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Thread: Jats as known to Panini

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    Jats as known to Panini

    India as Known to Panini is title of book by Vasudeva Saran Agrawala It is a study of the cultural material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, Published by University of Lucknow, 1953, India, 549 pages.

    Bhim Singh Dahiya writes: V.S. Agarwala in India as known to Panini mentions many Saka tribes who are now found among the Jats. (see Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.72-77)

    We will discuss in this thread about more Jat clans which find mention inPanini's Ashṭādhyāyī.
    Last edited by lrburdak; November 2nd, 2018 at 09:17 AM.
    Laxman Burdak

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    Panini (पाणिनि) was a great Sanskrit grammarian and logician. He was born in Salatura in Gandhara (present day Kandahar) in modern Afghanistan, on the banks of the river Indus. He is also known as Salottariya and is said to be the descendant Panin and grandson of Devala. As his mother’s name was Daksha, he also bears the metronymic Daksheya (दाक्षेय) and Dakshiputra (दाक्षिपुत्र).

    (See V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.8)

    The phonic and semantic significance of Paninian root Jata is qualified as such by succeeding phrase Jata Jhata Sanghate (जट झट संघाते), used to denote the Samgha (संघ) of people.

    Goldstucker reckons he might have been born in 6th century BC.
    Last edited by lrburdak; November 2nd, 2018 at 09:20 AM.
    Laxman Burdak

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    Bhim Singh Dahiya (Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.72)writes:

    Rishikas
    : The Puranic Rishikas of the Sakadvipa are mentioned. He also mentions Arjun conquering the Rishikas across the Vakshu (Oxus) river, "which flowed through the Saka country". The Rishikas were later known as Yue-che whose language was called Arsi (Asioi of the Greeks).
    Last edited by lrburdak; November 3rd, 2018 at 10:53 AM.
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    Bhim Singh Dahiya (Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.72)writes:

    Kantha: Agarwala further mentions a number of towns with names ending with Kantha, (the Central Asian-Kand) and comes to the conclusion that these Saka cities in the heart of Punjab in the fifth century B.C., can be explained only by the fact of their arrival in India in pre-Panini times.201 In the second century B.C. it was a second wave of Sakas which came to India and later on as Kusanas. He has quoted Katyayana to show that Sakandhu and Karkandhu-two kinds of wells of the Sakas may be identified as the stepped well (vāpi) and the Persian wheel named Arghattu well respectively. Thus the Sakas of Central Asia were the originators of the stepped well and the Persian wheel well; just as the Kangs were the originators of the canal system in Central Asia in seventh century B.C. Agarwala has also quoted an authority to show that the name of places/cities, ending with Kand are of Scythian origin. Modern Samarkand, Tashkand, etc. are the examples in Central Asia of such towns.202
    Gathwala: The well known frontier tribe which fought with the Greeks under Alexander called Katha by the Indians and by Panini and Kathoi by the Greeks are the modern Kathia, Gathwala Jats.203


    200. ibid.
    201. India as Known to Panini, pp. 68-69.
    202. See H.W. Bailey, ASLCA, Transactions of Philological Society, 1945, pp.22-23.
    203. op. cit., pp. 1-5.
    Laxman Burdak

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    Vrika: Another important tribe of the Jats mentioned by Panini is Vrika.204 He has identified the Vrikas with the Persian Varkana mentioned in the Behistun inscription of Darius205 and Varka in the plural form, of the expression Saka Hauma Varka. The country of the Vrikas was called Virkania, (Hyrcania by the Greeks) and was situated on the north of Parthia and East of Caspian Sea. The Persians considered them as Sakas (see Persepolis Tomb inscription). Agarwala also states that in Afghanistan area the word is written as Werk or Wurk. As he rightly mentions, the Virks are a section of the Jats in the Punjab who were originally Scythians.206 This name of the Jats is still existing and their mention by Panini takes their antiquity to fifth century B.C., the period of Panini. (See -Bhim Singh Dahiya :Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.73)

    204. ibid., p. 77.
    205. ibid.
    206. ibid., p. 444.
    Last edited by lrburdak; November 4th, 2018 at 08:51 AM.
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    Kundu and Dandha: A couple of Jat tribes are also mentioned in Kasika. While mentioning the six members constituting the Trigarta confederacy, the Kasika identifies two tribes as Kaundoparatha and Dandaki. Their modern descendants are still called by these names and they are the Kundu and Dandha Jats in India. (See -Bhim Singh Dahiya :Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.73)
    Laxman Burdak

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    Parsawal: The Parsvah of Panini are the modern Parsawal Jats. V.S. Agarwala quotes Rig Veda (VIII, 6, 46) to show that they were known at that time also.207 His identification of Paravah with the Persians may well be correct but it only shows the long association of the Parswal Jats with Iran. (See -Bhim Singh Dahiya :Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.73)


    Maharajaki: Yet another tribe of the Jats called Maharajaki are also mentioned by V.S Agarwala. The Maharajki Jats of Moga area, whose coins have also been found in the same area are physically robust and opposed to subordination.208 (See -Bhim Singh Dahiya :Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.73)


