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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.), Jaipur

Chauhan (चौहान)[1] [2] Chuhan (चुहान) Chohan (चोहान) Chhuhan (छुहान)[3] [4] Chauhan (चौहान)/Chavan (चवान)[5] Bud Chauhan (बड़ चौहान) gotra Jats are found in Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh and Pakistan. The Chauhan gotra is found among the Rajputs, Jats and Gujars. They were the main Kshatriyas out of four Agnikula kshtriyas created in mount Abu. They had capital at Ajmer and their rishi was Atreya (आत्रेय).[6] The Harsh Inscription reveals that Chauhans considered themselves as Suryavanshi Khsatriyas in 10th century AD. The Hammir Mahakavya of 1400 AD also writes Chauhans as Suryavanshi Ksatriyas. [7]James Tod places it in the list of Thirty Six Royal Races.[8]

Pulota, Harsh and later Sambhar and Ajmer had become power centres of Chauhans. Due to the importance of Sambhar lake they had been called 'Shakambharishwar'. [9]

The original habitat of the Chauhans

Genealogy of Chauhan rulers Chahaman - Guvaka-II
Genealogy of Chauhan rulers Chandanaraja - Someshwara
Genealogy of Chauhan rulers Prithviraja-II - Ramadeva
Source - Source of this section is mainly "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, pp. 11-13

With regard to the original habitat of the Chauhans we have the following information -

  • (1) Inscriptions as well as old historical chronicles connect them with Jangaladesha and Sapadalaksha. [10]
  • (2) Tradition maintains that they moved northwards and conquered Delhi from the Tomaras, which is a fact corroborated by epigraphic evidence. [11]
  • (3) The description in the Prithvirajavijaya puts Vasudeva's capital a little to the east of Sambhar. Vasudeva is made to start from the western extremity of the lake Sambhar, to have the town of Sambhar on the way, and to proceed from there to his capital, an anonymous city, which may have been in the Ananta district of Sapadalaksha.
  • (4) The Harsha inscription (V. 1030) shows that Ananta province (the tract situated near Sikar in the Jaipur division of Rajasthan) was the Chauhans' old seat of power. It was here that Tantrapala Kshmapala tried to attack Vigraharaja II's grandfather Vakpati, and it was here that the Chauhans had the temple of their family deity, Harshadeva.
  • (5) The Bijolia inscription regards Samanta as an Ananta samanta, which in the light of the description in the inscription can only mean that he was a samanta of the Ananta province. The words of the Bijolia inscription are: "सामन्तोनन्तसामन्त: "

These can be interpreted in two ways,

  • (1) Samanta, a samanta or chief of Ananta.
  • (2) Samanta who had ananta or innumerable samantas.

In view of the statements in the Harsha inscription, we have adopted the first sense, though the second one is not impossible: and the poet might have intended to convey that too in addition to its primary sense. A third interpretation, Samanta who was known as Ananta, suggested by Dr. H.C. Ray, can be regarded as incorrect.

  • (6) The Bijolia inscription mentions also his being originally at Ahichchhatrapura, a name not inappropriate for the capital of Ananta-gochara, i.e., the land of Ananta, the lord of Nagas. For one more indication in the Bijolia inscription see the last two sentences of the chapter.
  • (7) The Prithvirajavijaya, Hammiramahakavya and the Surjanacharita give Pushkar as Chahamana's birth-place.

No part of this evidence will go against us, if we conclude that their cradle-land was in the tract extending approximately from Pushkar in the south to Harsha in the north. It had every right to be called Jangaladesha on account of abounding in pilu, karira and shami trees, the characteristic vegetation of such a tract, [12] and was also included in the territory which, according to the Skanda Purana was known as Sakambhara-Sapadalaksha. The Kumarikhanda of the Skanda Purana which mentions a few other Sapadalaksha, i.e., territorial units supposed to have 1-1/4 lac villages. The Chauhans belonged to the Sakambhara-sapadalaksha which probably is the territorial unit meant by Wasaf who writes that "Siwalik contains 1,25,000 towns and villages." (ED., III, p. 31.) . It has been mentioned as Siwalikh by Minhaj-us-Siraj. [13]

The Harsha inscription regards the region as Chauhans' land; and it was so also according to the Bijolia inscription, if my interpretation of the term, Ananta-Samanta is correct. No Ahichchhatrapura is to be found there at present. Dr. G.H. Ojha and Dewan Bahadur H.B. Sarda, however, think that Ahichchhatrapura still exists in the form of Nagor, a town in the Jodhpur Division. Their chief arguments for identifying the towns are:--

The synonimity, however, is doubtful, because not only Ahichchhatrapura is not an exact equivalent of Nagor or Nagapura, the exact equivalent being Ahipura, but also because Nagapura or Nagor, in spite of being a well-known Jaina tirtha, is never mentioned as Ahichchhatrapura in any Jain work. Even more unsound is the argument from the Prithvirajavijaya. The description there shows that Vasudeva passed the night in the temple of Sakambhari. (See the last verse of Canto IV.) Early in the morning, he started from there for his capital which he reached a little after sunrise. So naturally Vasudeva's capital could not have been at a hard day's ride from Sambhar, at least according to the Prithvirajavijaya. But that it could have existed in this tract alone can be inferred from the fact that Vasudeva, the earliest Chauhan ruler known to us, is connected with the Sambhar lake, and another very early ruler, Nripa or Naradeva, the successor of Samanta of Ahichchhatrapura, is described as reigning at Purnatalla or Puntala in the Jodhhpur Division of Rajasthan. In verses 11 and 12 of the Bijolia inscription, Vishnu in verse 11 equals Vasudeva.

Ahichchhatrapura may have been somewhere between Puntala and Sambhar; at least it could not have been very far from them, for we have no evidence what so ever to put the early Chauhans in any area except that indicated in the beginning of this paragraph.


