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  1. #1

    They Fought for Freedom and Nation Building

    (Friends, I take the opportunity to start a new thread on the above mentioned topic. Under this head the references will be put at the end of the articles. I am going to submit the first part of an article in the series entitled: MARTYR BHAGAT SINGH AS AN INTELLECTUAL REVOLUTIONARY).

    Martyr Bhagat Singh was one of the greatest prophets of National Revolutionary Freedom Movement of early 20th century India, whose name stands out by himself with the peculiar and distinctness unique in his type as he was unique in his work. He has left indelible imprint of his versatile contribution on various aspects of life both in India and other parts of the world.
    It is practically impossible to write about such a multi-dimensional personality as Bhagat Singh was, in just a few pages. You will have to bear with me when I proceed to share with you some of my ideas on the growth of Bhagat Singh as a promising intellectual and thinker of the first half of the 20th Century. His life was cut short due to the British Judicial Murder over eighty years ago when he was just 23 years and a few months old. Through this paper an attempt has been made to present an objective picture of the man and his ideology in historical perspective mainly based on his own writings and speeches on various issues contained in contemporary sources.
    Historical personalities and freedom fighters remain no longer individuals as they become symbols of ideas and movements. Martyr Bhagat Singh, lovingly hailed as Shaheed-e-Azam, represents the highest ideals of Indian revolutionary movement against imperialism, colonialism, communalism and exploitation of all types. But unfortunately of late, it has become fashionable to compartmentalize him as only the Marxist or the humanist internationalist or individual terrorist or rightist nationalist and revivalist or the follower of Gandhian concept of non-violence and so on. In fact for a long time his doctoring is continuing and his ideas have remained shadowed by various fishy and shady interpretations as a result of it; many distorted versions about his personality and ideology have come up. Now when a huge quantity of data has been thrown open, it is right time to take corrective steps on the basis of his own writings and the literature produced by his comrades in arms and contemporaries to put Shaheed-i-Azam on his rightful pedestal and present original personage of him as he was, nothing more and nothing less.
    Bhagat Singh was born in a patriotic family of S. Kishan Singh at Banga in the Punjab on 27th September, 1907. His father had served various terms in imprisonment for his revolutionary activities and in his later life was one of the prominent leaders of the Indian National Congress. His uncle S. Swaran Singh was jailed for his patriotic fervour and another uncle, S. Ajit Singh, who was a revolutionary and had been imprisoned in Mandalay Jail with Lala Lajpat Rai in 1907, was banished from India till 1947. His grandfather, Arjun Singh did not like to toe the line but was an adherent of Arya Samaj, which had a revolutionary image at that time. Thus his home was an ideal blend of Sikhism and Hinduism. This auspicious non communal nationalist atmosphere of the family gave Bhagat Singh ample opportunity to grow as a revolutionary par excellence. He received his early education in the local school and then moved to Lahore for further education.
    At the time of horrific massacre in Jallianwala Bagh on April 13, 1919, Bhagat Singh was only 12 years old and was a student of DAV School Lahore. The sordid act of the British left a deep imprint on his young mind as narrated by his sister, Bibi Amar Kaur: “The next day, Veera i.e. brother went early in the morning… he came back late in the evening with a bottle in the pocket of his shirt. On being asked what it was, he extracted it and said, “Amro, look at this, this is not mere dust, but is the blood of martyrs.” Thereafter, everyday he started putting ‘Tilak’ on his forehead with that dust. 1
    While tracing the ideological growth of Bhagat Singh, one cannot overlook his appetite for knowledge about the fast changing socio-political scenario in the country. This is testified by the fact that as a student at 4th Standard at School he had studied at least 50 books and booklets written by S. Ajit Singh, Soofi Amba Prasad, Lala Har Dayal, Lala Lajpat Rai and others in addition to scanning columns of various newspapers. While still in school he had read the biography of Tipu Sultan which ignited in him a desire to fight for the liberty of his homeland from the clutches of the foreigners.2

    To be contd./p2.

