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Thread: Tipu Sultan

  1. #1

    Tipu Sultan

    I just happened to read a news item about the auction of a ring in London. To my surprise this ring belonged to Tipu Sultan and is very unique. It has "Ram" written on it. Do we conclude that Ram was the diety of Hindus and Muslims equally during that period?

    http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-27529905

    Click image for larger version. 

Name:	Tipu's Ring.jpg 
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    It seems Hindus and Muslims were same at least culturally before British took over India.

    RK^2
    There are many paths leading to God, politics is certainly not one of them...

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  3. #2
    Quote Originally Posted by rkumar View Post
    I just happened to read a news item about the auction of a ring in London. To my surprise this ring belonged to Tipu Sultan and is very unique. It has "Ram" written on it. Do we conclude that Ram was the diety of Hindus and Muslims equally during that period?

    http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-27529905

    Click image for larger version. 

Name:	Tipu's Ring.jpg 
Views:	808 
Size:	40.1 KB 
ID:	17141

    It seems Hindus and Muslims were same at least culturally before British took over India.

    RK^2
    As regards religious policy of 18th century states, it was by and large always tolerant and no discrimination was made by the rulers on this count.

    For example, Maharaja Suraj Mal got built a mosque/maqbara at the place where Shamsher Bahadur Khan, step Son of the Peshwa was killed during the siege of Kumher in 1754.

    In addition, the major part of the security ring around Maharaja Suraj Mal during his last fight against the Imperial Mir Bakshi Najibuuddaula belonged to persons related to Islam as the names of the persons cut to pieces testify !

    Likewise more or less all religions were treated at par in almost all the newly established regional powers that arose on the disintegration and dismemberment of the mighty Mughal Empire at the hands of the centrifugal powers of the country.

    It were the British who started to extend their imperial designs by following policy of divide and rule and fanning differences of caste, creed, region and what not.
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

  4. #3
    Completely imaginative and falsified theory..one or two rare example does not build the theory right. Hindus and muslims had a wide gap throughout the history. On british arrival, hindu/muslims came closure for a while but this ballon burst completely near independence. Before British, situation was fatal .Apart from akbar (that too being very exaggerated presently), no muslim ruler had a soft corner for hindus.There might be some cultural similarity in hindus and newly converted muslims, but there was no religious harmony

    Tipu sultan was a hindu hater. he butchered and forced conversion of hindus on a massive scale.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tipu_Sultan

    http://voiceofdharma.org/books/tipu/ch02.htm

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Hinduism

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persecution_of_Hindus
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  6. #4
    Quote Originally Posted by rkumar View Post
    I just happened to read a news item about the auction of a ring in London. To my surprise this ring belonged to Tipu Sultan and is very unique. It has "Ram" written on it. Do we conclude that Ram was the diety of Hindus and Muslims equally during that period?

    http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-27529905

    Click image for larger version. 

Name:	Tipu's Ring.jpg 
Views:	808 
Size:	40.1 KB 
ID:	17141

    It seems Hindus and Muslims were same at least culturally before British took over India.

    RK^2
    kisi hindu se chheni hogi tipu sultan ne....kasai tha tipu sultan....aurangzeb ki tarah hinduo ko mara aur convert kiya....aur aapko lagta hai wo Ram ko manata tha....kripya karke Tipu sultan ke baare main thoda sa padhe..maine 5-7 link diye hai upper.
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  8. #5
    Quote Originally Posted by DrRajpalSingh View Post
    As regards religious policy of 18th century states, it was by and large always tolerant and no discrimination was made by the rulers on this count.

    For example, Maharaja Suraj Mal got built a mosque/maqbara at the place where Shamsher Bahadur Khan, step Son of the Peshwa was killed during the siege of Kumher in 1754.

    In addition, the major part of the security ring around Maharaja Suraj Mal during his last fight against the Imperial Mir Bakshi Najibuuddaula belonged to persons related to Islam as the names of the persons cut to pieces testify !

    Likewise more or less all religions were treated at par in almost all the newly established regional powers that arose on the disintegration and dismemberment of the mighty Mughal Empire at the hands of the centrifugal powers of the country.

    It were the British who started to extend their imperial designs by following policy of divide and rule and fanning differences of caste, creed, region and what not.

    baat tipu sultan ki ho rahi hai...aap surajmal ka exampel de rahe ho....jatto ko dil bada hota hi hai...give some exmaple of muslim ruler...(leave akbar.......)
    Become more and more innocent, less knowledgeable and more childlike. Take life as fun - because that's precisely what it is!

