समुद्रसारं वैडूर्यं मुक्ताः शङ्खांस तदैव च । शतशश च कुदांस तत्र सिन्हलाः समुपाहरन
The Mahabharata Tribe - Sinhala (सिन्हल) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Singhal (सिन्घल)

Virata Parva - Book IV

सन्ति रम्या जनपथा बह्व अन्नाः परितः कुरून । पाञ्चालाश चेथिमत्स्याश च शूरसेनाः पटच्चराः । दशार्णा नव राष्ट्रं च मल्लाः शाल्व युगंधराः (IV.1.9)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Pattachchara (पटच्चर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pachar (पचार)
  • Kalakhanjas (कालखञ्ज) - Virata Parva (IV.12.13)
तत्र मल्लाः समापेतुर थिग्भ्यॊ राजन सहस्रशः । महाकाया महावीर्याः कालखञ्जा इवासुराः
tatra mallāḥ samāpetur digbhyo rājan sahasraśaḥ
mahākāyā mahāvīryāḥ kālakhañjā ivāsurāḥ
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kalakhanjas (कालखञ्ज) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kalkhund (कालखंड)
  • Kichaka (कीचक) - Virata Parva (IV.20.29), (IV.20.30)
पश्यतॊ धर्मराजस्य कीचकॊ मां पथावधीत । तव चैव समक्षं वै भीमसेन महाबल IV.20.29)
तवया हय अहं परित्राता तस्माथ घॊराज जटासुरात । जयथ्रदं तदैव तव मजैषीर भरातृभिः सह (IV.20.30)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kichaka (कीचक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Khichar (खीचड)
  • Jatasura (जटासुर) - Virata Parva (IV.20.30)
तवया हय अहं परित्राता तस्माथ घॊराज जटासुरात । जयथ्रदं तदैव तव मजैषीर भरातृभिः सह (IV.20.30)

Bhisma Parva - Book VI

Kadaka (कडक) was A northern tribe in Yudhisthira's army in Mahabharata (VI.46.49).

पिशाचा थरथाश चैव पुण्ड्राः कुण्डी विषैः सह । मडका कडकाश चैव तङ्गणाः परपङ्गणाः (VI.46.49)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Kadaka (कडक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Kadawa (कड़वा)

Sauval (सौबल) - (VI.10.3)

न तत्र पाण्डवा गृथ्धाः शृणु राजन वचॊ मम । गृथ्धॊ थुर्यॊधनस तत्र शकुनिश चापि सौबलः (VI.10.3)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Sauval (सौबल) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Suval (सुवाल).

Lomana (लॊमान) - (VI.10.44)

विदेहका मागधाश च सुह्माश च विजयास तदा । अङ्गा वङ्गाः कलिङ्गाश च यकृल लॊमान एव च (VI.10.44)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Lomana (लॊमान) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Lomror (लोमरोर)

Vanara (वानर) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.44)

आदि राष्ट्राः सुकुट्टाश च बलिराष्ट्रं च केवलम । वानरास्याः परवाहाश च वक्रा वक्रभयाः शकाः (VI.10.44)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Vanara (वानर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Vanar (वानर)

Khandika (खण्डिक) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.46)

अपरन्ध्राश च शूद्राश च पह्लवाश चर्म खण्डिकाः । अटवी शबराश चैव मरु भौमाश च मारिष (VI.10.46)
निर्याय खाण्डव परस्दात परतीचीम अभितॊ दिशम । उथ्थिश्य मतिमान परायान महत्या सेनया सह (II.29.2)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Khandika (खण्डिक)/(Khandava (खाण्डव) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Khanda (खाण्डा) or Khandia (खाण्डिया) who live in Nimach district in Madhya Pradesh.

Mahyuttara (मह्युत्तर) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.49)

मह्युत्तराः परावृषेया भार्गवाश च जनाधिप । पुण्ड्रा भार्गाः किराताश च सुदॊष्णाः परमुदास तदा (VI.10.49)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Mahyuttara (मह्युत्तर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Mahiya (महिया).