    207. Rig Veda, VIII. 6,46.


    208. Punjab Gazetteer, Vol. T, p. 453.
    Laxman Burdak

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    Indianisation of the Sakas:

    It is important to note that deliberate and systematic efforts were made to assimilate the Jats into Brahmanical fold on their arrival in India as conquerors. The famous Vrata Stomas were specifically prescribed for Indianisation of the foreigner Sakas. As mentioned by Agarwala these Stomas were very easy to perform and seem to be a mere formality, so that the foreigners who became overlords of the country may be Hinduised under priestly power. A further process in the same direction was taken by deliberate attempts at Sanskritisation of their clan name. It was under these processes that the Solgis were called Suliks/Saulikas in the Puranas, etc. The clan name Pawar was similarly changed into Parmar but the most important clan which was thus changed was the Sahrawat.

    Sahrawat: The process under which the Persian title "Satrap" was Sanskritised into "Ksatrapa," was applied to Sahrawat also and this important clan of the Jats was written as Ksaharat (क्षहरात). The well known western Satraps of Saurastra, Kathiawar, Gujrat, Ujjain, Mathura, etc. belonged to this clan. The great Satraps, Chaṣṭan and Rudradaman belonged to the Sahrawat clan of the Jats. It is well known to the historians that this clan of the Jats was ruling western central India for about 500 years and it was another Jat clan, namely, Dharan, misnamed as Guptas, who under Chandragupta II, Vikramaditya, incorporated these states under central rule.

    Reference - Bhim Singh Dahiya :Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.73-74)
    Laxman Burdak

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    Kśaharāt : The first letter in both the words Satrap and Saharavat is 'S' and when these words became common in India, both these words were Sanskritised by changing the initial 'S' into 'Ksa' (ar). Therefore the clan name was written as Kśaharāta. But it is a matter of gratification that the Jats have retained almost all their clan names in their original form, and Saharavat is still written and spoken as such. The suffix, wat, is only partly Indianised and it may be original also.


    Gurlawat: We find that another Jat clan is called Gurlet in Central Asia, whereas it is called Gurlawat in India. The Kśaharāt and Sahrawat difference can be explained on this analogy. It is worth noting that E.J. Rapson while mentioning the coins of Satrap Bhumaka, writes both these words with an initial 'Ch' in Kharoshhi script and with an initial 'Ksa' in the Brahmi script.209 A reference to Sten Konow's article will be illuminating. First of all, Konow mentions that the Kusanas were in reality Sakas. While stating this Konow seems to have been dragged into the unnecessary controversy about the difference between the Sakas, Kushanas, Yue-che, etc.210 This controversy is quite futile and needless. There was no difference between



    209. In JRAS, 1904, p. 372.
    210. His article in IHQ. 1938, Vol. XIV, p. 137.

    [Page-75]: these people called by various names. The main point however, that we want to refer to, is the belated and futile attempt by Dr Banerji and Jayaswal to Sanskritise the name of Nahapāṇa into Nahavana or Nakhapana or Nabhahpana. Konow has ably refuted the theories of Dr Banerji and Jayaswal by pointing out that Nahapana is an Iranian word meaning, "people protecting".211 His son-in-law was also named as Usavadata who was son of Dinaka. In the first name the last syllable is 'Data' meaning "Law". And the second name Dinaka is formed from the Persian word "Deena" meaning "religion", from which the modern 'Din' of Din-e-Ilahi of Akbar has been derived. Similarly the name of another Satrap, viz., Chaṣṭan (चष्टान) is also of Iranian origin. It may be related to Pusto word "Chastan" meaning "Master".


    Therefore, we see that the names of the Satraps as well as the title itself, are not of Indian origin, despite the efforts made earlier and now, to Sanskritise the same. It is interesting to note that when the Muslims came to India, they took the title of Sultan. But in the Indian records these Muslim Sultans of Delhi were called Sakas and Turushkas and their title was written as Suratrana or Svararatana. Even the name Mohammad was written as Mahamanda. So this process of Sanskritising the foreign name continued even up to the Mughal period (seethe inscription of 1335 V.S. found at Boher, district Rohtak). 212
    Therefore the Jat clan Sahravat was sought to be Sanskritised perhaps deliberately and with intention. We find that there is no clan name called Kshaharata in any section of the Indian population. Sten Konow'S idea that it may be a title is not correct.213 Sahravat is not a title but a clan name, originally written as Sahrauta. They now hold 24 villages in Gurgaon district, including the town of Hodal.