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  10. #6
    डॉ. राजपाल जंघु जैसे लोगों का बस चले तो मुस्लिमों को तो कुछ ना कहें, हां हिंदुओं को जरूर मुसलमान बना दें। शुकर है भारत में अभी भी अधिकतर लोग ऐसे हैं, जो मौका लगते ही भारत में इस्लाम का सूर्य अस्त कर देंगे। हाल ही में देश भर में भाजपा की भारी जीत इसका सबूत है।

  11. #7
    Quote Originally Posted by upendersingh View Post
    डॉ. राजपाल जंघु जैसे लोगों का बस चले तो मुस्लिमों को तो कुछ ना कहें, हां हिंदुओं को जरूर मुसलमान बना दें। शुकर है भारत में अभी भी अधिकतर लोग ऐसे हैं, जो मौका लगते ही भारत में इस्लाम का सूर्य अस्त कर देंगे। हाल ही में देश भर में भाजपा की भारी जीत इसका सबूत है।
    Friend,

    Could you cite reason for your comments that I am trying to convert Hindus or vice versa !

    Read history with open mind and you would be convinced of the multi-cultural ethos of Indian people.

    The last observation regarding the victory of BJP is also not based on the facts of the electoral fight !

    It was not a fight between Hindus and Muslims at all and to give it colour of communalism is a far fetched idea !
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

  12. #8
    Quote Originally Posted by prashantacmet View Post
    baat tipu sultan ki ho rahi hai...aap surajmal ka exampel de rahe ho....jatto ko dil bada hota hi hai...give some exmaple of muslim ruler...(leave akbar.......)
    Though, at times, Aurangzeb adopted communal steps against the non-Islamic people, yet the number of Hindu nobles [Mansabdars and Jagirdars] under him was far larger than any of his five predecessors including Akbar.
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

  13. #9
    Friends,

    History is a two edged sword so it must be used with every possible precaution ! We can use history to strengthen the national integration and communal harmony or conversely use it otherwise, if we chose isolated incidents and occurrences from here and there.

    Therefore, we have to treat history to judge for a period of time taking into consideration all the objective conditions of that age and characters, otherwise there is every chance to falter in our conclusion/judgement of the past.

    The British used Indian history to spread communal divide and succeeded to an extent in their nefarious designs. They divided our history into Hindu Period, Muslim Period and the British period whereas the facts show that at no time all over India there was never Muslim rule or the British Rule as always there were present Hindu kingdoms here and there.

    So this is the time to come out of the false notions of history spread by the British and read it as History of Ancient, Mediaeval and Modern India.

    Thanks and regards
    Last edited by DrRajpalSingh; May 23rd, 2014 at 05:18 PM.
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

  14. #10
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    ताज़ा न्यूज़ है की एक जेयहूदी ने 6 करोड़ में ये रिंग खरीदी है तुरंत उसने इसे पिंगला के नयी शानदार अंगूठी बनवाई है अब नयी अंगूठी की किम्मत 1.5 लाख है
    "No one can make you feel inferior without your consent..."

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  16. #11
    Quote Originally Posted by rsdalal View Post
    ताज़ा न्यूज़ है की एक जेयहूदी ने 6 करोड़ में ये रिंग खरीदी है तुरंत उसने इसे पिंगला के नयी शानदार अंगूठी बनवाई है अब नयी अंगूठी की किम्मत 1.5 लाख है

    azeeb paagal aadmi hai.....6 crore ki cheez 1.5 lac ki bana di....
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  18. #12
    Quote Originally Posted by DrRajpalSingh View Post
    Though, at times, Aurangzeb adopted communal steps against the non-Islamic people, yet the number of Hindu nobles [Mansabdars and Jagirdars] under him was far larger than any of his five predecessors including Akbar.
    so what??.. under biritish rules many hindus, muslims and sikh personalities enjoyed special status and they were beloved of British.. but you are blaming British to separate hindus and muslims because of their divisive politics. why?? britsih were not good?...

    So if there were hindu nobles in aurangzeb court..this does not vindicate his love for Hindus and sikhs. he was a staunch islamist and did massive conversion and persecution of hindus and sikhs . Even oor great gokula, rajaram and bharatpur empire rose to the stature due to tyranny of aurangzeb, these great jats came in rescue of hinduism. Tell me any hindu king who did massive killing at the name of religion and who forced conversion of muslims in Hinduism.

    haider all, tipu sultan..these were demons but this sickulars history has made them heroes. I first read about them in 7-8th standrd history book of Utter pradesh board and i was ashamed of the our education system knowing the truth after few years .


