Utpal

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Utpal (उत्पल)[1] or Opal (ओपल)[2][3] Uppal (उप्पल)[4] is a gotra of Jats in Punjab. They are also found in Gujarat where they are called as Uplana. Opal clan is found in Afghanistan.[5]

Genealogy of Utpala dynasty

The Genealogy of Utpala dynasty is: Utpalaka or UtpalaSukhavarmanAvantivarman (855) → Shankaravarman (A.D. 883 to 901) → Raja Parth (S/O Nirjjitavarmma) → Unmattavanti (937 AD) (S/O Partha) → Gopalavarman (S/O Shankaravarman)

Origin

Villages founded by Utpal clan

  • Avantipur - Founded by Avantiverman (855-844 A.D.)
  • Palana (पलाना) - village in Bikaner tehsil and district in Rajasthan. Utpal Jats founded Palana.
  • Sopore, a township in Baramulla district, founded by Utpala engineer and irrigation minister Suyya during the peaceful reign of king Avantivarman in 880 CE.[7]

History

Opiai is the Greek name for Opal and Utpala of Sanskrit. [8]

Raja Partha of this clan purchased food grains at higher rates and sold it at rates hundreds of times higher, his son was Unmattavanti (उन्मत्तवन्ति). [9][10]

Bhim Singh Dahiya writes that Megasthenes has mentioned a large number of Jat clans out of which Oplai may be identified with Opal.[11]

Fahian's mention of Utpala and agri-productivity of the area supports what historians have mentioned !!!

Utpal Jats had founded village Palana near Badi Khatu in Bikaner tehsil of Bikaner district in Rajasthan. [12][13]

Visit by Fahian in 405 AD

Fa-hien, the Chinese pilgrim visited Sankisa between 399 and 414 A.D., during the reign of Chandragupta II.

James Legge[14] writes about Fahian's travel to Sankisa:

From Mathura Fahian proceeded south-east for eighteen yojanas, and found themselves in a kingdom called Sankasya, at the place where Buddha came down, after ascending to the Trayastrimsas heaven, and there preaching for three months his Law for the benefit of his mother (Buddha’s mother, Maya and Mahamaya).

Fahian writes about a bhikshuni Utpala thought in her heart, “To-day the kings, with their ministers and people, will all be meeting (and welcoming) Buddha. I am (but) a woman; how shall I succeed in being the first to see him?” Buddha immediately, by his spirit-like power, changed her into the appearance of a holy Chakravartti king, and she was the foremost of all in doing reverence to him. At the place where the bhikshuni Utpala was the first to do reverence to Buddha, a tope has now been built. Eitel gives the name Utpala with the same Chinese phonetisation as in the text, but not as the name of any bhikshuni. The Sanskrit word, however, is explained by “blue lotus flowers;” and Hsuan-chwang calls her the nun “Lotus-flower colour”— the same as Hardy’s Upulwan and Uppalawarna.

Avantiverman (855-844 A.D.)

Avantiverman (855-844 A.D.) belonged to Utpala dynasty emerged as a powerful King. He was most sagacious king. He built temples at Avantipur after his name. His Minister Suyya was a great genius. His court had a pride on two poets-Ranakar and Ananvardhana. During his time price of paddy showed a deep decline from 36 to 20 dinars. Suyya who was a great engineer is said to have drained a large chunck of wasteland during his regime. His memory is commemorated by Suyyapur or Sopore, a township in Baramulla district. It is said that when this great engineer was working in Sopore no people were coming forth to plunge themselves in gushing water. The king thereupon ordered that a part of treasury may be thrown into the water, a large number of people plunged into the river to get as many coins as they could. The skill of Suyya worked and the river was cleared of silt. [15]

Sopore town in Baramulla district of Jammu and Kashmir was founded by the famous Utpala engineer and irrigation minister Suyya during the peaceful reign of king Avantivarman in 880 CE.[16]

In Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[17] tells us - In a village known by the name of Sāhya, near Kugrāma, there lived the son of one Sthānaka, a keeper of asses. In his younger years he was brought up in tending animals and was taught in arms with the Damara boys, and he gradually became a constant attendant of Tikka. From the year 1, Utpala, — such was his name, was employed as messenger, and became the confidant of the king who was then trying to create a division among his enemies. The king told him to murder Tikka and Bhikshachara, and promised to give him wealth and the house belonging to Tikka. Utpala too promised to commit the crime, and the king bestowed on him large gifts and the title of Ganjapati.