Pundra (पुण्ड्र) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.56)

ओष्ट्राः पुण्ड्राः स सैरन्ध्राः पार्वतीयाश च मारिष । अदापरे जनपदा दक्षिणा भरतर्षभ (VI.10.56)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Pundra (पुण्ड्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pundir (पुन्डीर)

Mahishaka (महिषक) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.57)

दरविडाः केरलाः पराच्या भूषिका वनवासिनः । उन्नत्यका माहिषका विकल्पा मूषकास तदा (VI.10.57)

Also mentioned in Shalya parva, Mahabharata (IX.44.77)

आखु बभ्रुक वक्त्रश च मयूरवदनास तदा । मत्स्यमेषाननाश चान्ये अजावि महिषाननाः (IX.44.77)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Mahishaka (महिषक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Bains (बैंस).

Malika (मलिक) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.65)

तदैव मरधाश चीनास तदैव दश मालिकाः । कषत्रियॊपनिवेशाश च वैश्यशूद्र कुलानि च (VI.10.65)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Malika (मलिक) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Malik (मलिक)

Darada (दरद) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.66)

शूद्राभीराद दरदाः काश्मीराः पशुभिः सह । खशिकाश च तुखाराश च पल्लवा गिरिगह्वराः (VI.10.66)

Also mentioned in sabha Parva Mahabharata - (II.48.12)

कायव्या दरदा दार्वाः शूरा वैयमकास तदा । औदुम्बरा दुर्विभागाः पारदा बाह्लिकैः सह (II.48.12)
The Mahabharata Tribe - Darada (दरद) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Darad (दराड़)

Shalya Parva - Book IX

एकाक्षॊ द्वादशाक्षश च तदैवैक जटः परभुः । सहस्रबाहुर विकटॊ वयाघ्राक्षः कषितिकम्पनः (IX.44.54)
जटाः कृत्वात्मनः सर्वे वल्कलाजिनवाससः । सह कुन्त्या महात्मानॊ बिभ्रतस तापसं वपुः (I.144.3)
तरिशिठा दविशिखाश चैव तदा सप्त शिखाः परे । शिखण्डिनॊ मुकुटिनॊ मुण्डाश च जटिलास तदा (IX.44.90)
अजॊदरॊ गजशिराः सकन्धाक्षः शतलॊचनः । जवाला जिह्वः करालश च सितकेशॊ जटी हरिः (IX.44.56)
शिशुमार मुखी शवेता लॊहिताक्षी विभीषणा । जटालिका कामचरी थीर्घजिह्वा बलॊत्कटा (IX.45.22)
एकाक्षॊ द्वादशाक्षश च तदैवैक जटः परभुः । सहस्रबाहुर विकटॊ वयाघ्राक्षः कषितिकम्पनः (IX.44.54)
द्रॊण शरवाः कपिस्कन्धः काञ्चनाक्षॊ जलं धमः । अक्षसंतर्जनॊ राजन कुनदीकस तमॊ ऽभरकृत (IX.44.53)
  • Kundika (कुनदीक) - (IX.44.53)
द्रॊण शरवाः कपिस्कन्धः काञ्चनाक्षॊ जलं धमः । अक्षसंतर्जनॊ राजन कुनदीकस तमॊ ऽभरकृत (IX.44.53)
  • Airawat (ऐरावत) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.13)
हिमवांश चैव विन्ध्यश च मेरुश चानेक शृङ्गवानऐरावतः सानुचरः कलाः काष्टास तदैव च । मासार्ध मासा ऋतवस तदा रात्र्यहनी नृप (IX.44.13)
  • Dhata (धाता) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.4)
इन्द्राविष्णू महावीर्यौ सूर्याचन्द्रमसौ तदा । धाता चैव विधाता च तदा चैवानिलानलौ (IX.44.4)


  • Jawalana (जवलन) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.48)
जयं महाजयं चैव नागौ जवलनसूनवे । परथथौ पुरुषव्याघ्र वासुकिः पन्नगेश्वरः (IX.44.48)


