A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/C

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A glossary of the Punjab Tribes and Castes

Tribes and Castes starting with - C


Note. — Owing to the confusion between Ch and Chh— which is not confined to writings in English— and that between J and Ch, which is frequent in Urdu writing, the articles under this letter are not all warranted to be correctly placed.


  • Chabeldas (चबेलदास)(i), -panthi ; a potty sect, founded by an Arora disciple of Shāmji, named Chabeldas, whose shrine is at Makhowal Kalan in the Sanghar talisil of Dera Ghazi Khan. Its tenets differ little from those of Shamji's followers. See Shamdasi.
  • Chachar (चाचड़), an agricultural clan, found in Shahpur and Multan, classed as Jats in the latter District. In Bahawalpur the Chachars claim Mughal origin and they produce tables tracing their descent from Timur whom they connect with Abbās, cousin of Husain, son of Ali. But tradition says that the Surar, Subhago, Silro and Chāchaṛ tribes were once slaves of Raja Bungā Rai, Raja of Amrkot, and that Jam Jhakhar redeemed them, and there is a saying :
Surāṛ, Subhāgo, Sīlṛo, cliauthi Chāchaṛiā,
Anda hā Jām Jhakhaṛe hā bāhnān Bunga Ra.
Meaning-"Surar, Subhago (or Subhaga), Silro (or Silra), (these three) and a fourth tribe, the Chachar were the slaves of Bunga Rai ; it was Jam Jhakhar who brought them," (effecting their emancipation from Bunga Rai).
The Chachars have several septs : — Raj-de, the highest in status ; Rahmani, whose ancestors were khalifas of Ghaus Baha-ud-Din Zakariya : hence they are also called Shaikh-Rahmani, and some sanctity still attaches to the sept ; Narang, Jugana, Jhunjha, Chhutta, Gureja, Rukana, Kalra, Mudda, Duwani, Dohija, Gabrani, Muria, Kharyani and Zakriani or followers of Ghaus Baha-ud-Din Zakariya.
The whole tribe, however, are followers of that saint and never become disciples of any but his descendants. Chachar is also an Arain clan in the Punjab. Cf. Chachhar.
  • Chahal (चाहल), or more correctly Chahil (चाहिल).— One of the largest Jat tribes in the Punjab. They are found in greatest numbers in Patiala, but are very numerous in Ambala and Ludhiana, Amritsar, and Gurdaspur, and extend all along under the hills as far west as Gujranwala and Sialkot. It is said that Raja Agarsen Surajbansi had four sons, Chahil, Chhina, Chima, and Sahi, and that the four Jat tribes who bear these names are sprung from them : (yet they intermarry). Their original home was Malwa, whence they migrated to the Punjab. According to another story their ancestor was a Tunwar Rajput called Raja Rikh, who came from the Deccan and settled at Kahlur. His son Birsi married a Jat woman, settled at Matti in the Malwa about the time of Akbar, and founded the tribe.
In Amritsar the Chahil say that Chahal was a son of Raja Khang, who once saw some fairies bathing in a tank. He seized their clothes and only restored them on condition that one of them became his bride. One Ichhran was given him, on condition that he never abused her, and she bore him a son, but one day he spoke harshly to her and she disappeared.* But to this day no Chahil ever abuses his daughter ! Settled first at Kot Gadana near Delhi, the Chahil migrated to Pakhi Chahilan near Ambala and there founded Rala Joga or Jogarla in the Malwa.
The Chahil affect Jogi Pir, originally Joga, son of Rajpal, who is said to have been killed, after fighting with the Mughals even when he had been decapitated. Jogi Pir is their chhara {?jathera), and a fair is held in his honour on the 4th nauratra in Asauj. In Jind the Chahil claim descent from Bala, a Chauhan Rajput who took a Jat wife, and so lost caste, but he acquired influence by accepting offerings made to Guga, and Chahils, whatsoever their caste, still take these offerings.! In Jind the Chahil worship Khera Bhumia.
They are probably, says Mr. Pagan, Bagris, originally settled in Bikaner.
  • Chahng (चाहंग), Chang (चांग), a minor agricultural caste, found in the western portion of the lower ranges of Kangra and Hoshiarpur. In the Dasuya tahsil of the latter district they own some villages, but are generally tenants. The term appears to be a purely local synonym of Bahti or Ghirth. The Chang is quiet and inoffensive, diligent and a good cultivator, like the Saini of the plains.
  • Chaik (चाइक), a sept of Brahmans, hereditary priests of Keonthal.
  • Chak (चाक), (1) a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar, (2) a sept of Jats to which Ranjha is sometimes said to have belonged.††
  • Chaki (चाकी), Chakani (चकानी), the Multani equivalent for Teli or oilman.

* Through an opening in the roof— and so the Chahil do not make openings in their roofs to this day. They also avoid wearing red clothes ; and, till recently, at any rate, did not use baked bricks in their houses— a relic of the time when they were nomads, probably.
In Jind tahsil it is indeed said that the pujaris of Guga are generally called chahil : in Sangrur they are known as bhagats:. In Patiala Chahil is said to have been born of a hill fairy : and Baland Jogi Pir is worshipped as their jathera.
†† Panjabi Dicty., p. 179.

