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Thread: Rural under-development- An analysis

  1. #101
    Quote Originally Posted by rkumar View Post
    Dear Friends,


    There are loads of issues I can go on. From time to time I raised to issues with authorities along with simple solutions. It does not excite anyone to address these problems. Its not glamourous to work in rural India. Can one talk of developed India when 70% of India living in villages remain neglected ?

    RK^2
    You seems to be well experienced/have good grasp in all fields. Have read bit of ur blogs. Also looks like u are doing social service as well. Could u please share what simple solutions u provided to authorities?
    जागरूक ती अज्ञानी नहीं बनाया जा सके, स्वाभिमानी का अपमान नहीं करा जा सके , निडर ती दबाया नहीं जा सके भाई नुए सामाजिक क्रांति एक बार आ जे तो उसती बदला नहीं जा सके ---ज्याणी जाट।

    दोस्त हो या दुश्मन, जाट दोनुआ ने १०० साल ताईं याद राखा करे

  2. #102
    Quote Originally Posted by vpsingh View Post
    [B][U]............. but it could not bring about an industrial revolution. It could not raise economic growth or lift the people out of poverty. It could not avert famines. The truth is that the Raj was economically incompetent. It just did not know how to "develop" a country. Had it known it, Britain could have gained much from having a larger market for its manufactures. It introduced modern education and helped create a small middle class, but it did not educate the mass of the people. This was its other failure and linked to the first, for development is not possible without mass literacy”.
    Aim of Britain was not to bring industrial revolution in India. Had that been the aim, surely they could have done it. Problem is that even in independent India our villages are not devoloping the way they should have been. Living environment is not good enough to attract professionals who can serve the population. Villagers alone can not do it unless government addresses the issue as a nation building mission. Priorities of government are misplaced. I can agree about spending money on national defence, but find it ridiculous when 1000s of crores are spent on Common Wealth games and Ambedkar Parks etc. and neglecting basic facilities in villages. Its government's job to create the conditions for the development. People alone can not do it. I find no logic when government is trying to build new universities and neglecting the existing ones. Let me give few examples. In New Delhi they have tow of the largest hospitals facing each other across a road (Safdarjang and AIIMS). Initially AIIMS was supposed to have only teaching component and Safdarjang only the hospital component. However, with time it all changed. Was it not a faulty planning? Same goes on even today. On the one hand we build facilities which are doomed from day one and on the other hand we having nothing. There are talks of building AIIMS in different parts of country. Think of a AIIMS in Haryana. What will happen? I can tell you with all cerainty that most of the doctors from PGIMS Rohtak will leave and join the new place. What all this will achive? driaing total blood from one person to keep another alive. Same thing is happening whenever better new teaching institutions are created. AIIMS in New Delhi does not have enough doctors, how can another AIIMS in Haryana or else where have? Village primary schools hardly have any infrastructure. I went around places and suggested that instead of opening new schools, these schools should be improved. There can be some sort of Public Private Participation. Same can be in health. Issue is not that people in government don't know what the problems are. Major issue is that they prefer only the solutions which suit them politically. These silutions need not necessarily be in public interest. Needs of the people and the needs of politicians seem to be different.

    RK^2
    There are many paths leading to God, politics is certainly not one of them...

  3. #103
    Quote Originally Posted by vipin80 View Post
    You seems to be well experienced/have good grasp in all fields. Have read bit of ur blogs. Also looks like u are doing social service as well. Could u please share what simple solutions u provided to authorities?
    Let us continue it on other thread on rural development... We all know problems. Let us come with solutions which are implementable.

    RK^2
    There are many paths leading to God, politics is certainly not one of them...

  4. #104
    One major issue for farmers is of land acquisition. Think of a farmer who has small land holding and his entire land is acquired at governmet rates. Infrastructure is important and one requires land for that. At the same time welfare of farmers is important. How to address both the issues so that neither suffes. I have written to PM and even to Bengal CM when Sangrur issue was going on. My solution is that wherever the land is required for common use, acquire it in the form of shares from all the farmers of area not just from farmers whose land directly falls in the area of project. Its a win win situation for everyone and govenment need not pay massive market rates. This way project's commercial viabilty is also very high.

    RK^2
    There are many paths leading to God, politics is certainly not one of them...