  • Kusuma (कुसुम) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.35)
कुन्थनं कुसुमं चैव कुमुथं च महायशाः । डम्बराडम्बरौ चैव थथौ धाता महात्मने (IX.44.35)
  • Ghasa ( घस) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.41)
घसं चातिघसं चैव तिमिवक्त्रौ महाबलौ । परथथौ कार्त्तिकेयाय वरुणः सत्यसंगरः
  • Kanchana (कञ्चन) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.43)
  • काञ्चनं च महात्मानं मेघमालिनम एव च । थथाव आनुचरौ मेरुर अग्निपुत्राय भारत (IX.44.43)
  • Kapiskandha (कपिस्कन्ध) - (IX.44.53)
द्रॊण शरवाः कपिस्कन्धः काञ्चनाक्षॊ जलं धमः । अक्षसंतर्जनॊ राजन कुनदीकस तमॊ ऽभरकृत (IX.44.53)


  • Kumuda (कुमुद) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.52)
शङ्कुकर्णॊ निकुम्भश च पद्मः कुमुद एव च । अनन्तॊ द्वादश भुजस तदा कृष्णॊपकृष्णकौ (IX.44.52)


  • Naga (नागा) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.48)
जयं महाजयं चैव नागौ जवलनसूनवे । परथथौ पुरुषव्याघ्र वासुकिः पन्नगेश्वरः (IX.44.48)
  • Pannaga (पन्नग) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.48)
जयं महाजयं चैव नागौ जवलनसूनवे । परथथौ पुरुषव्याघ्र वासुकिः पन्नगेश्वरः (IX.44.48)
  • Rajana (राजन) - (IX.44.53)
द्रॊण शरवाः कपिस्कन्धः काञ्चनाक्षॊ जलं धमः । अक्षसंतर्जनॊ राजन कुनदीकस तमॊ ऽभरकृत (IX.44.53)
  • Shankukarna (शङ्कुकर्ण) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.47)
उन्माथं पुष्पथन्तं च शङ्कुकर्णं तदैव च । परथथाव अग्निपुत्राय पार्वती शुभथर्शना
  • Siniwali (सिनीवाली) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.12)
अदितिर देव माता च हरीः शरीः सवाहा सरस्वती । उमा शची सिनीवाली तदा चानुमतिः कुहूः । राका च धिषणा चैव पत्न्यश चान्या दिवौकसाम
  • Shringawan (शृङ्गवान) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.13)
हिमवांश चैव विन्ध्यश च मेरुश चानेक शृङ्गवान । ऐरावतः सानुचरः कलाः काष्टास तदैव च । मासार्ध मासा ऋतवस तदा रात्र्यहनी नृप (IX.44.13)
  • Kumudamalina (कुमुदमालिन) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.22)
नन्दिषेणं लॊहिताक्षं घण्डा कर्णं च संमतम । चतुर्दम अस्यानुचरं खयातं कुमुदमालिनम (IX.44.22)
  • Punyanama (पुण्यनाम) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.55)
पुण्यनामा सुनामा च सुवक्त्रः परियदर्शनः । परिश्रुतः कॊक नदः परिय माल्यानुलेपनः
  • Kok (कॊक) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.55)
पुण्यनामा सुनामा च सुवक्त्रः परियदर्शनः । परिश्रुतः कॊक नदः परिय माल्यानुलेपनः
  • Nada (नद) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.55)
पुण्यनामा सुनामा च सुवक्त्रः परियदर्शनः
परिश्रुतः कॊक नदः परिय माल्यानुलेपनः
  • Mallyanulepan (माल्यानुलेपन) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.55)
पुण्यनामा सुनामा च सुवक्त्रः परियदर्शनः । परिश्रुतः कॊक नदः परिय माल्यानुलेपनः
  • Ajodara (अजॊदर) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.56)
अजॊदरॊ गजशिराः सकन्धाक्षः शतलॊचनः । जवाला जिह्वः करालश च सितकेशॊ जटी हरिः (IX.44.56)
  • Jawala (जवाल) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.56)
अजॊदरॊ गजशिराः सकन्धाक्षः शतलॊचनः । जवाला जिह्वः करालश च सितकेशॊ जटी हरिः (IX.44.56)
  • Karala (कराल) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.56)
अजॊदरॊ गजशिराः सकन्धाक्षः शतलॊचनः । जवाला जिह्वः करालश च सितकेशॊ जटी हरिः (IX.44.56)
  • Jata (जट) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.56)
अजॊदरॊ गजशिराः सकन्धाक्षः शतलॊचनः । जवाला जिह्वः करालश च सितकेशॊ जटी हरिः (IX.44.56)
  • Hari (हरि) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.56)
अजॊदरॊ गजशिराः सकन्धाक्षः शतलॊचनः
जवाला जिह्वः करालश च सितकेशॊ जटी हरिः (IX.44.56)
  • Udaraksha (उदराक्ष) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.58)
उदराक्षॊ झषाक्षश च वज्रनाभॊ वसु परभः । समुद्रवेगॊ राजेन्थ्र शैलकम्पी तदैव च (IX.44.58)
  • Shailkampi (शैलकम्पी) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.58)
उदराक्षॊ झषाक्षश च वज्रनाभॊ वसु परभः । समुद्रवेगॊ राजेन्थ्र शैलकम्पी तदैव च (IX.44.58)
  • Nandu (नन्दू) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.59)
पुत्र मेषः परवाहश च तदा नन्दॊपनन्दकौ । धूम्रः शवेतः कलिङ्गश च सिद्धार्दॊ वरदस तदा
  • Dhumra (धूम्र) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.59)
पुत्र मेषः परवाहश च तदा नन्दॊपनन्दकौ । धूम्रः शवेतः कलिङ्गश च सिद्धार्दॊ वरदस तदा