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  3. #2
    गुरदास मान जी ने क्या ख़ूब गाया है : दीवानें परवानें पागल, जो वी समझो सान्नू . . . . राजगुरु, सुखदेव, भगत सिंह याद औणगे तुहान्नु |

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  5. #3
    Martyr Bhagat Singh continues/p..2

    --2--

    In 1920 when non co-operation movement started, Bhagat Singh left the DAV School and joined the National College, Lahore where his friends were Yashpal, Sukhdev and Bhagwati Charan Vohra. But, Bhagat Singh was deeply influenced by the sacrifices of the seven martyrs of the First Lahore Conspiracy Case of 1915; especially he was deeply moved by the heroic saga and sacrifice of Kartar Singh Sarabha, who was just 20 years old and was the youngest among them when he was hanged. His statement was: "Our struggle will continue as long as a handful of men be they foreign or native, or both in collaboration with each other, continue to exploit the labour and resources of our people. Nothing shall deter us from this path.” Bhagat Singh always carried a photo of Sarabha in his pocket 3 and was carrying one when he was arrested in 1929.
    During his college days, Bhagat Singh came into contact with some well-known political leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai and Ras Bihari Bose. His National Dramatic Club organized a number of shows on the contemporary issues with a view to arouse socio-political consciousness among the people; but looking at its popularity the government soon imposed ban on its activities. He took plunge in revolutionary political activities by becoming an active founder member of Kirti Kisan Party and contributed fiery writings to it mouthpiece paper Kirti. He also participated in Zamindar Sabha agitation against enhancement of Bari Doab Canal water rates in 1924. Side by side to it, his searching for an ideology and a world view for human emancipation continued unabated. He read a number of books on socialism and Marxism in addition to literature on religion, political systems, economy, history, philosophy and so on, borrowed from Dwarkadas Library Lahore. 4 Alluding to the reading habit of Bhagat Singh, his mother, Vidya Vati says: “Whenever Bhagat Singh came home, he always had his pocket full of books. Often I would mildly pull him up for spoiling his pockets with these books. He used to explain with a smile that the books were about martyrs and patriots.”
    But, in the meantime, Bhagat Singh had to give up his B.A studies and also Lahore because his grandmother and father were forcing him to get married. Before leaving home in 1924, he made his intentions clear to his father that he had dedicated himself to the national cause on the bidding of his grandfather and that he was least interested in the worldly pursuits of life. The full contents of the note he left for his father read: “Revered father, Namaste. I dedicate my life to the lofty goal of service to the motherland. Hence there is no attraction in me for home comforts and fulfillment of worldly desires. I hope you remember that on the occasion of my sacred thread ceremony Bapuji (Grandfather) had declared that I was being donated to the service of the country. I am just fulfilling that pledge. I hope you will forgive me.”5 The letter is self explanatory and needs no comments as to the choice of the path by the young revolutionary.
    He moved to Kanpur and stayed with Ganesh Shankar Vidyarathi, the editor of Paratap assuming a pseudo name ‘Balwant Singh’. He covered Delhi riots as staff correspondent of the Paratap and contributed two articles on this subject and later worked as a school teacher in Shadipur village school near Kanpur. There he came into intimate contact with many revolutionaries like BK Dutt, Manmathnath Gupta, Chander Shekhar Azad, Shachindra Nath Sanyal and Suresh Chandra Bhattacharya.
    According to Shiv Verma, Martyr Bhagat Singh was a revolutionary apart from others. He “was our undisputed ideological leader. I do not remember a single moment when he did not have a book in his pocket.” He was a handsome young man, 5 feet 10 inches tall and well built. He had a musical voice and never spoke loudly. He was emotional but he was also stoic, studious and thoughtful young man. His grasp on the contemporary political situation and revolutionary activities was fast maturing as reported by one of his comrades: “Born in a revolutionary family, being associated with these eminent men, strengthened by studies he grew to be more and more revolutionary. He digested the thoughts of these people and by a process of rejection and assimilation gradually formed his own independent thinking.”6

    ...To be contd./p. 3

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  7. #4
    Martyr Bhagat Singh [contd from part 2]