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  6. #105
    Quote Originally Posted by rkumar View Post
    One major issue for farmers is of land acquisition. Think of a farmer who has small land holding and his entire land is acquired at governmet rates. Infrastructure is important and one requires land for that. At the same time welfare of farmers is important. How to address both the issues so that neither suffes. I have written to PM and even to Bengal CM when Sangrur issue was going on. My solution is that wherever the land is required for common use, acquire it in the form of shares from all the farmers of area not just from farmers whose land directly falls in the area of project. Its a win win situation for everyone and govenment need not pay massive market rates. This way project's commercial viabilty is also very high.

    RK^2
    The idea of land acquisition by making the farmers of that particular area as share/stake holders as a cooperative society sounds good in principle. But, execution of any project on the land so acquired may not be as smooth as acquisition by government alone or a private company, due to conflict of interests. Handsome incentives may, however be offered to the land-owners in lieu of take-over of their land. For example, Haryana Government, has started offering attractive incentives to the land-owners for the land acquired in recent years, especially for SEZ near Jhajhar. Instead of receiving once-off payment, the farmers will be getting a monthly/annual fixed income per acre from their land for certain years etc. I do not remember the exact details.
    Last edited by singhvp; May 19th, 2010 at 09:11 PM.

  7. #106
    Quote Originally Posted by vpsingh View Post
    The idea of land acquisition by making the farmers of that particular area as share/stake holders as a cooperative society sounds good in principle. But, execution of any project on the land so acquired may not be as smooth as acquisition by government alone or a private company, due to conflict of interests. Handsome incentives may, however be offered to the land-owners in lieu of take-over of their land. For example, Haryana Government, has started offering attractive incentives to the land-owners for the land acquired in recent years, especially for SEZ near Jhajhar. Instead of receiving once-off payment, the farmers will be getting a monthly/annual fixed income per acre from their land for certain years etc. I do not remember the exact details.
    Farmers don't become share/stake holders in the project. Farmers contribute the land for the project in a way that the land is deduced from larger number of farmers in the ratio of their land holding and boundaries of their remaining land is redrawn. Its like a form of Chakbandi. Let us assume that the land required for the project is 10 acre and the land on all sides of this is 2000 acres. After taking 10 acre out of this one is left with 1990 acres. This 1990 acres can be redistribute among farmers in the raio of their land holdings. This way each farmer hardly looses any significant land. This model can be extemely useful for projects like roads, railway lines etc. For the projects where one require larger amount of contiguous lands, land pool size can be made larger. Since remaining lands near the project will have more value, their share contibution can be larger. This method of land acquisition will reduce the court cases. Only extra cost will be of redrawing the land boundaries, which in my view is not very high.

    RK^2
    There are many paths leading to God, politics is certainly not one of them...

  8. #107
    Quote Originally Posted by rkumar View Post
    Farmers don't become share/stake holders in the project. Farmers contribute the land for the project in a way that the land is deduced from larger number of farmers in the ratio of their land holding and boundaries of their remaining land is redrawn. Its like a form of Chakbandi. Let us assume that the land required for the project is 10 acre and the land on all sides of this is 2000 acres. After taking 10 acre out of this one is left with 1990 acres. This 1990 acres can be redistribute among farmers in the raio of their land holdings. This way each farmer hardly looses any significant land. This model can be extemely useful for projects like roads, railway lines etc. For the projects where one require larger amount of contiguous lands, land pool size can be made larger. Since remaining lands near the project will have more value, their share contibution can be larger. This method of land acquisition will reduce the court cases. Only extra cost will be of redrawing the land boundaries, which in my view is not very high.

    RK^2
    Thanks for clarification Mr. Kumar. I have understood now. The idea is really good.

  9. #108
    Respected Kumar Sahab,

    I do not find your posts here on this thread which you had written under another thread started by you recently "Rural Development......". I think Moderators have not yet merged those posts with this thread. You have a good grip on the subject. I find those posts excellent. Being a senior and leaned member of the community, you may play an instrumental and leading role in chalking out an action plan for submitting to the government for catalyzing implementation of their plans already underway and for making new rural-oriented policies for improvement of over all living conditions in the villages. Your support and guidance is solicited.

    Warm regards.

  10. #109
    Quote Originally Posted by vpsingh View Post
    Respected Kumar Sahab,

    I do not find your posts here on this thread which you had written under another thread started by you recently "Rural Development......". I think Moderators have not yet merged those posts with this thread. You have a good grip on the subject. I find those posts excellent. Being a senior and leaned member of the community, you may play an instrumental and leading role in chalking out an action plan for submitting to the government for catalyzing implementation of their plans already underway and for making new rural-oriented policies for improvement of over all living conditions in the villages. Your support and guidance is solicited.