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[14] ने लेख किया है ... हर्ष के साम्राज्य के छिन्न-भिन्न होने के पश्चात उत्तरी भारत में अनेक छोटी-छोटी रियासतें बन गई और इन्हीं में 12 वीं सदी में पृथ्वीराज चौहान की भी एक रियासत थी जिसकी राजधानी दिल्ली बनी. दिल्ली के जिस भाग में क़ुतुब मीनार है वह अथवा महरौली का निकटवर्ती प्रदेश ही पृथ्वीराज के समय की दिल्ली है. वर्तमान जोगमाया का मंदिर मूल रूप से इन्हीं चौहान नरेश का बनाया हुआ कहा जाता है. एक प्राचीन जनश्रुति के अनुसार चौहानों ने दिल्ली को तोमरों से लिया था जैसा कि 1327 ई. के एक अभिलेख से सूचित होता है--'देशोस्ति हरियाणाख्य: पृथिव्यां स्वर्गसन्निभ:, ढिल्लिकाख्या पुरी यत्र

[p.435]: तोमरैरस्ति निर्मिता। चहमाना नृपास्त्र राज्यं निहितकंटकम्, तोमरान्तरम् चक्रु: प्रजापालनतत्परा:'

यह भी कहा जाता है कि चौथी सदी ईस्वी में अनंगपाल तोमर ने दिल्ली की स्थापना की थी. इन्होंने इंद्रप्रस्थ के किले के खंडहरों पर ही अपना किला बनवाया. इसके पश्चात इसी वंश के सूरजपाल ने सूरजकुंड बनवाया जिसके खंडहर तुगलकाबाद के निकट आज भी वर्तमान हैं. तोमर वंशीय अनंगपाल द्वितीय ने 12 वीं सदी के प्रारंभ में लाल कोट का किला कुतुब के पास बनवाया. तत्पश्चात दिल्ली बीसलदेव चौहान तथा उनके वंशज पृथ्वीराज के हाथों में पहुंची. जनश्रुति के अनुसार क़ुतुब मीनार और कुव्वतुल इस्लाम मस्जिद पृथ्वीराज के इस स्थान पर बने हुए 27 मंदिरों के मसालों से बनवाई गई थी.

कुछ विद्वानों का मत है कि महरौली जहां कुतुब मीनार स्थित है-- पहले एक वृहद वेधशाला के लिए विख्यात थी. 27 मंदिर 27 नक्षत्रों के प्रतीक थे और कुतुब मीनार चांद-तारों आदि की गतिविधि देखने के लिए वेधशाला की मीनार थी. इन सभी इमारतों को कुतुबुद्दीन (r. 1206-1210) तथा परर्वती सुल्तानों ने इस्लामी इमारतों के रूप में बदल दिया. पृथ्वीराज के तराइन के युद्ध में (1192 ई.) मारे जाने पर दिल्ली पर मुहम्मद गोरी (1149 – 1206) का अधिकार हो गया. इस घटना के पश्चात लगभग साढ़े 6सौ वर्षों तक दिल्ली पर मुसलमान बादशाहों का अधिकार रहा और यह नगरी अनेक साम्राज्यो की राजधानी के रूप में बसती और उड़ती रही. मुहम्मद गौरी के पश्चात 1236 ई. में गुलाम वंश की राजधानी दिल्ली में बनी. इसी काल में कुतुब मीनार का निर्माण हुआ. गुलाम वंश के पश्चात अलाउद्दीन (r. 1296 to 1316) ने सीरी में अपनी राजधानी बनाई.

चौहान वंश

डॉ ओमपाल सिंह तुगानिया [15] ने लिखा है....कहीं-कहीं गोत्र और वंश एक ही अर्थ में प्रयोग किए जाते हैं जो अज्ञानता का सूचक है. लाकड़ा गोत्र के गांवों यथा रमाला, किरठल, लूम्ब, तुगाना आदि में विवाह संस्कार के अवसर पर अपना गोत्र चौहान ही बताने लगे हैं जबकि गोत्र लाकड़ा और वंश या कुल चौहान बताना चाहिए.

इसी प्रकार जिला फरीदाबाद में बसे गांव मीतरोल आदि के लोग अपना गोत्र वत्स (बच्छस) बताते हैं जबकि वत्स तो ऋषि गोत्र है यह अभी तक अपने ऋषि गोत्र से काम चला रहे हैं. इनका भी गोत्र लाकड़ा ही है.

चौहान वंश से 116 गोत्रों की उत्पत्ति हुई है.

चौहान सम्राट

संत श्री कान्हाराम[16] ने लिखा है कि.... [पृष्ठ-76]: ईसा की दसवीं सदी में प्रतिहारों के कमजोर पड़ने पर प्राचीन क्षत्रिय नागवंश की चौहान शाखा शक्तिशाली बनकर उभरी। अहिच्छत्रपुर (नागौर) तथा शाकंभरी (सांभर) चौहनों के मुख्य स्थान थे। चौहनों ने 200 वर्ष तक अरबों, तुर्कों, गौरी, गजनवी को भारत में नहीं घुसने दिया।

चौहनों की ददरेवा (चुरू) शाखा के शासक जीवराज चौहान के पुत्र गोगा ने नवीं सदी के अंत में महमूद गजनवी की फौजों के छक्के छुड़ा दिये थे। गोगा का युद्ध कौशल देखकर महमूद गजनवी के मुंह से सहसा निकल पड़ा कि यह तो जाहरपीर (अचानक गायब और प्रकट होने वाला) है। महमूद गजनवी की फौजें समाप्त हुई और उसको उल्टे पैर लौटना पड़ा। दुर्भाग्यवश गोगा का बलिदान हो गया। गोगाजी के बलिदान दिवस भाद्रपद कृष्ण पक्ष की गोगा नवमी को भारत के घर-घर में लोकदेवता गोगाजी की पूजा की जाती है और गाँव-गाँव में मेले भरते हैं।

[पृष्ठ-77]: चौथी पाँचवीं शताब्दी के आस-पास अनंत गौचर (उत्तर पश्चिम राजस्थान, पंजाब, कश्मीर तक) में प्राचीन नागवंशी क्षत्रिय अनंतनाग का शासन था। इसी नागवंशी के वंशज चौहान कहलाए। अहिछत्रपुर (नागौर) इनकी राजधानी थी। आज जहां नागौर का किला है वहाँ इन्हीं नागों द्वारा सर्वप्रथम चौथी सदी में धूलकोट के रूप में दुर्ग का निर्माण किया गया था। इसका नाम रखा नागदुर्ग। नागदुर्ग ही बाद में अपभ्रंश होकर नागौर कहलाया।