  • Sweta (शवेत) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.59)
पुत्र मेषः परवाहश च तदा नन्दॊपनन्दकौ । धूम्रः शवेतः कलिङ्गश च सिद्धार्दॊ वरदस तदा (IX.44.59)
  • Vardak (वरडक) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.59)
पुत्र मेषः परवाहश च तदा नन्दॊपनन्दकौ । धूम्रः शवेतः कलिङ्गश च सिद्धार्दॊ वरदस तदा (IX.44.59)
  • Nandal ( नन्दल) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.60)
परियकश चैव नन्दश च गॊनन्दश च परतापवान । आनन्दश च परमॊदश च सवस्तिकॊ धरुवकस तदा
  • Gonanda (गॊनन्द) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.60)
परियकश चैव नन्दश च गॊनन्दश च परतापवान । आनन्दश च परमॊदश च सवस्तिकॊ धरुवकस तदा
  • Kanakapida (कनकापीड) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.61)
कषेमवापः सुजातश च सिद्धयात्रश च भारत । गॊव्रजः कनकापीडॊ महापारिषदेश्वरः
  • Gaina (गयना) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.62). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Gaina (गैना).
गायनॊ हसनश चैव बाणः खड्गश च वीर्यवान । वैताली चातिताली च तदा कतिक वातिकौ
  • Bana (बाण) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.62). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Bana (बाणा).
गायनॊ हसनश चैव बाणः खड्गश च वीर्यवान । वैताली चातिताली च तदा कतिक वातिकौ
  • Hans हंस - Shalya Parva (IX.44.63). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Hans (हंस).
हंसजः पङ्कदिग्धाङ्गः समुद्रॊन्मादनश च ह । रणॊत्कटः परहासश च शवेतशीर्षश च नन्दकः (IX.44.63)
  • Ranotkata (रणॊत्कट) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.63). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Rana (राणा).
हंसजः पङ्कदिग्धाङ्गः समुद्रॊन्मादनश च ह । रणॊत्कटः परहासश च शवेतशीर्षश च नन्दकः (IX.44.63)
  • Nandaka (नन्दक) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.63). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Nandal (नन्दल).
हंसजः पङ्कदिग्धाङ्गः समुद्रॊन्मादनश च ह । रणॊत्कटः परहासश च शवेतशीर्षश च नन्दकः (IX.44.63)
  • Karada (करद) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.65). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Karad (कराड़).
यज्ञवाहः परवाहश च देव याजी च सॊमपः
सजालश च महातेजाः करद करादौ च भारत (IX.44.65)
  • Madhur (मधुर) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.66). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Madhur (मधुर)
तुहनश च तुहानश च चित्रथेवश च वीर्यवान । मधुरः सुप्रसादश च किरीटी च महाबलः (IX.44.66)
  • Madhu (मधु) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.67). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Madhu (मधु)
वसवॊ मधुवर्णश च कलशॊदर एव च । धमन्तॊ मन्मदकरः(Mann+Takhar) सूचीवक्त्रश च वीर्यवान (IX.44.67)
  • Maan (मान) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.67).
  • Takhar (ताखर) Shalya Parva (IX.44.67).
  • Pandur (पाण्डुर) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.68). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Pandur (पाण्डुर)
शवेतवक्त्रः सुवक्त्रश च चारु वक्त्रश च पाण्डुरः । दण्डबाहुः सुबाहुश च रजः कॊकिलकस तदा (IX.44.68)
  • Dandabahu (दण्डबाहु) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.68). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Danda (डान्डा)
शवेतवक्त्रः सुवक्त्रश च चारु वक्त्रश च पाण्डुरः । दण्डबाहुः सुबाहुश च रजः कॊकिलकस तदा (IX.44.68)
  • Achal (अचल) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.69). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Achal (अचल)
अचलः कनकाक्षश च बालानाम अयिकः परभुः । संचारकः कॊक नदॊ गृध्रवक्त्रश च जम्बुकः (IX.44.69)
  • Kankaksha (कनकाक्ष) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.69). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Kang (कंग)
अचलः कनकाक्षश च बालानाम अयिकः परभुः । संचारकः कॊक नदॊ गृध्रवक्त्रश च जम्बुकः (IX.44.69)
  • Balanama (बलानाम) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.69), (IX.44.72). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Bal (बल)
अचलः कनकाक्षश च बालानाम अयिकः परभुः । संचारकः कॊक नदॊ गृध्रवक्त्रश च जम्बुकः (IX.44.69)
यॊगयुक्ता महात्मानः सततं बराह्मण परियाः । पैतामहा महात्मानॊ महापारिषथाश च ह
यौवनस्दाश च बालाश च वृद्धाश च जनमेजय (IX.44.72)