    --3--

    After his return to the Punjab from Kanpur, Bhagat Singh toured rural areas of the Punjab and aroused consciousness among them the need for joining the Gurudwara Reform Movement. He made fiery speeches at a number of places including one at Banga against the establishment and the Mahantas. Next, he went to Delhi and worked for sometime in the Hindi newspaper Arjun as well as took part in secret revolutionary activities. The revolutionaries considered Lala Lajpat Rai as their ideal leader who was giving a fierce fight to the British imperialism. But they were not his blind followers as is clear from the event that took place during one of the election meetings of Lala Lajpat Rai at Lahore. Bhagat Singh and Bhagwati Charan Vohra distributed a pamphlet there denouncing him as “Lost Leader” for his joining Hindu Maha Sabha.
    Earlier, in 1926 when in association with Sukhdev and Bhagwati Charan Vohra he founded Naujawan Bharat Sabha, Lahore its inaugural session commenced with unveiling of Sarabha’s portrait. Naujawan Bharat Sabha further organized students union. The Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) of the nationalist revolutionaries of north India was converted in September 1928 into Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). In 1927 he was detained for months at a stretch in Lahore fort and Borstal Jail as a suspect of fictitious Lahore Dussehra bomb case. They interrogated him in connection with Kakori case and released him on bail of 60,000/-. The case was later withdrawn as it was not sustainable in the court.
    A brutal attack by the police on veteran leader Lala Lajpat Rai at an anti-British procession at Lahore caused his death on November 17 1928. Bhagat Singh determined to avenge his death by shooting the British official responsible for the killing, Deputy Inspector General Scott. He shot down Assistant Superintendent Saunders instead, mistaking him for Scott. Then he made a dramatic escape from Lahore to Calcutta and from there to Agra, where he established a bomb factory. The British government responded to the act by imposing severe measures like the Trades Disputes Bill and Public Safety Bill. It was on 8th April, 1929 that to protest against the passing of the Bill Bhagat Singh and B K Dutt threw two bombs in the Central Assembly Hall on empty benches while the Assembly was in session. The bombs did not hurt anyone, but the noise they made was loud enough to wake up an enslaved nation from a long sleep. After throwing the bombs, both Bhagat Singh and B.K Dutt offered themselves for arrest.
    This event was followed by the long farce of British judicial murder of the political prisoners. The hearing of the case started on 7th May, 1929. Bhagat Singh and his associates submitted their statement before the court on 6th June, 1929 in which they not only defended their action of throwing the bombs in the Central Assembly but also described in detail the purpose of this action. They also used to raise the slogans: Long live Revolution and Down with Imperialism to give wide publicity to the programme and policy of HRSA. But the Court was quick in its attempt to silence their propaganda as it gave the verdict on 12th June 1929 sentencing both of them to transportation for life in the Andamans. But in the meantime, the Punjab police submitted that Bhagat Singh and B K Dutt were party to the group who assassinated Mr. Saunders. Therefore, they were taken to Lahore to face the charges in the Second Lahore Conspiracy Case for which the trial started on 10th July, 1929.
    On 7th October, 1930 the Second Lahore Conspiracy Case Tribunal sentenced Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and B K Dutt to death. On 2nd February 1931 Bhagat Singh wrote the famous appeal: To Young Political Workers, which may be considered his last will and testament. In the meantime Gandhi Irwin negotiations for settlement of the political issues of the country had started. When the date of the execution of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru drew nearer, the public tempo of apprehension and expectation started rising. As the negotiations between Gandhi and Lord Irwin progressed, so did the call for Gandhi’s intervention for saving their lives. By the time Bhagat Singh came to be hanged alongside his two comrades, the Congress had owned him emotionally as a beloved national hero. Perhaps a majority of its members felt somewhat guilty that Gandhi could not save these patriots. He died at the pinnacle of his glory.
    The breaking of the news of their ‘execution in a stealthy manner’ surprised and shocked most Indians. No other revolutionary was executed at a time when the attention of the nation was focused with such deep interest on a patriot who symbolized the spirit of revolt in the country. His execution was followed by what Noorani describes as “the Moral Abyss”. “In the aftermath,” as he writes, “there was depression all around. Questions continued to be raised whether Gandhi could have saved him. The Indian Communists were, by that time, not only opposed to revolutionaries indulging in individual terrorism, but were also “isolated from the mainstream freedom struggle.”