    I have read history from all the angles as far as I know. Please tell me the angle to read the history so that i can understand your point of view. By the way, you are first person I have ever met who is trying to prove Aurangzeb a safe heaven for Hindus..!
    Last edited by prashantacmet; May 23rd, 2014 at 07:29 PM.
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  20. #13
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    Quote Originally Posted by prashantacmet View Post
    azeeb paagal aadmi hai.....6 crore ki cheez 1.5 lac ki bana di....
    Prashan bhai that's what I wanted to convey that no one except a fool would destroy this kind of masterpiece.
    Just because this was in his possession does not prove his secular credentials specially when his actions speak otherwise.
    BTW this was a made up news
    "No one can make you feel inferior without your consent..."

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  22. #14
    आजकल सभी पश्चिमी देशों और अमेरिका आदि में एक कहावत है कि मुसलमान तब तक secular रहते हैं जब तक वे minority में हैं, एक बार उनका बहुमत होते ही वे कट्टरता पर उतर आते हैं। पुराने समय में यह बात एक आम मुसलमान की बजाय मुसलमान नवाबों और बादशाहों पर ज्यादा फिट बैठती है। आजकल ही देख लो - पड़ौसी पाकिस्तान और बंगलादेश में 1950-1955 के बीच भी हिन्दुओं की अच्छी खासी आबादी थी - आज थोड़े ही बचे हैं। वे या तो कट्टरपंथियों से डरकर अपना घर छोड़ कर भारत में आ गये या उनसे जबरदस्ती इस्लाम कबूल करवा लिया गया। तसलीमा नसरीन और सलमान रुश्दी जैसे लोग जिन्होंने इस्लाम के इस पक्ष को उजागर किया है, कट्टरपंथी उनके सिर पर तलवार लिए बैठे हैं और वे गुमनामी में, सुरक्षा के घेरे में अपना जीवन काट रहे हैं। कम्युनिस्ट इतिहासकार तो औरंगजेब जैसे कट्टर बादशाह को भी secular लिखते हैं। अकबर के बारे में तो यह लिखते हैं कि उसने जोधाबाई से रिश्ता करके हिन्दू-मुस्लिम एकता की मिशाल कायम की!

    दूसरी तरफ महाराजा सूरजमल जैसे हिन्दू राजा वास्तव में secular थे। जहां उन्होंने मुगल सल्तनत को नाकों चने चबवा दिए, आम मुसलमान को तंग नहीं किया। जवाहर सिंह ने भी मथुरा की मस्जिद में नमाज बन्द करवा दी थी और वहां बाजार खुलवा दिया था, पर उसको तुड़वाया नहीं।

    मराठा सेनापति सदाशिव भाऊ ने मथुरा की नबी मस्जिद को देखकर सूरजमल से कहा था - सूरजमल जी, मथुरा इतने दिन से आपके कब्जे में है, फिर इस मस्जिद को आपने कैसे छोड़ दिया ? सूरजमल ने जवाब दिया - अगर मुझे यकीन होता कि मैं सारी उम्र इस इलाके का बादशाह रहूंगा तो शायद मैं इस मस्जिद को गिरवा देता, पर क्या फायदा ? कल मुसलमान आकर हमारे मंदिरों को गिरवायें और वहीं पर मस्जिदें बनवा दें तो आपको अच्छा लगेगा? बाद में फिर भाऊ ने लाल किले के दीवाने-खास की छत को गिरवाने का हुक्म दिया था, यह सोच कर कि इस सोने को बेचकर अपने सैनिकों की तनख्वाह दे दूंगा । इस पर भी सूरजमल ने उसे मना किया, यहां तक कहा कि मेरे से पांच लाख रुपये ले लो, पर इसे मत तोड़ो, आखिर नादिरशाह ने भी इस छत को बख्श दिया था । पर भाऊ नहीं माना - जब छत का सोना तोड़ा गया तो वह मुश्किल से तीन लाख रुपये का निकला !