551 ई. के आस-पास वासुदेव नाग यहाँ का शासक था। इस वंश का उदीयमान शासक सातवीं शताब्दी में नरदेव हुआ। यह नागवंशी शासक मूलतः शिव भक्त थे। आठवीं शताब्दी में ये चौहान कहलाए। नरदेव के बाद विग्रहराज द्वितीय ने 997 ई. में मुस्लिम आक्रमणकारी सुबुक्तगीन को को धूल चटाई। बाद में दुर्लभराज तृतीय उसके बाद विग्रहराज तृतीय तथा बाद में पृथ्वीराज प्रथम हुये। इन्हीं शासकों को चौहान जत्थे का नेतृत्व मिला। इस समय ये प्रतिहरों के सहायक थे। 738 ई. में इनहोने प्रतिहरों के साथ मिलकर राजस्थान की लड़ाई लड़ी थी।

नागदुर्ग के पुनः नव-निर्माण का श्री गणेश गोविन्दराज या गोविन्ददेव तृतीय के समय (1053 ई. ) अक्षय तृतीय को किया गया। गोविंद देव तृतीय के समय अरबों–तुर्कों द्वारा दखल देने के कारण चौहनों ने अपनी राजधानी अहिछत्रपुर से हटकर शाकंभरी (सांभर) को बनाया। बाद में और भी अधिक सुरक्षित स्थान अजमेर को अजमेर (अजयपाल) ने 1123 ई. में अपनी राजधानी बनाया। यह नगर नाग पहाड़ की पहाड़ियों के बीच बसाया था। एक काफी ऊंची पहाड़ी पर “अजमेर दुर्ग” का निर्माण करवाया था। अब यह दुर्ग “तारागढ़” के नाम से प्रसिद्ध है।

अजमेर से डिवेर के के बीच के पहाड़ी क्षेत्र में प्राचीन मेर जाति का मूल स्थान रहा है। यह मेरवाड़ा कहलाता था। अब यह अजमेर – मेरवाड़ा कहलाता है। अजयपाल ने अपने नाम अजय शब्द के साथ मेर जाति से मेर लेकर अजय+मेर = अजमेर रखा। अजमेर का नाम अजयमेरु से बना होने की बात मनगढ़ंत है। अजयपाल ने मुसलमानों से नागौर पुनः छीन लिया था। बाद में अपने पुत्र अर्नोराज (1133-1153 ई.) को शासन सौंप कर सन्यासी बन गए। अजयपाल बाबा के नाम से आज भी मूर्ति पुष्कर घाटी में स्थापित है। अरनौराज ने पुष्कर को लूटने वाले मुस्लिम आक्रमणकारियों को हराने के उपलक्ष में आना-सागर झील का निर्माण करवाया।

[पृष्ठ-78]: विग्रहराज चतुर्थ (बिसलदेव) (1153-1164 ई) इस वंश का अत्यंत पराक्रमी शासक हुआ। दिल्ली के लौह स्तम्भ पर लेख है कि उन्होने म्लेच्छों को भगाकर भारत भूमि को पुनः आर्यभूमि बनाया था। बीसलदेव ने बीसलपुर झील और सरस्वती कथंभरण संस्कृत पाठशाला का निर्माण करवाया जिसे बाद में मुस्लिम शासकों ने तोड़कर ढाई दिन का झौंपड़ा बना दिया। इनके स्तंभों पर आज भी संस्कृत श्लोक उत्कीर्ण हैं। जगदेव, पृथ्वीराज द्वितीय, सोमेश्वर चौहानों के अगले शासक हुये। सोमेश्वर का पुत्र पृथ्वीराज तृतीय (1176-1192 ई) ही पृथ्वीराज चौहान के नाम से विख्यात हुआ। यह अजमेर के साथ दिल्ली का भी शासक बना।

जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज

ठाकुर देशराज[17] लिखते हैं.... चौहान : यज्ञ कुण्ड से उत्पन्न होने वालों में यह श्रेष्ठ बताये गये हैं। चार भुजा होने कारण चाहुमान नाम रक्खा ऐसा वर्णन किया जाता है। गणतन्त्र के समय तोमरों से ऊपर के हिस्से में हमें चाहु वंश का पता बौद्ध साहित्य से मिलता है जो कि आत्रेय लोगों का एक अंश जान पड़ता है। चौहान अपने ऋषि का नाम आत्रेय बतलाते भी हैं इससे भी वे आत्रेय सिद्ध होते हैं। आत्रेय समूह के चाहु लोग ही चाहमान और चौहान हुए। तोमर-हन्यमान्य, आत्रेय और किरात लोगों के पड़ौस में इनका जनपद था। ईसा की छठी सदी में ये दिल्ली पर काबिज जो चुके थे। निकरवार-वंशावलियों वाले इन्हें लव की सन्तान बताते हैं, इससे ये सूर्यवंश के अनुयायी हैं। पंजाब में बसने के कारण अवश्य ही प्रजातंत्र और ज्ञातिवाद ने इन्हें गणवादी बना दिया होगा। वास्तव में किस जनपद के ये लोग हैं, इतना पता अभी नहीं लग पाया, कारण कि राजनैतिक तथा धार्मिक हेर-फेरों ने अनेक गोत्रों के मूल स्टाक को खोज निकालना कठिन कर दिया है। चम्बल के किनारे इन लोगों का बहुत समय तक राज्य रहा। सीकरी बसाने से इनका यह नाम पड़ गया। वीर-गुर्जर या बड़गुजरों के यह बहुत दिन तक पड़ौसी रहे हैं।

Jat Gotras Namesake

  • Ghat (Jat clan) = Ghatama (घाटम). Ghatama (घाटम) was a feudatory of the Kalachuri prince Vahara mentioned in (L.10) of Kosgain Stone Inscription (No.II) Of Vahara: (Vikrama) Year 1570 (=1513 AD). The stone was originally found in the fort of Kosgain, 4 miles north-east of Chhuri in the Bilaspur District of Chhattisgarh. With verse 9 begins the genealogy of Ghatama (घाटम). In the Châyuhâna (Chauhan) (L.7) family there was a prince named Nirdevala (निर्देवल) (L.7). His son was Bharata (L.8). After him is mentioned Ghâtama who, though it is not expressly stated, was probably his son and successor. Ghâtama (घाटम) (L.9) obtained possession of a heaven-like fortress (evidently Kosanga (कोसंग) , modern Kosgain) and was greatly favoured by the king Vahara. His minister was Goraksha (गोरक्ष) (L.10), who had apparently a son named Vaijala (वैजल) (L.11). Verse 18 states that Ghâtama gave cows, yielding good milk and decked with gold and cloth, together with their calves to the poet Chandrâkara who composed this prasasti by his order. (p.564) [18]

Mention by Pliny

Pliny[19] mentions Arabia....Ampelome57 also, a Milesian colony, the town of Athrida, the Calingii, whose city is called Mariva58, and signifies "the lord of all men;" the towns of Palon and Murannimal, near a river by which it is thought that the Euphrates discharges itself, the nations of the Agrei and the Ammonii, the town of Athenæ, the Caunaravi, a name which signifies "most rich in herds," the Coranitæ, the Œsani, and the Choani59. Here were also formerly the Greek towns of Arethusa, Larisa, and Chalcis, which have been destroyed in various wars.