    To be contd. p.4

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  9. #5
    [Martyr Bhagat Singh, Contd from p.3]
    --4--
    While in jail and in condemned cell, Bhagat Singh “prepared a comprehensive almanac of those, who had ended their lives on the gallows, giving a short account of all the individuals, with suitable mottos for all. The mottos were written from memory, and show how well read Bhagat Singh was. These also testify to his habit of committing to memory all noble and inspiring pieces of literature. His love for reading was nothing new and lasted till the end of the journey of his life. Even before mounting to gallows, he was studying a book on the life of a revolutionary. This passion of reading started in early childhood gradually led him to study more varied literature such as Korpotkin’s “Memoirs,” Michael Bakunin’s books, “Seven That Were Hanged” by Leonoid Andrieve and history of Russian Revolutionary Movement right from its beginning in the early 19th century to the October Revolution of 1917. It is generally believed that very few in India could be compared with him in the knowledge of this special subject. The economic experiments in Russia under the Bolshevik regime also greatly interested him. He had learnt by heart the whole of the first number of the first volume of the “Revolutionary” closely printed four full pages of matter, written, printed and published by the Hindustan Republican Association.” He read the works of Charles Dickens which he liked very much. Some of his favourite works of fiction were: ‘Boston’, ‘Jungle’, ‘Oil’, and non-fiction were ‘Cry for Justice’ by Upton Sinclair, ‘Eternal City’, by Hal Caine, from which many portions of the speeches by Romily he had learnt by heart, Reed’s ‘Ten days that Shook the World’, Rophshu’s ‘What Never Happened’ Maxim Gorky’s ‘Mother’, Stepniky’s ‘Career of a Nihilist’ and ‘Birth of Russian Democracy’, Oscar Wilde’s ‘Vera the Nihilist’, Dean Beran’s ‘My Fight for Irish Freedom’ and so on and so forth.
    According to Professor Chaman Lal, “107 documents of Bhagat Singh, apart from his Jail Notebook, and the Hindi translation of Dan Breen’s My Fight for Irish Freedom, have come to light. These include five letters published for first time in March 2007 by this author. Out of these 107 documents, forty-five fall in the category of correspondence—letters, telegrams and notices/leaflets. The correspondence of Bhagat Singh is available from 1918, when he had not completed even 11 years of age. There are three notices and four telegrams out of these 45 documents. The letters can be broadly divided into two types: letters of personal nature, addressed to family members and friends; and letters of political nature, addressed to father, friends, British officials, judges, editors of journals etc…Out of 38 letters, 15 can be categorized as of personal nature, though referring to the political context also. Twenty three letters are of political nature, though there are personal references in these as well. The first five available letters of Bhagat Singh were written between 1918 and 1921, that is, from the age of 11 years to 14 years. Another set of ten personal letters were written from jail during 1930-31, just in the one-year period at the age of 22 years plus. The first set of personal letters belong to the absolute innocent phase of his life and the last set of personal letters belong to the mature and most fertile period of Bhagat Singh’s life… As far as letters of political nature are concerned, the first political letter of Bhagat Singh is addressed to his father in 1923, at the age of sixteen years. Then 20 odd letters are written during 1927 to 1931, including one letter written just a day before his execution to his brother.”7


    To be contd. p.5....

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  11. #6
    [Martyr Bhagat Singh......Contd from p.4]