    वैसे (भारत में) सभी मुसलमान बादशाहों ने एकाध हिन्दू वजीर या सलाहकार को अपने यहां नौकरी दी थी क्योंकि ऐसा करना उनकी मजबूरी थी क्योंकि ज्यादातर जनता हिन्दू थी और मुसलमान गिने-चुने थे। इसका मतलब यह नहीं निकाला जा सकता कि सारे मुसलमान बादशाह secular थे। जो एकाध सचमुच secular या उदार रहे होंगे (जैसे शेरशाह सूरी) उनका नाम इतिहास की किताबों से गायब कर दिया गया है।
    .
    Last edited by dndeswal; May 23rd, 2014 at 08:29 PM.
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  24. #15
    Prashant bhai kahi nahi bikti ye.2012 me bhi list hui thi ye sale ke liye.ab bhi list ho rakhi hai chirti ke site per
    in auction house ko kuch bhi mil jata hai purana india se use raja ya nawaab ki batate hai.one more diamond ring
    in british mueseum is also been said that it was taken from fingre of tipu sultan.tipu sultan was a very big enemy of hindus.
    in no way this ring was taken from his fingre
    Last edited by agodara; May 23rd, 2014 at 08:50 PM.

  25. #16
    Quote Originally Posted by prashantacmet View Post
    so what??.. under biritish rules many hindus, muslims and sikh personalities enjoyed special status and they were beloved of British.. but you are blaming British to separate hindus and muslims because of their divisive politics. why?? britsih were not good?...

    So if there were hindu nobles in aurangzeb court..this does not vindicate his love for Hindus and sikhs. he was a staunch islamist and did massive conversion and persecution of hindus and sikhs ................... By the way, you are first person I have ever met who is trying to prove Aurangzeb a safe heaven for Hindus..!
    Friend,

    I have nowhere mentioned that Aurangzeb was ''a safe heaven for Hindus''.

    In fact Aurangzeb was a power hungry ruler with imperialistic designs and went to extremes first to gain his ascendancy as emperor of India and then went all out to prove that he was better representative of Muslims than Dara who followed the policy of tolerance towards Hindus like Akbar.

    He was the youngest son of Shahjahan, who removed three brothers by treachery or by use of sword to get the crown and for this act he put his father in prison who died there after several years.

    When the Chief Kazi refused to read Khutba in his name so long as his father, the dethroned emperor, was alive he removed him from his post and found another agreeable person to accomplice the act.

    He abolished several non Islamic taxes, traditions and conventions practised at the Imperial court {Durbar} and also banned the public celebrations of the festivals like Nauraz --an Iranian festival started by Akbar in his court, as well as Deepawali and Holi. He was very harsh towards Hindus and re-imposed Jezia on them which had earlier been removed by Akbar. He also banned reconversion of Muhammadans to other religions and also forced the war prisoners either to accept Islam or choose to die. He put a ban on the repair of existing Hindu temples and did not permit construction of new Hindu temples.

    The persecution of all rebel people who challenged his authority followed to maintain his empire. This persecution was not on the basis of religion only but on the policy of maintenance of his empire.

    The Muslim rulers of Bijapur and Golcunda or rebels of NWFP did not escape his royal fury. The same fate befell on the Hindus, Sikhs and others who tried to challenge his royal authority.

    In his personal life he was a devoted Muslim and followed the Quran and Hadish in letter and spirit.

    This was Aurangzeb Alamgir we have read : No discrimination in dealing with the people who challenged his authority as enumerated above. All in all, no rebel escaped his sceptre .

    Thanks
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

  26. #17

    Tipu Sultan

    here is one more link which shows how he was haters of hindus.not by british or muslim but by a french who served in his army
    http://www.francoisgautier.com/tippu...ripaud-hindus/

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  28. #18
    Vijay mallya bought sword of tipu sultan made of wootz steel in 2004 for ú175000.sword was bought from desendents of david baird.
    david baird was awarded this sword for showing bravery in 1779 mysore battle.tnus we have records of sword.but for ring we dont have any reliable records