  • Loha (लॊह) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.70). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Lohan (लॊहन)
लॊहाश वक्त्रॊ जठरः कुम्भवक्त्रश च कुण्डकः । मद्गुग्रीवश च कृष्णौजा हंसवक्त्रश च चन्द्र भाः (IX.44.70)
  • Kundaka (कुण्डक) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.70), (IX.44.71). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Kundu (कुण्डू)
लॊहाश वक्त्रॊ जठरः कुम्भवक्त्रश च कुण्डकः । मद्गुग्रीवश च कृष्णौजा हंसवक्त्रश च चन्द्र भाः (IX.44.70)
पाणिकूर्मा च शम्बूकः पञ्चवक्त्रश च शिक्षकः । चाष वक्त्रश च जम्बूकः शाकवक्त्रश च कुण्डकः (IX.44.71)
  • Varaha (वराहा) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.74). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Varaha (वराहा).
कूर्मकुक्कुटवक्त्राश च शशॊलूक मुखास तदा । खरॊष्ट्रवदनाश चैव वराहवदनास तदा (IX.44.74)
तस्मिंस तीर्दवरे सनात्वा सकन्थं चाभ्यर्च्य लाङ्गली । बराह्मणेभ्यॊ थथौ रुक्मं वासांस्य आभरणानि च (IX.45.93)