    ---5---
    "The aim of life” according to Martyr Bhagat Singh “is no more to control the mind, but to develop it harmoniously; not to achieve salvation here after, but to make the best use of it here below; and not to realize truth, beauty and good only in contemplation, but also in-the actual experience of daily life; social progress depends not upon the ennoblement of the few but on the enrichment of democracy; universal brotherhood can be achieved only when there is an equality of opportunity - of opportunity in the social, political and individual life."
    On Revolution and social Justice: Shaheed Bhagat Singh expressed himself on the concept of "Revolution", in letters to his co-patriots, in statements in courts, and his other writings. "Revolution" does not merely mean an upheaval or a sanguinary strife - nor is there any place in it for individual vendetta. It is not the cult of the bomb and the pistol. Revolution necessarily implies the programme of systematic reconstruction of society on a new and better basis.....by "Revolution" we mean that the present order of things, which is based on manifest injustice, must change. The peasant who grows corn for all, starves with his family; the weaver who supplies the world market with textile fabrics, has not enough to cover his own and his children's bodies; masons, smiths and carpenters who raise magnificent palaces, live like pariahs in the slums...the sense in which the word "Revolution" is used in that phrase, is the spirit, the longing for a change for the better. The people generally get accustomed to the established order of things and begin to tremble at the very idea of a change. It is this lethargically spirit that needs be replaced by the revolutionary spirit. Otherwise degeneration gains the upper hand and all of humanity is led astray by reactionary forces. Such a state of affairs leads to stagnation and paralysis in human progress. 8 In a letter to The Tribune of December 24, 1929, Bhagat Singh explained beautifully the meaning he and fellow socialists tried to convey by the phrase, Long Live Revolution. He wrote that by revolution, they did not so much mean violence, as "the spirit, the longing for a change for the better." Since people generally get accustomed to the established order of things and begin to tremble at the very idea of a change, they needed to be roused from their lethargy and the revolutionary spirit had to be instilled in them.
    Atheism: Bhagat Singh was an atheist. He believed that religion and God were “products of man’s fear, ignorance and lack of self-confidence.” In his essay--Why Am I an Atheist--he totally rejects the existence of an omniscient-God. But in his childhood, Bhagat Singh was channelised into a very religious mode. He was staunchly religious as his father was an Arya samaji, who used to advice him to offer prayers to God. Though he grew agnostic during his college days, he yet grew his beard and his kais-the long hair, following the Sikh norms of Khalsa. Even during the times of his revolutionary activities, either his leaders were agnostic or staunch followers of religion like Sachindranath Sanyal. But, out of the blue, a desire to study aroused within him.He wrote in his essay, “Study more, more --said I to myself.” He had studied atheists like Bakunin, Marx, Lenin and Trotsky, all of them being atheists. Reading them changed his views on religion and after reading ‘Common Sense’ by Nirlamabaswami he turned from an agnostic to an atheist. In the essay under reference by the use of rhetoric, Bhagat Singh mocks at the religion and the existence of the supreme power and refers to God as a myth. Also he believed that religion could not be mixed with politics. He was only in his teens when he started to analyse situations and making independent solutions. This reveals his level of thinking and questioning at such a young age. Even then some people try to misrepresent him on the issue by misplacing their assumption on the presumed statements quoted out of place regarding the last meeting held in the jail at Lahore between Baba Randhir Singh and Bhagat Singh held on 6th October, 1930. To put the record straight we quote the relevant portion of the long discussion between them. Bhagat Singh candidly expressed his religious belief as follows:
    "I am very proud to be called a Sikh. But the hard fact is that I was never religious at heart. You will excuse me if I tell you in quite plain terms that at heart I am an atheist. I still do not believe in God. All my companions know it. With all that, I am willing to do anything you ask me to do....” At this, said Baba Randhir Singh: "I am very happy that you have revealed the truth of your inner state of mind and have not concealed what is really in your heart. It is absolutely useless to keep religious symbols like hair and beard while you are an atheist at heart, nor would I be proud of making you do such a thing. I am no more anxious about your coming back to Sikh form, or am I sorry that you do not have hair and beard….”9
    The revolutionaries were branded as terrorists by the British government. In one of Sukhdev’s letters to Bhagat Singh, he wrote: “We are sick of the stigma of violence attached to us. We are neither killer, nor terrorists.” They were stung by the remarks in some newspapers and from leaders like Dewan Chaman Lal. The need to remove that impression was the subject of most of their writings. For putting these ideas and sentiments across in an effective manner the party relied largely on the knowledge and skill of Bhagat Singh. That was, according to his comrades, the reason why, on the insistence of Sukhdev, the earlier decision of the HSRA was revised so as to depute Bhagat Singh with B.K. Dutt to throw the bombs in the Assembly and to let Bhagat Singh use the occasion to explain and propagate what they stood for. The message given—“it takes a loud voice to make the deaf hear”—hogged the headlines in the newspapers in India and abroad.10
    [To be contd. on p.6]
    Last edited by DrRajpalSingh; June 17th, 2012 at 09:51 AM.

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  13. #7
    [Martyr Bhagat Singh........Contd from p. 6]
    His Notion of Love: in a letter to Sukhdev, his ideas on love outburst clearly as he goes on to explain the meaning and importance of love in life. He said that he believed that love was helpful to man and gave a reference to Mazzini, the great Italian Revolutionary, who “would have gone mad and committed suicide” because he was continuously haunted by the memory of his initial unsuccessful attempt in which several of his co-patriots had perished in a bid to liberate his country; if he had not received a letter from his girl friend expressing her deep felt love for him. Mazzini, after receipt of the letter from the girl he loved, made bid to liberate his country afresh and was successful this time. Bhagat Singh defines love as “nothing but passion, not an animal instinct but a human one, and very sweet too.” He goes on to add that love brings about a feeling of pride in man, provided love be love. He ridiculed the stereotypical lovers as are portrayed in movies. He also felt that love is a natural feeling and cannot be created. In his article on Vishwa Prem in 1924 he declared that he was a staunch votary of universal brotherhood, but pointed out numerous inequalities and disparities which did not allow it to happen; universal brotherhood could only be realized if forceful steps were undertaken to eliminate wide spread discriminatory division of means of production and incomes.” In one of his letters written to Sukhdev, Bhagat Singh says, “while he is not against the personal love, he would rather be happy when all men and women lift themselves up to the level of universal love.”11
    On Caste System: Bhagat Singh was in favour of eradication of the caste system based on the birth. He questioned the Brahminical dominance over other sections of the society in his essay: 'The Question of the Untouchables". He highlighted the fact that the ancient Indian society was divided into four categories based on professions and not birth and the grouping was called the Varna system which equalled a sort of professional class. The sect who dominated all the other sects was the Brahmins, followed by Kshtriyas, Vaishyas and the Shudras. He wanted to eradicate the cruel and crude Indian caste-system because he was especially hurt by the objectionable attitude of the Brahmins towards the lower strata of society. His love for the down trodden and exploited people pours out in the statement he made along with Batukeshwar Dutt on 6th June 1929 which inter alia reads: To change the system, we need revolution. Is it not a constructed injustice that the labours and producers, despite being the mainstream, are a victim of exploitation and have been denied basic human rights? Farmers, who produce die of hunger. The weaver who weaves clothes for others cannot do so for his own family or children. Mesons, carpenters, ironsmiths build huge palaces and die of living in huts and slums. On the other side, capitalists, anti-social elements spend crores of rupees on their fashion and enjoyment. Those who enjoy at the cost of hardworking and hungry people should understand that they are sitting on such a volcano that is about to erupt. When for sometime he was in Calcutta, he came face to face with the plight of man driven carts carrying people and was depressed to see the men pulling rickshaws on foot which signalled him the fiercest economic exploitation of the down trodden by the reach. Bhagat Singh took the class struggle as one of his primary goals. That is why the Dalits of the country consider Bhagat Singh as the champion of their cause and national hero equal to B.R. Ambedkar.
    [To be continued p. .....7]
    Last edited by DrRajpalSingh; June 17th, 2012 at 09:57 AM.