57 Probably the same place as we find spoken of by Herodotus as Ampe, and at which Darius settled a colony of Miletians after the capture of Miletus, B. C. 494.

58 Hardouin remarks that Mariaba, the name found in former editions, has no such meaning in the modern Arabic.

59 Mentioned by Ovid in the Metamorphoses, B. v. 1. 165, et seq. Sillig, however, reads "Ciani."

Chauhan dominions

See for details Chauhan dominions

James Tod[20] quotes the bard's picture of Chohan dominion :

From 'the seat of government,' (Rajasthan) Macaouti, the oath of allegiance (an) resounded in fifty-two castles. The land of Thatha, Lahore, Multan, Peshawar. The Mahomedan writers confirm the account of Peshawar, for in their earliest recorded invasion, in A.H. 143, the princes of Lahore and Ajmer, said to be of the same family, are the great opponents of Islam, and combated its advance in fields west of the Indus. We know beyond doubt that Ajmer was then the chief seat of Chohan power. the Chohan in his might arose around

[p.409]: conquered even to the hills of Bhadri. The infidels (asuras) fled, and allegiance was proclaimed in Dehli and Kabul, while the country of Nepal he bestowed on the Mallani. Crowned with the blessing of the gods, he returned to Maheshwar.

James Tod[21] writes that The Mallani is (or rather was) one of the Chohan branch and may be the Malli who exposed Alexander at the confluent arms of the Indus. The tribe extinct and was so little known even five centuries ago, that a prince of Bundi, of the Hara tribe, intermarried with a Mallani, the book of genealogical affinities not indicating her being within the prohibited canon. A more skilful bard pointed out the incestuous connection, when divorce and expiation ensued. Vide page 270.


Ram Swarup Joon[22] writes that the Chauhan gotra is found among the Rajputs, Jats and Gujars. They are mentioned in the Jat history because historians have proved that the Chauhan belong to the Takshak dynasty and some Jat gotras do belong to the Chauhan dynasty. According to Colonel Todd's Rajasthan, the ancestor of the Chauhan dynasty was Anhal Raja, who was a Takshak, an old gotra of the Jats.

Ram Sarup Joon[23] quotes Todd, who writes that the Chauhan King Anhal I, who ruled 39 generations before Prithvi Raj was a Takshak.

Bhim Singh Dahiya[24] writes that Vayu Purana mentions a people called Chahuka (चाहुक) for Chauhans. The Sanskrit name Chahmān must have been given at the time of the fire sacrifice. D C Sirkar quotes Puranic authority to say:[25]

कलूताश्च चाहुकाश्चैव ऊर्णा दार्वस्तथैव च।
एते देशा उदीच्यास्तु प्राच्यान् देशान् निबोधत।।

It means that the countries of Kalutas, Chahukas, Urnas and Darvas are considered eastern ancient ones. Becuase they themselves were in the far north-west, and in their countries the north of India becomes east. The Chahukas are the Chauhans. The inscription dated 842 of Chahuvānas ruling in Dholpur[26] speaks of "Chahuvana vara bhupati, Charuvansha", i.e. the goodly race of the eminent 'landlords' Chāhuvāna. [27]

James Tod on Chauhans

James Tod is a pioneer historian on Jats who thoroughly scrutinized the bardic records of Rajasthan and Gujarat and also brought to light over a dozen inscriptions on the Jats. We reproduce the Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races from Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, Publisher: Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press 1920, p. 112-115:

Chahuman or Chauhan.

[p.112]: On this race so much has been said elsewhere,[28] that it would be superfluous to give more than a rapid sketch of them here.

This is the most valiant of the Agnikulas, and it may be asserted not of them only, but of the whole Rajput race. Actions may be recorded of the greater part of each of the Chhattis-kula, which would yield to none in the ample and varied pages of history ; and though the ' Talwar Rathoran ' would be ready to contest the point, impartial decision, with a knowledge of their respective merits, must assign to the Chauhan the van in the long career of arms.

Its branches (sakha) have maintained all the vigour of the original stem ; and the Haras, the Khichis, the Deoras, the Sonigiras, and others of the twenty-four, have their names immortalised in the song of the bard.

The derivation of Chauhan is coeval with his fabulous birth : 'the four-handed warrior' (Chatur-bhuja Chatur-bahu Vira). All failed when sent against the demons, but the Chauhan, the last creation of the Brahmans to fight their battles against infidelity.

A short extract may be acceptable from the original respecting the birth of the Chauhan, to guard the rites of our Indian Jove on this Olympus, the sacred Abu : " the Guru of mountains, like Sumer or Kailas, which Achaleswara made his abode. Fast but one day on its summit, and your sins will be forgiven ; reside there for a year, and you may become the preceptor of mankind."

The Agnikunda Fire-pit. — Notwithstanding the sanctity of Abu, and the little temptation to disturb the anchorites of Bal, " the Munis, who passed their time in devotion, whom desire never approached, who drew support from the cow, from roots, fruits, and flowers," yet did the Daityas, envying their felicity, render the sacrifice impure, and stop in transit the share of the gods. " The Brahmans dug' the pit for burnt-sacrifice to the

[p.113]: south-west (nairrit) ; but the demons1 raised storms which darkened the air and filled it with clouds of sand, showering ordure, blood, bones and flesh, with every impurity, on their rites. Their penance was of no avail."