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  30. #19

    Tipu Sultan

    On the 8th of December 1988, an old trunk was discovered in the attic of the house of Elaine de la Taille Tr´┐Żtinville, who died at age 91 in her 14th district flat in Paris. Eliane was a descendant of the family of Les Ripaud de Montaudevert. Amongst the manyartefacts, an old manuscript was found, handwritten by the most famous of the Montaudeverts: Fran´┐Żois Fid´┐Żle Ripaud de Montaudevert.The manuscript starts with these words in old French ´┐Żmoi Fran´┐Żois Ripaud, ester vieillot, mais je volere raconter le villain Tipoo´┐Ż: ´┐Ż I am old today, but I want to tell you the true story of Tipoo Sultan ´┐Ż´┐ŻBorn in Saffr´┐Ż, in France´┐Żs Britain County, into a middle class family, Ripaud enrolled at the age of 11 as a sailor on the ship Le Palmier. After many adventures, he settled in Mauritius where he marries and has two children. In1797, having heard about ´┐ŻLe Grand Tippu Sultan´┐Ż (the great Tippu Sultan), Ripaud sailed from Mauritius (then called L´┐ŻIsle de France) to Mangalore and requested a meeting with the Sultan, promising him ´┐Ż to raise a large force in Mauritius and put it at Tippu´┐Żs disposal ´┐Ż.Tippu, who had an early connection with the French, as he was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employment of his father, jumped on the idea. And gave Ripaud letters of credentials.Ripaud thus arrived at Ile de France on 19 August 1798, and had a public proclamation asking for volunteers ´┐Żto join an expedition to travel to Mysore to assist Tipoo in his resistance to British encroachment in South India ´┐Ż. It must be noted that two months earlier, Napoleon invaded Egypt and dreamt of establishing a junction with India against the British. Hence the Governor of Mauritius received instructions to collaborate and Ripaudcame back to Mangalore with a shipload of French soldiers, who were welcomed like heroes.Life in the court of Tippu was a dream for our hardy adventurer. But Francois Ripaud begins to have some misgivings about the Sultan:´┐ŻIam disturbed, he writes in his diary on 14th January 1799, about Tipoo´┐Żstreatment of these most gentle souls, the Hindus. During the siege of Mangalore, Tippu´┐Żs soldiers daily exposed the heads of many innocent Brahmins within sight from the fort for Zamorin and his Hindu followers to see´┐Ż.But Ripaud casts his doubts aside, and puts up for Tippu´┐Żs benefit a demonstration of the new egalitarian French political ideals. A French paper was found in Tipu's Palace in 1799, entitled 'Proceedings of a Jacobin Club formed at Seringapatam by the French Soldiers in the Corps commanded by Francois Ripaud. The Paper listed by name 59 Frenchmen in the pay of 'Citizen Tippoo'; it described the gathering of a Primary Assembly on 5th May 1797, to elect a President, Francois Ripaud, and other officers. The 'Rights of Man' were proclaimed, and a small delegation was formally received by Tippu.After this lull, we find another entry in his diary where Francois was even more appalled of what he witnessed in Calicut ´┐ŻMost of the Hindu men and women were hanged in Calicut, first mothers were hanged with their children tied to necks of mothers. That barbarian Tipu Sultan tied the naked Christians and Hindus to the legs of elephants and made the elephants to move around till the bodies of the helpless victims were torn to pieces. Temples and churches were ordered to be burned down, desecrated and destroyed. Christian and Hindu women were forced to marry Mohammadans and similarly their men (after converting Hindu men into Islam) were forced to marry Mohammadan women. Those Christians, who refused to be honoured with Islam, were ordered to be killed by hanging immediately". It is interesting to note that this event was cohobated by the world-famous Portuguese traveller, Father. Barthoelomeo, who wrote about it in his book ´┐ŻVoyage to East Indies´┐ŻThen, there were the atrocities in Kozhikode, also seen by Ripaud, who wrote: "To show his ardent devotion and steadfast faith in Muhammaddan religion, Tipu Sultan found Kozhikode to be the most suitable place. Kozhikode was then a centre of Brahmins and had over 7000 Brahmin families living there. Over 2000 Brahmin families perished as a result of Tipu Sultan"s Islamic cruelties. He did not spare even women and children´┐Ż.Disgusted, Ripaud escaped from Srirangapatnamand went back to France, where he obtained the captainship of a fine fighting ship, the Shapho. But on 23 February 1814, while fighting anEnglish frigate, a cannon ball ripped his whole arm. He died in the evening. Even the British, his archenemies, gave 21 cannon salutes to this courageous adventurer, once, Tippu´┐Żs Great White Hope.Francois Gautier