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  15. #8
    [Martyr Bhagat Singh .... contd. From p.6]

    ==7==

    Bhagat Singh on ways and means to attain freedom differed from the Gandhian ideas based on non-violence or ahimsa. It is wrong to surmise that in the prison he had started to believe in the Gandhian concept of non violence, the assumption derived by some perhaps on the basis of long drawn hunger strike undertaken by Bhagat Singh and his associates on the issue of the rights of the political prisoners in the British Jails. But we must bear in mind the famous quote of Bhagat Singh from his letter to the young Revolutionaries before a few days of his martyrdom: “Apparently I have acted like a terrorist. But I am not a terrorist. I am a revolutionary who bears much concrete and specific ideas of a long term programme.” And he was not against using force as and when it becomes necessary to do so under the force of circumstances created by his adversaries. 12 Moreover, revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh were anti-imperialistic and were very radical while Gandhiji and under his influence the Congress was extremely moderate in those days and had very petty demands like the granting of Dominion status and Swaraj. These were the two different ideologies but both had a common goal, freedom of India. In addition, Bhagat Singh not only believed in providing freedom to India from the British but also to free the poor from their oppressors like the powerful rich people. "Bhagat Singh was searching for the ultimate ideology of human liberation from all kinds of yokes"--says Prof. Chaman Lal. For Bhagat Singh the nationality of the oppressor did not matter, be it a British or an Indian, he wanted them to be eliminated.
    On Life and Death: He did not want to live under the foreign domination of his nation and decided to sacrifice his life on the altar of Motherland to arouse the Indians from the long slumber and uproot the British imperialism. After having so decided he neither contested his case in the British Courts nor ever petitioned for mercy because he had conquered the fear of death in the national cause. In his letter of 20th March 1931 to the Governor of the Punjab, Bhagat Singh wrote, "I have been arrested while waging a war. For me there can be no gallows. Put me into the mouth of cannon and blow me off." The letter further contains the historic statement: “The days of capitalist and imperialist exploitation are numbered. The war neither began with us nor is it going to end with our lives. It is the inevitable consequence of the historic events and the exciting environment. Our humble sacrifices shall only be a link in the chain that has accurately been beautified by the unparalleled sacrifice of Mr. Das and the most tragic but noblest sacrifice of Comrade Bhagwati Charan and the glorious death of our dear warrior Azad.”13

    [To be contd. ..p.8]

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  17. #9

    Jat Heroes Who Made History

    Those who forget their past are bound to be erased from the memory of the nation enshrined on the pages of history. The contribution of the Jats towards nation building and fighting for the security of the boundaries of the motherland has been immense but finds little mention in text books. We have started this thread to acquaint the people about this predicament and thus facilitate the readers to share their studies on the lives and contributions of the Jat Heroes through the Ages.