    Warm regards.
    1. Trouble with the people in government is that very few of them are proactive. May be when governemt acquire land next time and there is agitation, some of us will join the bandwagan and try to push our solution. For projects where large chunk of land is required, multiple approached can be merged. Those who want to surrender their total land willfully, can do so. Where as remaining land can be acquired by method suggested in my post.

    2. About rural education and heath, my suggestion is that let the govenment calculate how much money they are spending presently per patient or per health centre. If some one from private sector can provide the services at lesser cost in area where there is no health coverage, government should be willing hand over the same to private sector atand pay the same costs. Same approach can be applied to rural education. Government should only monitor if services are being provided as per agreement. Quality control of services should be done jointly by govenment and the public.

    3. Gram Panchayat should be given some judicial powers to handle simple civil matters. Since there is a new law that all marriges should be regiseted, repersentatives of Gram Panchayats should be made mandatory witenesses to a
    to all marriges in their jurisdictions. Issues like Gotra etc can be taken care at this level.

    One thing I am very clear. Problems of villages can only be addressed by the people who have local stakes. Expensive and complicated solutions are not going to work. I spend quite good amount of time in villages and notice that people have simple problems. I give few examples;

    1. Present day "Jhotta-Bughi" was designed and fabricated by local carpenters in mid fifties. Before that we had all bullack carts. Plateform heights of these "Jhotta-Bughis" is quite high and can easily be reduced. This will help to make them more stable and also it will be easier to load goods on them. Inspite being a major mode of goos transport, no one has cared about this simple issue. I have seen farmers strugling when they load sugar cane on these bughis. If w
    This is one issue on which I have done some work and hope to implement it someday soon.

    2. Over irrigation of sugarcane is another big issue. This is another area where I hope I should be able to come out with some simple solution.

    RK^2
    There are many paths leading to God, politics is certainly not one of them...

  11. #110
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    Quote Originally Posted by rkumar View Post

    3. Gram Panchayat should be given some judicial powers to handle simple civil matters. Since there is a new law that all marriges should be regiseted, repersentatives of Gram Panchayats should be made mandatory witenesses to a
    to all marriges in their jurisdictions. Issues like Gotra etc can be taken care at this level.


    RK^2
    Dr Kalkhande,

    Very good point. This would avoid further mess. I am not sure wether Govt. would be willing to give enchanced rights to panchyats about marriage issues.But yes Panch and Sarpanchs can certianly do that. Local administrators like SDM or District Block Members or any other medium level authority can successfuly collaborate in marriage issues. Again this depends on the willingnessof DC of the cocerned district.


    Mr Singh,

    This village of District Rewari, Haryana is going to be the case study in self-governance and self dependency.

    बिजली रहे या न रहे, भुरथला गांव के ग्रामीणों को इससे कोई फर्क नहीं पड़ता। यहां के सभी 224 घर सौर ऊर्जा से जगमग हैं। यह हरियाणा का पहला सौर ऊर्जा गांव बन गया है।

    करीब 1200 की आबादी वाला भुरथला पिछले दिसंबर तक आम गांवों की तरह धूल धक्कड़ से भरा गांव था। यहां के लोग बिजली-पानी के लिए तरसते रहते थे। अधिकांश समय बिजली गुल ही रहती थी। दिसंबर में यहां एक नई शुरुआत हुई। गुड़गांव ग्रामीण बैंक ने गांववालों से उनके घरों में सौर ऊर्जा सिस्टम लगाने की पेशकश की। जब ग्रामीणों को पता चला कि किट की कीमत 15 हजार रुपए है तो उन्होंने मना कर दिया।

    सरपंच सतीश कुमार के मुताबिक, इसके बाद लोगों को समझाया कि उन्हें पांच साल तक सिर्फ 300 रुपए प्रतिमाह की किश्त देनी होगी तो कुछ ग्रामीण मान गए। पहले सात-आठ लोगों ने शुरुआत की। बैंक ने किट में एक सौर ऊर्जा पैनल, एक बैटरी, दो ट्यूबलाइट और एक पंखा दिया। बिजली जाने पर जब सौर ऊर्जा वाले घर रोशन रहने लगे तो पूरे गांव को यह तरीका पसंद आ गया।

    नए साल का पहला महीना बीता ही था कि गांव के सारे घर ‘24 घंटे सातों दिन’ बिजली वाले हो गए। बैंक ने गांव को शत प्रतिशत सौर ऊर्जा के प्रयोग पर एक लाख रुपए इनाम या 10 सोलर स्ट्रीट लाइट का इनाम देने की पेशकश की, वो भी सोलर वाली।