Again they kindled the sacred fire ; and the priests, assembling round the Agnikunda,2 prayed for aid to Mahadeo [95]. " From the fire-fountain a figure issued forth, but he had not a warrior's mien. The Brahmans placed him as guardian of the gate, and thence his name, Prithivi-dwara.3 A second issued forth, and being formed in the palm (challu) of the hand was named Chalukya. A third appeared and was named Pramara.4 He had the blessing of the Rishis, and with the others went against the demons, but they did not prevail. Again Vasishtha,5 seated on the lotus, prepared incantations ; again he called the gods to aid : and, as he poured forth the libation, a figure arose, lofty in stature, of elevated front, hair like jet, eyes rolling, breast expanded, fierce, terrific, clad in armour, quiver filled, a bow in one hand and a brand in the other, quadriform (Chaturanga),6 whence his name, Chauhan.

" Vasishtha prayed that his hope7 might be at length fulfilled, as the Chauhan was despatched against the demons. Sakti-devi8 on her lion, armed with the trident, descended, and bestowed her blessing on the Chauhan, and as Asapurna, or Kalika, promised always to hear his prayer. He went against the demons ; their leaders he slew. The rest fled, nor halted till they reached the depths of hell. Anhal slew the demons. The Brahmans were made happy ; and of his race was Prithwiraja."9

1 Asura-Daitya, which Titans were either the aboriginal Bhils or the Scythic hordes.
2 I have visited this classic spot in Hindu mythology. An image of Adipal (the ' first-created '), in marble, still adorns its embankment, and is a piece of very fine sculpture. It was too sacred a relic to remove.
3 ' Portal or door (dwar) of the earth ' ; contracted to Prithihara and Parihara.
4 ' The first striker.'
5 [In the Hara version of the legend the presiding priest is Visvamitra.]
6 Chatur ; anga, ' body' ( chaturbahu).
7 Asa, ' hope,' purna, to ' fulfil ' ; whence the tutelary goddess of the Chauhan race, Asapurna.
8 The goddess of energy (Sakti).
9 Cunningham points out that in the original story only the Chauhan was created from the fire-pit, the reference to other clans being a later addition (ASR, ii. 255).]

[p.114]: The genealogical tree of the Chauhans exhibits thirty-nine princes, from Anhal, the first created Chauhan, to Prithwiraja, the last of the Hindu emperors of India.1 But whether the chain is entire we cannot say. The inference is decidedly against its being so ; for this creation or regeneration is assigned to an age centuries anterior to Vikramaditya : and we may safely state these converts to be of the Takshak race, invaders of India at a very early period.

Ajaipal is a name celebrated in the Chauhan chronicles, as the founder of the fortress of Ajmer, one of the earliest establishments of Chauhan power.2

Sambhar,3 on the banks of the extensive salt lake of the same name, was probably anterior to Ajmer, and yielded an epithet to the princes of this race, who [96] were styled Sambhari Rao. These continued to be the most important places of Chauhan power, until the translation of Prithwiraja to the imperial throne of Delhi threw a parting halo of splendour over the last of its independent kings. There were several princes whose actions emblazon the history of the Chauhans. Of these was Manika Rae, who first opposed the progress of the Muhammadan arms. Even the history of the conquerors records that the most obstinate opposition which the arms of Mahmud of Ghazni encountered was from the prince of Ajmer,4 who forced him to retreat, foiled and disgraced, from this celebrated stronghold, in his destructive route to Saurashtra.

The attack on Manika Rae appears to have been by Kasim, the general of Walid, on the close of the first century of the Hegira.5 The second attack was at the end of the fourth century. A third was (luring the reign of Bisaladeva, who headed a grand con-

1 Born in S. 1215, or A.D. 1159. Anhala or Agnipala is here the head of the Chauhan line ; but a different list appears in the Hammira Maha-kavya of Nayachhandra Suri (I A, viii. 55 ff.).]
2 Ajmer is commonly said to have been founded by Raja Aja, A.D. 145. It was founded by Ajayadeva Chauhan about a.d. 1100 (IA, xxv. 162 f.).]
3 A name derived from the goddess Sakambhari, the tutelary divinity of the tribes, whose statue is in the middle of the lake.
4 Dharma Dhiraj, father of Bisaladeva, must have been the defender on this occasion.
5 Muhammad bin Kasim seems to have marched along the Indus valley, not in the direction of Ajmer (Malik Muhammad Din, Bahawalpur Gazetteer, i. 28).]

[p. 115]:

federacy of the Rajput princes against the foes of their religion. The celebrated Udayaditya Pramar is enumerated amongst the chiefs acting in subserviency to the Chauhan prince on this occasion, and as his death has been fixed by unerring records in A.D. 1096, this combination must have been against the Islamite king Maudud, the fourth from Mahmud ; and to this victory is the allusion in the inscription on the ancient pillar of Delhi.1 But these irruptions continued to the captivity and death of the last of the Chauhans, whose reign exhibits a splendid picture of feudal manners.

The Chauhans sent forth twenty-four branches, of whom the most celebrated are the existing families of Bundi and Kotah, in the division termed Haravati. They have well maintained the Chauhan reputation for valour. Six princely brothers shed their blood in one field, in the support of the aged Shah Jahan against his rebellious son Aurangzeb, and of the six but one survived his wounds.

The Khichis2 of Gagraun and Raghugarh, the Deoras of Sirohi, the Sonigiras of Jalor, the Chauhans of Sui Bah and Sanchor, and the Pawechas of Pawagarh, have all immortalized themselves by the most heroic and devoted deeds. Most of these families yet exist, brave as in the days of Prithwiraja.

Many chiefs of the Chauhan race abandoned their faith to preserve their lands, the Kaimkhani,3 the Sarwanis, the Lowanis, the Kararwanis, and the Bedwanas [97], chiefly residing in Shaikhavati, are the most conspicuous. No less than twelve petty princes thus deserted their faith : which, however, is not contrary to the Rajput creed ; for even Manu says, they may part with wife to preserve their land. Isaridas, nephew of Prithwiraja, was the first who set this example.

Twenty-four Sakha of the Chauhans. — Chauhan, Hara, Khichi, Sonigira, Deora, Pabia, Sanchora, Goelwal, Bhadauria, Nirwan, Malani, Purbia, Sura, Madrecha, Sankrecha, Bhurecha, Balecha, Tasera, Chachera, Roj, Chanda, Nikumbha, Bhawar, and Bankat.4

1 [This is doubtful. Maudud seems to have not come further south than Sialkot (Al Badaoni, Muntakhabu-t-tawarikh, i. 49 ; Elliot-Dowson ii. 273, iv. 139 f., 199 f., v. 160 f.)-]
2 [The author has barely noticed the Khichis ; for an account of them see ASR, ii. 249 ff.]
3 About Fatehpur Jhunjhunu.
4 [For a different list see Rajputana Census Report, 1911, i. 55.]