    Readers are welcome to put their own studies and/or views, comments on them.
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

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  19. #10
    MARTYR RAJA NAHAR SINGH

    Who can forget the War of Indian Independence waged by the patriots in 1857, which the British sought to deride by labeling as ‘mere sepoy mutiny?’ Actually that was India’s First War of Independence in very true sense of the word, when people from all walks of life rose against the British rule and joined the fight to drive away the British? Since the country wide celebrations to commemorate the completion of 150 years of the occurrence are being organized it is high time to ponder over the need of paying our heartfelt tribute to all those brave Indians who laid down their lives in this war so that succeeding generations of the country could live a better and honorable life. Indeed, India may truly be grateful when she calls to mind records so brilliant and deeds so honorable, and remembers the glorious part borne by her children in handing down to posterity, notwithstanding shortcomings, failures and errors, one of the most memorable chapters of her golden history.
    On this occasion, we fondly remember the contribution of many a persons who played significant roles in their own areas and in their own way. Several of them have been recognized as national heroes but martyr Raja Nahar Singh is one such hero who has by and large remained unrecognized, unsung and totally misunderstood. He was the ruler of petty state of Ballbhgarh in the vicinity of Delhi. His kingdom comprised of 121 villages and towns spread over an area of about 305 sq. kms with population of 57000.

    Contd/-
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

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  21. #11
    Nahar Singh born to Raja Ram Singh and Basant Kaur at Ballbhgarh on 6th April 1821 received his education at the feet of his preceptors Pandit Kulkarni and Maulvi Rahman Khan. Since he was barely a child of about 9 his father expired in 1830 so his uncle Nawal Singh took over the responsibility of running the state affairs till on attainment of adulthood, Nahar Singh was coroneted in 1839. Prior to it, Nahar Singh received tutorship in martial arts also and soon grew to be an adept horse rider and fine shooter. Even as a child, he had a great passion for hunting and shooting. As a boy he displayed rare skill in this art by shooting down the lion single handedly, which had earlier killed his comrade in the hunting expedition. As he grew up to manhood he found himself irresistibly drawn towards showing feats of shooting so much so that he was considered to be an expert shot and adept aims man by those who had seen him in action. Moreover, his feats of bravery and heroism were amply demonstrated in his participation in fiercely contested battles of Hindon and Badli-ki-Sarai in defence of Delhi against the onslaught of the British as recorded by contemporary British authors.

    contd/----
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

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  23. #12
    His sense of patriotism goaded him to raise the banner of revolt against the British and join the Indian forces led by Emperor Bahadur Shah. Once the plunge was undertaken there was no chance of looking back. He not only undertook to drive away the British from the paraganas of Fatehpur and Palwal but also displayed rare capacity of administrative skills in maintaining safety of national highway from Delhi to Hodal.
    His letters to the Emperor on the issue throw ample light on the administrative qualities of the Raja, who went through minutest details of the problem and took required steps at an appropriate time. He kept complete surveillance of the movements of the enemy activities and put his fast camel riders to report the matter to the Emperor immediately on any new development in the situation. This they did as is testified from the eye witness record of Munshi Jeevan Lal, who noted in his diary on 25th May, 1857: “at the time of prayer, a camel rider arrived from the raja of Ballbhgarh to report that he had seen an English force advancing on the city.” This aspect of his character and activities endeared him to the Emperor who entrusted him to “join the duty to command Delhi regiment” and also undertake “to snap the enemy’s supply line from the south of Delhi.” He made the security arrangements so thorough that even John Lawrence, the Chief Commissioner of Punjab was astonished to admit and report to Lord Canning, the Governor General of India that ‘The East and the South (of Delhi) is protected by the strong forces of Raja Nahar Singh of Ballbhgarh, and it is unlikely we can break this wall of soldiers unless we receive reinforcements from China or England.”

    To be continued........
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

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  25. #13
    Raja Nahar Singh was a humanist to the core and saved the lives of all those who sought shelter under his kingdom but he was also a patriot par excellence and did not extend any help to District Collector William Ford when he was running for collecting forces to curb the activities of the freedom fighters in and around his territories. Rather he ignored him. On the other hand, he became a pillar of strength to the freedom fighters. He not only took active interest in their work; but also helped the cause with liberal contributions. For those sepoys of the native infantry or cavalry, who revolted against the British, he opened the gates of services in Ballbhgarh forces with enhanced pay and promotional ranks.

    As a result of it, according to narrative of Munshi Jeevan Lal by 17th July 1857 the Raja “had taken into his service 200 troopers who had lately been in the employ of the English.” The number continued to swell in the subsequent period. Incidentally, one such sepoy who was granted rank of Naik, appeared as a witness to testify the fact before the Military Commission, which was established to try Raja Nahar Singh.

    As a matter of fact, to further fortify his armed strength, the Raja not only raised new levies but also collected as much as possible latest weaponry and other war material as was revealed from the recovery of large number of horses, bullocks, carts, English rifles and dresses from his fort after the British assaulted it.

    Contd.....
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

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  27. #14

    Jats in Defence of India Through the Ages.

    Friends

    Jats are known to be valiant fighters for maintenance of freedom of their lands, hearths and homes since times immemorial.