    211. JRAS, 1906, p. 211.
    212. JASB, Vol. VLIII, pt. I, p. 108 and EI, Vol. XX, p.79.
    213. Op. cit.

    Reference - Bhim Singh Dahiya :Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.74-75)
    Laxman Burdak

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    • The Kangs: The Kang Jats are also a clan of remote antiquity. They are mentioned as early as seventh century B.C. The Chinese mention them as, Kiang-nu. R. Sankrityayana says that the Kangs were branch of Massagetae. 214 He traces the word Massagetae from Massaga which in turn is taken from Mahasaka. In the Ramayana



    214. MAKI, p. 75; also see Bergermann, Les Scythes.

    [Page 76]: the Mahi-Sakas are mentioned with Rishikas.215 Kasika on Panini says: ऋषिकेषु जात आर्षिक:, महिषिकेषु जात: महिषिक (Arshikas are born of Rishikas and Mahi-Sakas are born of Mahishikas). This also establishes the connection of the Massagetae, viz., the great Jats with the Sakas. About the Kangs, R. Sankritayayana says that the founders of the canal system in Central Asia were the ancestors of the Kangs, viz., Massagetae.216 These canals of the Jats in Central Asia are now being excavated by the Russians. The ancient canals are practically intact, only filled with sand of the nearby deserts. Numerous cities of the Kangs are being uncovered. Coins, images, and even inscriptions of the Kang language have been found in Toprak Kala.217



    These findings refute the theories of the barbaric nature and nomadic living habits of the Jats in Central Asia. Cities, languages, coins, images and canals, presuppose a well settled population in seventh century B.C. Of course, as is well known, the Jats had only two professions, viz., war or fighting and agriculture-cum-cattle breeding. That is why they had dug up a huge canal system for irrigation and that is why they had developed the stepped well and the Persian wheel well are mentioned by Agarwala.218 Of course, for grazing the cattle, the people used to cover extensive areas. This habit is still there and we find huge herds of cows, etc., coming to U.P., Haryana and Punjab areas from Jodhpur, Jaisalmer side almost every year during the dry seasons. Therefore, although a large portion of the population was definitely settled in villages and cities, a fairly large section were constantly on the move with their cows and horses and of course, their arms.


    According to MAKI, the canals laboriously constructed by the Messagetae were covered by sand in 5th century A.D. or later. These were constructed prior to Akhamenian Empire or Persia and the Kangs refused to be defeated by Cyrus the Great. These canals are now lying in the womb of the desert of Kizilkun. 219 The same author says that Yue-che were linguistically Sakas. Further, Wusun, Saiwang, Kang and Parthian (Pahlva) are dialects

    215. Kishkindha Kanda, 41.10. अब्रवंतीम् अवंतीम् च सर्वम् एव अनुपश्यत । विदर्भान् ऋष्टिकान् चैव रम्यान् माहिषकान् अपि ॥४-४१-१०॥
    216. op. cit.
    217. ibid., p. 162, and Archaeology in USSR.
    218. op. cit.
    219. MAKI, p. 160.

    [Page-77]: of Saka language.220 That is why the Chinese traveller, Changkian writes that from Fargana to Parthia, the same language was spoken.221 Parthian was in fact a minor Saka tribe and helped by the Kangs and other clans, the Parthians established their empire up to Caspian sea.222 It was during this Parthian Empire that many Sakas from the Yue-che lands were established in Eastern Iran and the area of their settlement was named after them as Sakasthan, modern Siestan. That is why the Sakas and , the Parthians, though bitterly fighting among themselves outside and inside India also, were treating each other as brothers during peace time. After the start of the Christian era, they gave many royal houses to India such as the Sahravat, the Kasvans, the Dharan (Guptas), etc. And it is not only to India that they gave such royal dynasties. At least three dynasties of China were established by these people. As is well known, a number of Chinese ladies were married by these people and for centuries this process was continued. It was due to the mixing of Chinese blood in this manner that these people acquired in the later periods of history some Mongoloid features.

    See - Bhim Singh Dahiya :Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.75-77)
    Laxman Burdak

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    Jata Jhat Sanghate

    jaT(a) [ जट ] — सङ्घाते (Saṅghāte) IAST: Jaṭa Saṅghāte
    See on the site - http://sanskrit.sai.uni-heidelberg.d.../i_jaTa_a.html
    jhaT(a) [ झट ] — सङ्घाते (Saṅghāte) IAST: Jhaṭa Saṅghāte
    http://sanskrit.sai.uni-heidelberg.d...i_jhaTa_a.html



    ||स्वरांकित पाणिनीयधातुपाठः ||

    ||अथ पाणिनीयधातुपाठः||


    अथ भ्वादयः |


    १. १ भू सत्तायाम् | उदात्तः परस्मैभाषः ||
    अथ टवर्गीयान्ताः | Meaning words ending with 't'


    ३४२ जटऽ
    ३४३ झट सङ्घाते


    URL address is - http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_sa/...atha_unic.html

    ||पाणिनीयधातुपाठः सूची स्वरविरहित ||
    ||अथ धातुपाठसूची ||


    जट् | भ्वा० सेट् प० | जट- [सङ्घाते]१. ३४२ ||
    झट् | भ्वा० सेट् प० | झट सङ्घाते १. ३४३ ||


    URL address is - http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_sa/...ndex_unic.html

    Meaning of Jata jhata sanghate is that jata and jhata dhatus are used for sangha
    Laxman Burdak

  17. #12
    sangha and sanghata are entirely two different things in sanskrit. So we can not associate jats with sanghat, which is meant for inanimate objects only.s.s.rana

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