Chahamanas Dynasty

Main article: Chahamanas Dynasty

There were many branches of the Chahamanas. The first of these braches lived in the kingdom of Mahishmati situated at the bank of river Narmada. In the tenth century A.D. when Pratiharas became weak the Chahamanas established its kingdom in Sambhar area. The Harsh Inscription of s.v.1030 (973) tells us that they were rulers of the area. Shakambhari was their capital, and hence this dynasty was actually called Chahamanas dynasty of Sakambhari. The early branch of Chauhans ruled in Lat Pradesh and second branch was in Shakambhari.

The chronology of Harshanath Inscription of Chauhan rulers is supported by their Bijolia Inscription of v.s. 1226 (1169 AD). As per record of Bards the place of origin of Chauhans is Mahishmati on the banks of Narmada River.Ahichhatrapur and Shakambhari were their first and second capitals.Their state was known as Sapadalaksha which included one lakh villages. As per Ojha Sapadalaksha was the name of Nagaur. Shakambhari was the ancient name of Sambhar.[29]

Till the middle of 8th century Chauhans were the rulers of Sambhar. Guvaka I was probably the first independent ruler. Chauhans were Shaivas and Harshadeva was their kuladevata.[30] In other inscriptions of Chauhans we get information about a place named Purnatallakapura (पूर्णतल्लकपुर), a very well developed and rich city. Shakambhari inscription of s.v. 1155 which mentions terms like 'पूर्णतल्लकपुर: प्रथित: पृथ्वीव्याम्' & 'वेश्मजालै:'. It appears that Purnatallakapura, which has been identified with village Pulota or Pundlota near Degana, has been the capital of Chauhans. Probably the line of rulers starting from Vasudeva to the predecessor of Guvaka were rulers here in Pulota. Later when their state expanded Chauhans made Harsh as their capital or sub capital and Guvaka was the first ruler of Harsha. This is probably the reason for Harshanath inscription starts Chauhan line of rulers from Guvaka. [31]

Chauhan religion

See Main article: Chauhan religion

Of religions, the chief ones now represented in Rajasthan are Jainism and various systems of orthodox Hinduism; and this seems to have been the case in our Chauhan period also. But the sect that found the greatest acceptance throughout the Chauhan dominions was Shaivism in some form or other.

Samantas of Chauhans

See in detail at Samantas of Chauhans

Chauhan Administration

Main article: Chauhan Administration

Sub divisions of Chauhan

Bhim Singh Dahiya[32] provides us list of Jat clans who were supporters of the Chauhan when they gained political ascendancy. The following clans supported the ascendant clan Chauhan and become part of a political confederacy: Bedwal, Bhakar, Bhana, Bhanniwal, Bhariwas, Bhattu, Bohla, Chahal, Chotia, Dohan, Ghel, Goyat, Hela, Hoda, Jaglan, Janawar, Khonga, Lakhlan, Lakda, Legha, Lobhawat, Lohach, Lohan, Lomadh. Luni, Mahil, Mahlu, Mehran, Mor, Nahra, Pankhal, Rammpuria, Rao, Raparia, Rar, Roj, Samin, Sawanch, Sedhu, Sheoran, Sinhmar, Sohu, Somaddhar, Wiha, [33]

Common gotras with Jats

Ompal Singh Tugania : Chahuan Vanshi Lakra Jaton Ka Itihas (Chapter 32) has provided some common Jat gotras arising out of Chahmans or Chauhans. The following list includes such Gotras from Dr Tugania's book and also other sources:

Achra, Ahlan, Anjane, Bachaya, Bachda, Bachra, Badhak, Badwal, Bairad, Balecha, Bedwal, Behede, Beherewal, Beniwal, Betlan, Bhadauria, Bhadwar, Bhakar, Bhana, Bharne, Bharwar, Bhariwas, Bhattu, Bhikara, Bhukar, Biloda, Bola, Brahyan, Budhwar, Burdak, Chahal, Chawra, Chhikara, Chopda, Chophe, Chopra, Chotia, Dabas, Dahana, Dahiya, Dalal, Dhayal, Deora, Deshwal, Dhaka, Dhandhi, Dhaneria, Dhaya, Dhull, Dohan, Doon, Duhoon, Gahal, Garbarya, Gathwal, Geela, Ghant, Ghayal, Ghel, Girawadia, Godhaay, Godhi, Gohala, Gohar, Goriya, Gothwal, Goyat, Hela, Hoda, Hooda, Jaglan, Janawar, Jasrana, Jhotda, Jhotra, Judana, Jujada, Khanna, Khapra, Kharat, Khetlan, Khichi, Khonga, Khugga, Kundu, Lahawat, Lakdam, Lakhlan, Lakra, Legha, Lobhawat, Loch, Lohaan, Lohach, Lohan, Lohiya, Lomadh, Loodi, Loori, Ludhan, Luhach, Lulah, Luni, Maan, Mahal, Mahil, Mahlu, Makar, Mehran, Mela, Meran, Mor, Nabiya, Nahra, Nahowar, Naira, Narwal, Narwari, Nimma, Nimriya, Noora, Nyol, Ohlan, Padhyan, Panghal, Pankhal, Phogat, Pilania, Rai, Raibidar, Rammpuria, Rao, Rapar, Rapria, Rar, Ratha, Rau, Roda, Roj, Sahu, Sambharwal, Samin, Sangriya, Sangwan, Sar, Saunkhda, Sawanch, Sayad, Sayanh, Sedhu, Sheoran, Shivah, Sihag, Sihibagh, Sindhad, Sinhmar, Somaddhar, Sohu, Soori, Suhag, Suriya, Talwar, Thakran, Thalor, Tharra, Tikara, Totiyan, Veerpal, Velawat, Venipal, Wiha,

According to H.A. Rose[34] Jat clans derived from Chauhan are: Bedwal, Bhakar, Bhana, Bhanniwal, Bhariwas, Bhattu, Bohla, Chahal, Chotia, Dohan, Ghel, Goyat, Hela, Hoda, Jaglan, Janawa, Khonga, Lakhlan, Legha, Lobhawat, Lohach, Lohan, Lomadh, Luni, Mahil, Mahlu, Mehran, Mor, Nahra, Pankhal, Rampuria, Rao, Raparia, Rar, Roj, Samin, Sawanch, Sedhu, Sheoran, Sinhmar, Sohu, Somaddhar, Wiha,