    गांव के एक बुजुर्ग रामकिशन ने कहा, ‘देखो, बिजली नहीं है, मगर पंखे की हवा खा रहे हैं।’ गांव की महिलाएं भी खुश हैं। गृहणी सुशीला कहती हैं, ‘हमें अब अंधेरे में काम नहीं करना पड़ता। पहले हम बिजली के हिसाब से टाइम टेबल बनाते थे, अब सब कुछ हमारे हिसाब से चलता है।’

    भुरथला की राह पर कई गांव

    गुड़गांव ग्रामीण बैंक के मैनेजर विजयपाल चौहान के मुताबिक भुरथला गांव को देखते हुए दूसरे गांवों के लोग भी प्रेरित हो रहे हैं। लुला अहीर, झाल, जाहिदपुर, सुरहेली, कोसली आदि गांवों में भी सौर किट लगाई जा रही हैं। बैंक अध्यक्ष एनपी हेगड़े ने कहा कि भुरथला सौर ऊर्जा गांव बन गया है।

    224

    घर है भुरथला गांव में

    2009

    दिसंबर में शुरू हुई थी

    300

    रुपए महीना दिया प्रत्येक घर ने। किट की लागत १५ हजार।



    Further, This month witnessed the results of matric and senior secondary classes . Mr Singh , rural schools have relegated urban schools in results. They are coming and they are coming in style.

    हरियाणा विद्यालय शिक्षा बोर्ड की 12 वीं कक्षा के परिणामों ने इस भ्रम को तोड़ दिया है कि शहरी क्षेत्रों में ही होनहार होते हैं। ग्रामीण स्कूलों का परिणाम 93 फीसदी रहा है, जबकि शहरी क्षेत्र के स्कूल 89 प्रतिशत का आंकड़ा ही छू पाए हैं। झज्जर जिले के गांवों के छात्र-छात्राओं ने 98 प्रतिशत का आंकड़ा पार कर अपनी काबिलियत का लोहा मनवा दिया है। शहरी क्षेत्रों में रेवाड़ी जिले में 82 प्रतिशत विद्यार्थी ही पास हुए हैं। पूरे प्रदेश भर में किसी भी जिले में लड़कियों ने लड़कों को आगे नहीं जाने दिया। सोनीपत में 97 फीसदी लड़कियां पास हुई हैं, जो यहां के लड़कों से तीन फीसदी ज्यादा है। सोमवार को घोषित परीक्षा परिणाम में झ ार और सोनीपत जिले के 96 फीसदी विद्यार्थी पास हुए। इस आंकड़े के साथ ये दोनों जिले प्रदेश भर में पहले स्थान पर रहे हैं। फतेहाबाद व यमुनानगर 87 प्रतिशत के आंकड़े के साथ सबसे पीछे रहे हैं। लड़कों के पास प्रतिशत के मामले में झज्जर सबसे ऊपर रहा है। यहां 95 प्रतिशत लड़कों ने परीक्षा पास की। लड़कियों में सोनीपत व झज्जर जिलों ने बेहतर प्रदर्शन किया है। इन दोनों जिलों में लड़कियों का पास प्रतिशत 98 रहा है।
    "All I am trying to do is bridge the gap between Jats and Rest of World"

    As I shall imagine, so shall I become.

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  13. #111
    Quote Originally Posted by Samarkadian View Post
    ......
    Further, This month witnessed the results of matric and senior secondary classes . Mr Singh , rural schools have relegated urban schools in results. They are coming and they are coming in style.
    Most of the core professionals like doctors, engineers, scientists, defence, etc are going to come only from rural India. The reason is very simple. Most of these jobs are not very high paying any more. Most of the urban boys opt for high paying business and banking jobs. Time and again I have been writing to our Science and technology misnisters to invest in rural education, else we won't have quality scientists and doctors in next 10-15 years. I met former Army Chief Kappor in one party and requested him to focus on rural schools as they will send most the future defence officers. Army should give scholarship to those desrving boys who want to have career in defence forces. In my view its the rural India only which will fight and defend the nation on every front. Urabn India is too selfish and its all about money and power.

    RK^2
    There are many paths leading to God, politics is certainly not one of them...