  31. #20
    Quote Originally Posted by agodara View Post
    On the 8th of December 1988, an old trunk was discovered in the attic of the house of Elaine de la Taille Tr´┐Żtinville, who died at age 91 in her 14th district flat in Paris. Eliane was a descendant of the family of Les Ripaud de Montaudevert. Amongst the manyartefacts, an old manuscript was found, handwritten by the most famous of the Montaudeverts: Fran´┐Żois Fid´┐Żle Ripaud de Montaudevert.The manuscript starts with these words in old French ´┐Żmoi Fran´┐Żois Ripaud, ester vieillot, mais je volere raconter le villain Tipoo´┐Ż: ´┐Ż I am old today, but I want to tell you the true story of Tipoo Sultan ´┐Ż´┐ŻBorn in Saffr´┐Ż, in France´┐Żs Britain County, into a middle class family, Ripaud enrolled at the age of 11 as a sailor on the ship Le Palmier. After many adventures, he settled in Mauritius where he marries and has two children. In1797, having heard about ´┐ŻLe Grand Tippu Sultan´┐Ż (the great Tippu Sultan), Ripaud sailed from Mauritius (then called L´┐ŻIsle de France) to Mangalore and requested a meeting with the Sultan, promising him ´┐Ż to raise a large force in Mauritius and put it at Tippu´┐Żs disposal ´┐Ż.Tippu, who had an early connection with the French, as he was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employment of his father, jumped on the idea. And gave Ripaud letters of credentials.Ripaud thus arrived at Ile de France on 19 August 1798, and had a public proclamation asking for volunteers ´┐Żto join an expedition to travel to Mysore to assist Tipoo in his resistance to British encroachment in South India ´┐Ż. It must be noted that two months earlier, Napoleon invaded Egypt and dreamt of establishing a junction with India against the British. Hence the Governor of Mauritius received instructions to collaborate and Ripaudcame back to Mangalore with a shipload of French soldiers, who were welcomed like heroes.Life in the court of Tippu was a dream for our hardy adventurer. But Francois Ripaud begins to have some misgivings about the Sultan:´┐ŻIam disturbed, he writes in his diary on 14th January 1799, about Tipoo´┐Żstreatment of these most gentle souls, the Hindus. During the siege of Mangalore, Tippu´┐Żs soldiers daily exposed the heads of many innocent Brahmins within sight from the fort for Zamorin and his Hindu followers to see´┐Ż.But Ripaud casts his doubts aside, and puts up for Tippu´┐Żs benefit a demonstration of the new egalitarian French political ideals. A French paper was found in Tipu's Palace in 1799, entitled 'Proceedings of a Jacobin Club formed at Seringapatam by the French Soldiers in the Corps commanded by Francois Ripaud. The Paper listed by name 59 Frenchmen in the pay of 'Citizen Tippoo'; it described the gathering of a Primary Assembly on 5th May 1797, to elect a President, Francois Ripaud, and other officers. The 'Rights of Man' were proclaimed, and a small delegation was formally received by Tippu.After this lull, we find another entry in his diary where Francois was even more appalled of what he witnessed in Calicut ´┐ŻMost of the Hindu men and women were hanged in Calicut, first mothers were hanged with their children tied to necks of mothers. That barbarian Tipu Sultan tied the naked Christians and Hindus to the legs of elephants and made the elephants to move around till the bodies of the helpless victims were torn to pieces. Temples and churches were ordered to be burned down, desecrated and destroyed. Christian and Hindu women were forced to marry Mohammadans and similarly their men (after converting Hindu men into Islam) were forced to marry Mohammadan women. Those Christians, who refused to be honoured with Islam, were ordered to be killed by hanging immediately". It is interesting to note that this event was cohobated by the world-famous Portuguese traveller, Father. Barthoelomeo, who wrote about it in his book ´┐ŻVoyage to East Indies´┐ŻThen, there were the atrocities in Kozhikode, also seen by Ripaud, who wrote: "To show his ardent devotion and steadfast faith in Muhammaddan religion, Tipu Sultan found Kozhikode to be the most suitable place. Kozhikode was then a centre of Brahmins and had over 7000 Brahmin families living there. Over 2000 Brahmin families perished as a result of Tipu Sultan"s Islamic cruelties. He did not spare even women and children´┐Ż.Disgusted, Ripaud escaped from Srirangapatnamand went back to France, where he obtained the captainship of a fine fighting ship, the Shapho. But on 23 February 1814, while fighting anEnglish frigate, a cannon ball ripped his whole arm. He died in the evening. Even the British, his archenemies, gave 21 cannon salutes to this courageous adventurer, once, Tippu´┐Żs Great White Hope.Francois Gautier
    The reports of the Christian missionaries cannot be taken seriously in toto till the facts mentioned in them are not evaluated with the help of other sources.

    For example, after meeting Akbar at Fatehpur-Sikari, a missionary from Portugal had reported in his journal that Akbar is soon going to convert to Christianity. But he never did !
    History is best when created, better when re-constructed and worst when invented.

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