Distribution of Chauhan clan &sub clan in india

Sub Clan of Chauhan Jat

Hindu jats of Lakra chauhan Jaglan chauhan, Bhayan chauhan, Khunga Chauhan and Nauhwar chauhan do not intermarry.

sub clan 1.Lakra chauhan, 2.Bud Chauhan, 3.Jaglan chauhan, 4.Bhayan chauhan, 5.Khunga Chauhan, 6.Nauhwar chauhan

Chauhan Khap

Chauhan khap has 5 villages in Uttar Pradesh in Baghpat district. Jat gotra is Lakda. Ramala (रमाला) is head village. The 5 villages constituting this khap are : Ramala (रमाला), Kirthal (किरठल), Lumba (लुम्बा), Tugana (तुगाना) and Asara (असारा). [35]

चौहान खाप

18. चौहान खाप - उत्तर प्रदेश के जनपद बागपत में चौहान वंशी लाकड़ा गोत्र के जाटों के 5 गांव रमाला, किरठल, लूम्ब, तुगाना और असारा बसे हुए हैं. यहां के लोग अपने को चौहान लिखते हैं और इन 5 गांवों की यह चौहान खाप है. इस खाप का मुख्यालय रमाला गांव में है. इस खाप के गांव तुगाना की बड़ी चौपाल से भूतपूर्व प्रधानमंत्री चौधरी चरण सिंह को स्वतंत्रता संग्राम के दौरान पहली बार हथकड़ी लगी थी. इसी खाप पर गांव किरठल में उत्तरी भारत का प्रसिद्ध गुरुकुल है. यह खाप पृथ्वीराज चौहान की वंशज है. असारा गांव अब मूले जाटों की श्रेणी में आता है. राधेश्याम चौहान (जाट गरिमा पत्रिका के प्रकाशक), अपूर्व कुमार आईएएस किरठल के हैं तथा लेखक भी इसी खाप से संबंध रखते हैं.[36]

Distribution in Punjab

Villages in Hoshiarpur district

Budhi Pind,Nangal Khunga, Garhi Ramba,Gahot , Harsi Pind,Lodhi Chak, Dhugga Kalan , Chattowal,Jhaji Pind,Urmar Tanda,Ambala (Jattan),Jhawan,Nagla Bihala,Nikku Chak,Hajipur

Villages in Patiala district

Manakpur Rajpura,Gurditpur Jasso Mazara,

Village Ludhiana distrit


Villages in Jalandhar district

Sarhal Mandi

Village in Sangrur district

Balran, Dehla, Gulahri, Moonak,

Village in Amritsar District


Village in Mansa district


Village in Barnala distrcit

Chauhan Ke Kalan,

Distribution in Delhi

Distribution in Haryana

Jaglan chauhan sub clan of chauhans are found in Distt Bhiwani, Panipat, Jind ,Kaithal and Hisar districts in Haryana.

Villages in Bhiwani district

Khunga Chauhan lives in


Villages in Panipat district

Jaglan chauhan sub clan of chauhan lives in :-

Naultha, Jondhan Kalan, Karad, Israna, Brahman Majra (also known as Baman Majra), Kurana, Pardhana,

Villages in Gurgaon district

Bud Chauhan sub clan of Chauhan lives in :-


Villages in Kaithal district

Jaglan chauhan sub clan of chauhan lives Rehra/Rohera, Ballu, Patti Afgan, Raheriawala

Villages in Jind district

Jaglan chauhan sub clan of chauhan lives Intal Kalan (इंतल कलां), Jalalpur Kalan, Ponkar Kheri, Rajana Khurd,

Villages in Hisar district

Jaglan chauhan sub clan of chauhan lives Data, Jmilakpur-1, Juglan, Kharkari,

Bhayan chauhan sub clan lives in Banbhori, Bhada Khera (बाड़ा), Bachpari (बछपड़ी), Jewra (जेवरा), Sarsod (सरसौद),

Villages in Palwal district

Nauhwar Chauhan/ Chauhans Live in villages: Atohan, Aurangabad, Chhajjunagar, Jatoli Hodal, Khedi Kalan, Mitraul, Bhiduki, Srinagar, Panhera Kalan

Villages in Rohtak district

Lakra chauhan lives in

Baland, Mor Khedi,

Villages in Sonipat district

Lakra chauhan lives in Badwasni, Sandhal,

Villages in Karnal district

Jaglan sub clan of chauhan lives Nilokheri,

Distribution in Rajasthan

Locations in Jaipur city

22 Godam, Airport Colony, Bajrang Vihar, Sethi Colony,

Villages in Churu district

Dadrewa, Rajgarh Churu

Villages in Ganganagar district


Villages in Sawai Madhopur district

Gangapur City,

Distribution in Uttar Pradesh

Nohwar chauhan Khap has 8 villages in Agra district and 124 villages in Mathura and two village Dhindar & Sherpura Ghaziabad in Ghaziabad district.

Main villages of the khap are: Mathura district - Nauhjheel (नौहझील), Bajna Mathura (बाजना), Edalgarhi (एदल गढ़ी), Kateliya (कटेलिया). Bulandshahr district village - Bhatta Parsaul (भट्टा पार्सौल) is in this khap. Adjoining them in Mathura district are Nohwars, who have 100 villages.

Villaage in Meerut district

Mamepur, Sujatpur,

Villages in Muzaffarnagar district

Villages in Shamli district


Villages in Bagpat district

There are 05 villages of Chauhan Jats in Bagpat district. These are:

Ramala, Kirthal, Lumba, Tugana and Asara (Mula Jats).

Villages in Ghaziabad district


Villages in Saharanpur district


Villages in Mathura district


Villages in Bijnor district

Raiapur Lakra,

Villages in Amroha district

Tanda Amarpur,

Villages in Shamli district


Villages in Bulandshahr district

Shahpur Kala,

Distribution in Madhya Pradesh

Villages in Ratlam district

Villages in Ratlam with population of this gotra are:

Ratlam 1,

Distribution in Pakistan

Chohan/Chauhan is a unique Jat and Rajput clan that originated from the ancient Chauhan Jats (Takshak & Vats gotra) of North India. Chauhan Jats are descendents of ancient time but jat chauhan become rajput after nount abu yagy.