  • Lambakarna (लम्बकर्ण) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.74). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Lamba (लाम्बा)
दीर्घग्रीवा दीर्घनखदीर्घपादशिरॊ भुजाः । पिङ्गाक्षा नीलकण्ठाश च लम्बकर्णाश च भारत (IX.44.99)
  • Anjana (अञ्जन) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.100). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Anjana (आंजन)
वृकॊदर (Vrika+Udar) निभाश चैव के चिद अञ्जनसंनिभाः । शवेताङ्गा लॊहितग्रीवाः पिङ्गाक्षाश च तदापरे
कल्माषा बहवॊ राजंश चित्रवर्णाश च भारत (IX.44.100)
  • Kharanana (खरानन) - Shalya Parva (IX.44.103). May be identified with Jat Gotra - Kharand or Kharra (खर्रा) । पाशॊद्यत कराः के चिद वयादितास्याः खराननाः
पृद्व अक्षा नीलकण्ठाश च तदा परिघबाहवः (IX.44.103)
गदा भुशुण्डि हस्ताश च तदा तॊमरपाणयः । असि मद्गरहस्ताश च दण्डहस्ताश च भारत (IX.44.105)

Further reading

  • Sandhya Jain:Adi Deo Arya Devata - A Panoramic View of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface, Rupa & Co, 7/16, Ansari Road Daryaganj, New Delhi, 2004

External links

See also

References

  1. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998,
  2. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998,
  3. K.P. Jayaswal's book, History of India, PP 115-16
  4. India as Known to Panini, p 54, Dr V. S. Aggarwala.
  5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dandaka_Kingdom
  6. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 262
  7. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 274
  8. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 266
  9. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p.282
  10. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.144
  11. Thakur Deshraj Jat Itihas p. 559
  12. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998,
  13. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998,
  14. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998,p. 267
  15. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998,
  16. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998,
  17. H. L. Kosare P-253
  18. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.144
  19. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 231
  20. Elliot and Dowson, op. cit., and Tribes and Castes, Vol.II
  21. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, 1980, p. 262
  22. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 228
  23. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998
  24. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 230
  25. History and study of the Jats. By Professor B.S Dhillon. p.127
  26. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 253
  27. Maheswari Prasad, “Jats in Ancient India”:The Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Vol.I, p. 26
  28. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p.255
  29. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 260
  30. Ashok Dingar & A.B. Sumrao, “Maharashtra mein Jaton ki Biradari” – Jat Veer Smarika 1987-88, Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad Gwalior. pp. 65,66,67
  31. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats - The Ancient Rulers, p. 234-235
  32. K.P. Jayaswal's book, History of India, PP 115-16
  33. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audumbaras
  34. India as Known to Panini, p 61
  35. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uttarakurus
  36. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uttarakurus
  37. Panini, IV, I, 105
  38. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), 1980, Delhi
  39. Sabha Parva 27/58 and 27/11
  40. YP Shastri, Jat Kshatriya Itihas, 1944
  41. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 245
  42. Mahabharata 12.29.39; 1.93; 3.197 etc.
  43. Ashok Dingar & A.B. Sumrao, “Maharashtra mein Jaton ki Biradari” – Jat Veer Smarika 1987-88, Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad Gwalior. pp. 65,66,67
  44. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 228
  45. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 229
  46. Jat Bandhu, 25 September, 2007
  47. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 228
  48. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 233
  49. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 230
  50. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 232
  51. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998,
  52. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 233
  53. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, pp. 245, 246
  54. History of the Jats, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p.7
  55. [http://www.uwest.edu/sanskritcanon/Sastra/Devanagari/sastra77/Sa-77D-33-5.html Vaidya, P.L. ed. Divyāvadāna. Darbhanga: Mithila Institute, 1959, 1-512.
  56. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p.246
  57. K.P.Jayaswal, Hindu Rajtantra (Hindi translation of his Hindu polity) Khanda I, Prakarana 5, 4th ed. Varansi 1977
  58. Maheswari Prasad, Jats in Ancient India, Jats, I, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, 2004, p. 22
  59. Maheswari Prasad, Jats in Ancient India, Jats, I, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, 2004, p. 28, f.n. 5
  60. Thakur Deshraj Jat Itihas, 1992, p. 161
  61. Cunningham , A. Coins of Ancient India, London, 1891,pp. 75-76
  62. http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-5974.html
  63. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 232

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