  14. #112
    Quote Originally Posted by rkumar View Post
    Farmers don't become share/stake holders in the project. Farmers contribute the land for the project in a way that the land is deduced from larger number of farmers in the ratio of their land holding and boundaries of their remaining land is redrawn. Its like a form of Chakbandi. Let us assume that the land required for the project is 10 acre and the land on all sides of this is 2000 acres. After taking 10 acre out of this one is left with 1990 acres. This 1990 acres can be redistribute among farmers in the raio of their land holdings. This way each farmer hardly looses any significant land. This model can be extemely useful for projects like roads, railway lines etc. For the projects where one require larger amount of contiguous lands, land pool size can be made larger. Since remaining lands near the project will have more value, their share contibution can be larger. This method of land acquisition will reduce the court cases. Only extra cost will be of redrawing the land boundaries, which in my view is not very high.

    RK^2
    That's full of issues. At ground level there are lots and lots of issues in redrawing boundaries. There are issues of soil fertility, slopes, sand dunes, number and verity of trees, closeness to canal/road/main path etc. I have seen big issues arising out of family settlements even when the land is distributed equally with consent of most family members. Can't even think of re-distribution at village/community level.

    My opinion is to extend the Jhajhar formula. One option is to give the land on a lease, say 100 yrs, with annual rent based adjusted to the inflation index.

    Giving most of the money to the current generation is disastrous in many cases. A farmer is inexperienced in handling that big money. Also, many people just throw is away in drinking or latest models of luxury cars. So any such formula should be focused in securing the future generation’s bread and butter the way the farmland had been doing.

  15. #113
    Quote Originally Posted by rkumar View Post
    Most of the core professionals like doctors, engineers, scientists, defence, etc are going to come only from rural India. The reason is very simple. Most of these jobs are not very high paying any more. Most of the urban boys opt for high paying business and banking jobs. Time and again I have been writing to our Science and technology misnisters to invest in rural education, else we won't have quality scientists and doctors in next 10-15 years. I met former Army Chief Kappor in one party and requested him to focus on rural schools as they will send most the future defence officers. Army should give scholarship to those desrving boys who want to have career in defence forces. In my view its the rural India only which will fight and defend the nation on every front. Urabn India is too selfish and its all about money and power.

    RK^2

    Yeap, that's the trend nowadays. Most of the merits are now coming from the backward areas. For example, Mahindergarh, a samall backward city, has taken over the school education brilliantly. In fact, that belt has a much higher than the average literacy rates in Haryana.

    This has happened in spite of very poor facilities. It is their hard work alone that has helped them.

    The only problem which still eludes them from the fruits of success is communication skills.

  16. #114
    This is what one of our top scientists thinks of Indian education;

    http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/C...ow/6048180.cms

    In last paragraph he says;

    "About education in rural India, he said: The poor students are more interested and enthusiastic to learn and research science. The government should set up more residential schools in rural areas."

    This is exactly i have mentioned in one of my post above and has been telling the politicians I met. Unfortunately our politicians, young and old don't seem to understand this.

    RK^2
    Last edited by rkumar; June 15th, 2010 at 08:44 PM.
    There are many paths leading to God, politics is certainly not one of them...

  17. #115
    Quote Originally Posted by rkumar View Post
    This is what one of our top scientists thinks of Indian education;

    http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/C...ow/6048180.cms

    In last paragraph he says;

    "About education in rural India, he said: The poor students are more interested and enthusiastic to learn and research science. The government should set up more residential schools in rural areas."

    This is exactly i have mentioned in one of my post above and has been telling the politicians I met. Unfortunately our politicians, young and old don't seem to understand this.

    RK^2
    Sir Navodya Schools failed miserably. Public schools approach is falling apart in UK. I never heard very positive feedback about US public schools. Education sector needs whole new approach. May be Public-Private partnership or we may need to give incentives to private sector to explore this area. In Education/Health sector, There is a huge demand but no supply at all.

  18. #116
    another very interesting article on the status of Indian education;

    http://news.asiaone.com/News/Educati...16-222362.html

    This is what it says of rural education;

    "Sixth, the excessive regulation by the government and multiple agencies leads to stagnation and corruption, which tends to get institutionalised. Seventh, the quality of school education has not improved. There is little or no teaching in fifty per cent of the primary schools in the rural areas of northern India."

    RK^2
    There are many paths leading to God, politics is certainly not one of them...

  19. #117
    Dear Mr Kumar,
    Your knowledge and points are well appreciated. We need more people like you who are working at the root level...respect...