According to 1911 census it was the principal Muslim Jat clan in following districts:

  • Lahore District - Chauhan (393)
  • Montgomery District (Sahiwal District) - Chauhan (517)
  • Gujrat District - Chauhan 726,
  • Lyalpur District (Faisalabad District) - Chauhan (629)
  • Multan District - Chavan (775),
  • Dera Ghazi Khan District - Chauhan (1,026)
  • Bahawalpur State - Chauhan (567)

Notable persons

  • P. M. Chouhan - Addl. Dir. ( Retd. ) Agriculture, Date of Birth : 30-January-1949, Home District : Bharatpur, Present Address : 1212/A-2, Barakat Nagar, Tonk Phatak, Jaipur, Raj. Mob: 9799496122
  • Dr Rohan Singh Chauhan -(Doctor) from Ramala village. रोहन सिंह रमाला गाँव के चौ. ब्रह्मपाल सिंह (गाँव के बड़े जमींदार मे से एक) के पोते है व नीरज सिंह चौहान के बेटे है। वे गाँव के जीवन -बुद्ध पट्टी मे निवास करते हैं। रोहन ने जे पी अकादमी,मेरठ से इंटर करने के बाद लाला लाजपत राय मेडिकल कॉलेज से एम बी बी एस की डिग्री हासिल की। चौधरी साहब भारतीय जाट क्षत्रिय महासभा के भी सदस्य हैं।अभी वर्तमान में अंतरराष्ट्रीय जाट खाप संस्था के जिला अध्यक्ष भी हैं।
  • Nafesingh Chauhan - From Ramala village, Became Sub-Inspector In Delhi Police in 1997. Presently, He is Inspector in Delhi Police. चौधरी नफेसिंह चौहान अब दिल्ली पुलिस मे निरीक्षक के पद पर है। नफेसिंह लाकडा, चौहान खाप के चौधरी स्व जगबीर सिंह के पुत्र है और चौधरी स्व बारु प्रधान जी के भतीजे है। इनके बडे भाई चौधरी संसार सिंह सहारनपुर जिले मे पटवारी है।
  • Birender Singh Chauhan- From Ramala Village, Became Sub-Inspector in Delhi Police. Currently, He is Inspector in Delhi Police. चौधरी बीरेंदर सिंह चौहान अब दिल्ली पुलिस मे निरीक्षक के पद पर तैनात है।
  • Mr. Vinay Kumar Chauhan - Retd. AGM NSC Agriculture, EG-21, 2nd Floor, Inderpuri, New Delhi-110012 Ph: 011-25835120, 9899660577, (PP-106)
  • Mr. Babu Ram Chauhan - Area Manager NFL, 9/79-A, Sec 3, Rajinder Nagar, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad, UP. (PP-851)
  • Bhagirath Chauhan - IAS-2014, Rank-770. [38]
  • Mahender Chauhan - 2019 Faridabad Lok Sabha MP candidate INLD

See also

External links


  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. च-38
  2. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.300
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. छ-14
  4. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.300
  5. B S Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.237, s.n.36
  6. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p.242
  7. रतन लाल मिश्र:शेखावाटी का नवीन इतिहास, मंडावा, १९९८, पृ.38
  8. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races, pp. 112-115
  9. रतन लाल मिश्र:शेखावाटी का नवीन इतिहास, मंडावा, १९९८, पृ.38
  10. See Indian Antiquary , 1912, p. 196; ASR, VI, Plat e. XXI
  11. See JPASB. XLIII, p. 108 and my paper on the Tomaras of Delhi in the Rajasthan Bharati, III, parts 3-4. Prithvirajaraso also speaks of the Chauhans having reached Delhi from Ajmer.
  12. आकाशशुभ्र उच्चश्च स्वल्पपानीयपादप: | शमीकरीर बिल्वार्कपीलूकर्कन्धुसंकुल: ||हरिणैणर्ष्यपृषदगोकर्णखरसंकुल : |सुस्वादुफलवान् देशो वातल: जांगल: स्मृत: || (Shabdarthachintamani p.991
  13. Read for instance the following :-
    • (a) "Again, he (Muhammad Bahlim) rebelled, and founded the fortress of Naghawr, in the territory of Siwalikh" (p. 110).
    • (b) "This Taj-ud-din was in the service of Malik Karim-ud-din hamzah at Naghawr of Siwalikh." (p. 200).
    • (c) "The seat of territory, Ajmir, with the whole of the Siwalikh (territory), such as Hansi, Sirsuti; and other tracts were subjugated." (pp. 468-469) .
    • (d) A year subsequent to this. in 624 A.D., he marched against the fort of Mandawar within the limits of the Siwalik territory (p. 11). Raverty's translation of the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri.
  14. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.434-435
  15. Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu/Gotra, p.6
  16. Sant Kanha Ram: Shri Veer Tejaji Ka Itihas Evam Jiwan Charitra (Shodh Granth), Published by Veer Tejaji Shodh Sansthan Sursura, Ajmer, 2015. pp.76-78
  17. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter V, p. 147)
  18. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p.563-568
  19. Natural History by Pliny Book VI/Chapter 32
  20. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Haravati,p. 408-409
  21. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Haravati,p. 409 fn-1
  22. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V,p. 77
  23. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/ChapterVIII,p. 136
  24. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 249
  25. Studies in Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1963
  26. Epigraphic Indica, V, No. 12, JGOS, XI, 39
  27. Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1905, p. 21
  28. See Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. i. p. 133, ' 'Comments on a Sanskrit Inscription.
  29. रतन लाल मिश्र:शेखावाटी का नवीन इतिहास, मंडावा, १९९८, पृ.36
  30. श्री हर्ष: कुलदेवोस्या तस्मादिव्यकुलक्रम:
  31. रतन लाल मिश्र:शेखावाटी का नवीन इतिहास, मंडावा, १९९८, पृ.37
  32. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Appendices/Appendix I,p.316-17
  33. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/J,p.375-76
  34. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/J,p.375-376
  35. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania, Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p. 15
  36. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania, Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p. 15
  37. History and study of the Jats. B.S Dhillon. p.126
  38. 'Jat Privesh', July 2015,p. 18

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