    The purpose of the thread is to share information from the pages of history about the role of Jats in defence of India.

    You are welcome to share write ups, mention of their heroic deeds in books, news papers, journals and also printed books on individual Jats or group of Jats who fought for attainment and maintenance of freedom of the nation.

    Thanks and regards,
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

  28. #15
    Quote Originally Posted by DrRajpalSingh View Post
    Friends

    Jats are known to be valiant fighters for maintenance of freedom of their lands, hearths and homes since times immemorial.

    The purpose of the thread is to share information from the pages of history about the role of Jats in defence of India.

    You are welcome to share write ups, mention of their heroic deeds in books, news papers, journals and also printed books on individual Jats or group of Jats who fought for attainment and maintenance of freedom of the nation.

    Thanks and regards,
    Rajpal ji..please forgive but don'y think that you are starting so many threas of the same type? Same type of thins can be disucssed on the same thread and it will be easy for the readers to get everything at the same place. This thread and below mentioned threads disucss the same thing.
    http://www.jatland.com/forums/showth...d-Heroic-Deeds
    http://www.jatland.com/forums/showth...ation-Building
    Become more and more innocent, less knowledgeable and more childlike. Take life as fun - because that's precisely what it is!

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  30. #16
    Quote Originally Posted by prashantacmet View Post
    Rajpal ji..please forgive but don'y think that you are starting so many threas of the same type? Same type of thins can be disucssed on the same thread and it will be easy for the readers to get everything at the same place. This thread and below mentioned threads disucss the same thing.
    http://www.jatland.com/forums/showth...d-Heroic-Deeds
    http://www.jatland.com/forums/showth...ation-Building
    Friend,

    Thanks for pointing out the similarity of the two threads, which have been merged.

    Best wishes
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

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  32. #17

    Highest gallantry award for Jats- victoria cross, paramveerchakra and Nishan-e-haider

    There are few threads started here recently on jat soldiers and their bravery....and many of other community soldiers are mistakenly identified as jats. As jatts foughts for britishers before independence in WWI and WWII, Victoria Cross was the highest gallantry award by britishers. After independence, paramveer chakra is the highest gallany award by india and nishan-e-haider by pakistan. Thought of making a list of jats who got highest gallantry awards. here is teh list irrespective of religion and country

    VC -

    risaldar badlu ram dhankar (hindu jat from haryana)
    subedar richpal ram lamba (hindu jat fom haryana

    Paramveer chakra-

    major Hoshiar singh (hindu jat from haryana)
    flying officer nirmaljeet singh shekhon (sikh jatt - sole winner from air force)


    Nishan-e-haider
    lance naik muhammed mahfuz (muslim jatt from pak)

    if someone has othername please share
    Last edited by prashantacmet; October 18th, 2013 at 05:16 PM.
    Become more and more innocent, less knowledgeable and more childlike. Take life as fun - because that's precisely what it is!

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  34. #18
    Quote Originally Posted by prashantacmet View Post
    There are few threads started here recently on jat soldiers and their bravery....and many of other community soldiers are mistakenly identified as jats. As jatts foughts for britishers before independence in WWI and WWII, Victoria Cross was the highest gallantry award by britishers. After independence, paramveer chakra is the highest gallany award by india and nishan-e-haider by pakistan. Thought of making a list of jats who got highest gallantry awards. here is teh list irrespective of religion and country

    VC -

    risaldar badlu ram dhankar (hindu jat from haryana)
    subedar richpal ram lamba (hindu jat fom haryana

    Paramveer chakra-

    major Hoshiar singh (hindu jat from haryana)
    flying officer nirmaljeet singh shekhon (sikh jatt - sole winner from air force)


    Nishan-e-haider
    lance naik muhammed mahfuz (muslim jatt from pak)

    if someone has othername please share
    For more information on the topic kindly visit :http://www.jatland.com/forums/showth...The-Brave-Jats
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

  35. #19
    Quote Originally Posted by DrRajpalSingh View Post
    For more information on the topic kindly visit :http://www.jatland.com/forums/showth...The-Brave-Jats
    Rajap ji..do you name any other jat (hindu/muslim/sikh) who has got these highest awards?
    Become more and more innocent, less knowledgeable and more childlike. Take life as fun - because that's precisely what it is!

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  37. #20
    Quote Originally Posted by prashantacmet View Post
    Rajap ji..do you name any other jat (hindu/muslim/sikh) who has got these highest awards?
    Friend,

    This needs in-depth scrutiny of plethora of literature.

    Thanks and regards
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

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