In Mahabharata

Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 85 tells us in shloka 11 that in the country of Panchala there is a Forest called Utpala (उत्पल) (III.85.11), where Vishwamitra of Kushika's race had performed sacrifices with his son, and where beholding the relics of Viswamitra's superhuman power, Rama, the son of Jamadagni, recited the praises of his ancestry. [18]

उत्पल - उप्पल गोत्र का इतिहास

कैप्टन दलीप सिंह अहलावत[19] ने उत्पल-उप्पल गोत्र का इतिहास वर्णन इस प्रकार किया है।

इस उत्पल जाट राजवंश का महाराजा अवन्तिवर्मन कश्मीर नरेश सम्वत् 912 (855 ई०) में सम्पूर्ण डोगरा प्रदेश पर शासन करता था। उसके पश्चात् इसके पुत्र राजा शंकरवर्मन शासक हुए, जिसके पास एक लाख घुड़सवार, 9 लाख पैदल सैनिक और 300 हाथियों की सेना थी। इसने विक्रमी संवत् 959 (902 ई०) तक अनेक विजययात्राओं में मन्दिरों को भी लूटा। इसके पुत्र राजा पार्थ के शासनकाल में अकाल के कारण मरने वालों की लाशों से जेहलम नदी का जल देर तक श्रीनगर को दुर्गन्धित किए रहा था। इस राजा पार्थ ने प्रजा से साधारण ऊंचे दर पर सम्पूर्ण अनाज मोल लेकर सैंकड़ों गुने ऊंचे दर से बेचा। उसने बड़ी प्रसन्नतायुक्त उत्सुकता से अपने महलों के पास दम तोड़ते अपनी प्रजा को देखा। वि० सम्वत् 994 (937 ई०) में इसके पुत्र उन्मत्तवन्ति ने तो क्रूरताओं की एक ऐसी सीमा स्थिर की जिसे अभी तक कोई न लांघ सका। इन अत्याचारों व क्रूरता के कारण इस राजवंश का अन्त हो गया।

जाटों और खत्रियों में इस वंश की समान रूप से संख्या है। वीर योद्धा हरीसिंह नलवा इसी वंश के महापुरुष थे (इसकी जीवनी देखो, पंजाब केसरी महाराजा रणजीतसिंह प्रकरण)।

उत्पल जाटों ने बीकानेर के पास बड़ी खाटू के समीप पलाना गांव बसाया। उस गांव के बाद अन्य स्थानों पर बसने वाले उन जाटों ने अपना परिचय पिलानिया नाम से देना आरम्भ कर दिया।

इस वंश का बांहपुर बहुत ऊंचा घराना है, जो कुचेसर भरतपुर के वैवाहिक सम्बन्धों से जातीय जगत् में विशेष प्रसिद्ध हुआ। यहां के राजा कर्णसिंह ने वैधानिक रीति से ऊंचा गांव इस्टेट की स्थापना की। वहां पर कुं० सुरेन्द्रपालसिंह जी (बहनोई महाराजा भरतपुर) ने एक नया किला और दर्शनीय राजमहल बनवाया। उप्पल-उत्पल जाटों की सिक्खों में बहुसंख्या है।

Distribution

Opal population is 3,044 in Amritsar district.[20]

Notable persons from this clan

See also

Reference

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. ओ-7
  2. History and study of the Jats/Chapter 10
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n.ओ-7
  4. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n.उ-5
  5. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, H. W. Bellew, p.79
  6. List of Naga Rajas from Buddhist sources:Mahāvyutpatti S.N. 60
  7. Jyoteeshwar Pathik:Glimpses of History of Jammu & Kashmir, 1997, Anmol Publications Pvt. Limited.
  8. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Porus and the Mauryas, Bhim Singh Dahiya, p.167
  9. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas,
  10. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter XI,p. 995
  11. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Porus and the Mauryas, p.167
  12. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p. 263
  13. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter XI,p. 995
  14. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms/Chapter 17
  15. Jyoteeshwar Pathik:Glimpses of History of Jammu & Kashmir, 1997, Anmol Publications Pvt. Limited.
  16. Jyoteeshwar Pathik:Glimpses of History of Jammu & Kashmir, 1997, Anmol Publications Pvt. Limited.
  17. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i), pp. 106-107
  18. पाञ्चालेषु च कौरव्य कथयन्त्य उत्पलावतम
    विश्वा मित्रॊ ऽयजद यत्र शक्रेण सह कौशिकः
    यत्रानुवंशं भगवाञ जामदग्न्यस तथा जगौ (Mahabharata:III.85.11)
  19. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter XI,p. 995
  20. History and study of the Jats, B.S Dhillon, p.124
  21. Jyoteeshwar Pathik:Glimpses of History of Jammu & Kashmir, 1997, Anmol Publications Pvt. Limited.

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