    Some techincal view on your point from my side
    1. Present day "Jhotta-Bughi" was designed and fabricated by local carpenters in mid fifties. Before that we had all bullack carts. Plateform heights of these "Jhotta-Bughis" is quite high and can easily be reduced. This will help to make them more stable and also it will be easier to load goods on them. Inspite being a major mode of goos transport, no one has cared about this simple issue. I have seen farmers strugling when they load sugar cane on these bughis. If w
    This is one issue on which I have done some work and hope to implement it someday soon.


    My point :If you reduce the height of bughi then it will put more pressure on Jhotta while then he will be not only pulling the Bughi but also lifting it...so two force on poor animal...optimal solution is to add sort of level selector in bughi...si while loading lower the level and while pulling bring back the level to animals height.


    2. Over irrigation of sugarcane is another big issue. This is another area where I hope I should be able to come out with some simple solution.

    My point: President kalam already suggest joining rivers to facilitate irrigation..but its a govt initiative...on village bases rain water harvesting can be done by making a pool etc..

    regards,manish

  20. #118

  21. #119
    Quote Originally Posted by singhmanish View Post
    Dear Mr Kumar,
    Your knowledge and points are well appreciated. We need more people like you who are working at the root level...respect...

    Some techincal view on your point from my side
    1. Present day "Jhotta-Bughi" was designed and fabricated by local carpenters in mid fifties. Before that we had all bullack carts. Plateform heights of these "Jhotta-Bughis" is quite high and can easily be reduced. This will help to make them more stable and also it will be easier to load goods on them. Inspite being a major mode of goos transport, no one has cared about this simple issue. I have seen farmers strugling when they load sugar cane on these bughis. If w
    This is one issue on which I have done some work and hope to implement it someday soon.


    My point :If you reduce the height of bughi then it will put more pressure on Jhotta while then he will be not only pulling the Bughi but also lifting it...so two force on poor animal...optimal solution is to add sort of level selector in bughi...si while loading lower the level and while pulling bring back the level to animals height.


    2. Over irrigation of sugarcane is another big issue. This is another area where I hope I should be able to come out with some simple solution.

    My point: President kalam already suggest joining rivers to facilitate irrigation..but its a govt initiative...on village bases rain water harvesting can be done by making a pool etc..

    regards,manish
    1. I am working on a Jhotta Bughi which will have four wheels and be very cost effective. If I am not wrong, the force acts at the level of axle, and therefore the load height should not matter. Also I am working on a simple lever mechanism to load these bhugies.
    2. I wrote to PM on the simplest part of joining the rivers. Shortest distance between the Himalyan rivers is near the base of hills. If these rivers can be joined near the hills, costs involved will be minimal as one will require to construct only the one side of embankment and by having wide canals, one can use them as reservoirs also. ..Hope someone will take notice of our ideas.

    RK^2
    Last edited by rkumar; June 29th, 2010 at 03:33 PM.
    There are many paths leading to God, politics is certainly not one of them...

  22. #120
    I would like to suggest few actions which can help in the rural development:
    1. Active and Mandatory Partcipation of the students/universities in the rural development : Each university should have few days (10 or 15 days) project as a part of educational curriculum in which group students should be sent to the village for rural projects. This wil hae dual advantage - rural people will get aware of the latest technology and may be those projects can be used say for farming, dairying etc. , Secondly students will be sensitized toward rural India and wil not be alien to the real India
    2. Proper implementaion of NREGA: Its actually a very good scheme and if the villagers are properly educated and corrupt contractors, panchayat members are audited regularly then for sure it will have huge impact on rural development
    3. Many of the developmental issues are closely related to social ill-customs which are still prevalent in rural India like: child marriage, preference for boy child etc..
    4. Educational Infrastructure is required to be developed in rural areas as being said in earlier posts : The major issue is retaining good teacher/faculty in the school and maintenance of proper discipline (for teachers as well as for students). This can be catered by giving good salaries and incentives ( it could be little more than urban /cities) to attract them. Also school result should be used as the performance appraisal factor for the teachers . Frequent transfers should be avoided.Its obvious that quality education will surely lead to the development
    5.Cooperative structure and business model can be successful if it is implemented like Amul in Gujarat, Also we community as whole need to sideline our personal biasis and work together , trust other villagers/farmers and generate entrepreneurial skills. We need strong leader and vision to pursue cooperative movement and it can be started thru a small village.
    6. Lastly sometimes we act selfishly and society suffers as a whole, For eg: sometimes people dont allow to construct/widen the road in front of their house even if the land is not owned by them -as they use it for their personal drainage, keeping cattles and so on

    Regards,
    Satyendra S. Choudhary

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