  • Chakralawi (चक्रालवी), fr. Chakrala a village in Mianwali : a new sect, which rejects more than half the Qran, founded by one Ghuhim Nabi of Chakrala, whose followers call themselves Ahl-i-Quran, i.e., believers in the Quran only. It rejects all the other traditions of the Prophet. Its founder has now changed his name to Abdullah as he objected to being called ghulam (servant) of the Prophet. He believes that the Quran is the only book which lays down what is required of a true Muslim and that the other subsidiary books and sayings of Muhammad are of no account. He has accordingly devised a new form of prayer which is distinct from that prescribed by the Prophet. His followers are numerous in the Shahbaz Khel and Yaru Khel villages of the Mianwali tahsil, as well as in Dera Ismail Khan and Lahore. A monthly journal called the Ishaat-ul-Quran used to be published by Shaikh Chittu, a leading adherent of the sect in Lahore. As the sect did not thrive at Lahore its founder has now settled in Dera Ismail Khan.
  • Chamain (चमैन), a tribe of Gujars, claiming descent from a Tunwar Rajput by a Gujar mother. They came from Delhi and are very old inhabitants of the Karnal District, having possibly been expelled from Delhi by Sher Shah. Chamain is probably only a local appellation.


  • Chamar (चमार), Chamiar (चमिआर), fem. [Chamari]] (चमारी). The Chamār is the tanner and leather-worker of North-Western India,* and in the western parts of the Punjab he is called Mochi whenever he is, as he generally is, a Musalman, the caste being one and the same. The name Chamar is derived from the Sanskrit charmakāra or "worker in hides." But in the east of the Punjab he is far more than a leather-worker. He is the general coolie and field labourer of the villages; and a Chamar, if asked his caste by an Englishman at any rate, will answer " Coolie " as often as " Chamār." They do all the begar, or such work as cutting grass, carrying wood and bundles, acting as watchmen, and the like ; and they plaster the houses with mud when they need it. They take the hides of all dead cattle and the flesh of all clovenfooted animals, that of such as do not divide the hoof going to Chuhras. They make and mend shoes, thongs for the cart, and whips and other leather work; and above all they do an immense deal of hard work in the fields, each family supplying each cultivating association with the continuous labour of a certain number of hands. All this they do as village menials, receiving fixed customary dues in tho shape of a share of the produce of the fields. In the east and south-east of the Punjab the village Chamars also do a great deal of weaving, which however is paid for separately. The Chamars stand far above the Chuhras in social

* Sherring has a long disquisition on the Chamar caste, which appears to be much more extensive and to include much more varied tribes in Hindustan than in the Punjab.
Why is a Chamar always addressed with "Oh Cbamar ke " instead of " Oh Chamar," as any other caste -would be ?

Chamar synonyms

position, and some of their tribes are almost accepted as Hindus.* They are generally dark in colour, and are almost certainly of aboriginal origin, though here again their numbers have perhaps been swollen by members of other and higher castes who have fallen or been degraded.

The people say :

Kariā Brahman, got Chamār
In ke sāth na utrie par.

Meaning -" Do not cross the ferry with a black Brahman or a fair Chamār".

One being as unusual as the other. Their women are celebrated for beauty, and loss of caste is often attributed to too great partiality for a Chamāri.

The traditional origin of the Chamars is that Chanu (or Chanwe) and Banu were two brothers : the former removed a cow's carcase with his own hands and so Banu out-casted him.†† In Kapurthala, however, another version is current, and according to this Gāt told his brother Met to remove a carcase and then declined to associate with him for doing so, and the Mirasi who witnessed the incident, took Gat's part. From Mat are descended the Chamars.

Synonyms. — It is difficult to say what are the real synonyms of Chamār. The term Chuhra-Chamār is often used to denote the group formed by the two castes, just as Mochi-Julahā, is used, but it does not imply that the two castes are identical. Just as the Muhammadan Chamar is styled Mochi so the Sikh Chamar is called Ramdasia (qq. v.). In Sirsa a Chamar is called Meghwāl as a compliment, but opprobiously he is styled Dheḍ§ or Dheṛh, a term applied to any 'low fellow'. The 'Meghwāl' claim descent from Megh-rikh who was created by Narain.

Groups. — The Chamars are divided into several sub-caste?. In the Eastern Punjab there appear to be at least five true sub-castes which do not intermarry. These are in order of precedence :

  • i. Chāndor, said in Delhi to trace its origin from Benares, possibly from some association with Kabir. It is the principal sub-caste in Hissar, including Sirsa, and its members do not tan, leaving that to the Chamrangs and Khatiks, and working only in prepared leather. See also under Meghwāl.
  • ii. Raidāsi or Rabdāsi, named after Raidās Bhagat, himself a Chamar, a contemporary of Kabir, and like him a disciple of Ramanand. It is the prevalent sub-caste in Karnal and its neighbourhood.
  • iii. Jaṭiā, found in greatest numbers about the neighbourhood of Delhi and Gurgaon. They work in horse and camel hides, which are an abomination to the Chāndar, probably as having the foot uncloven; and are perhaps named from the word jaṭ

* The Chamars will eat food prepared by any tribe except the Khākrob (Chuhra), Kanjar, Sansi and Nat, Smoking; is only allowed anions themselves and they will not eat or drink from a Dhobi, a Dum or a Nilgar (indigo dyer) [Karnal].
Banu or Banwe here would appear to be the eponym of the Bania caste, which is said to still worship an ār and a rambi at weddings.
†† A Dum witnessed the occurrence, and so to this day no Chamar will eat or drink from a Dum or Mirasi's hands,
§ The Dheḍ appears to be a separate caste in the Central Provinces, though closely allied with the Chamr. The Dheḍ is also a large tribe in Kachh and Sindh, also called Bhambi.

The Chamar sub-castes
a camel-grazier. On the other hand, they are said to obtain the services of Gaur Brahmans, which would put them above all other Chamars, who have to be content with the minisatrtions of the outcast Chamarwa Brahman.
  • V. Golia, lowest of all the sub-castes, indeed Golia is the name of a section of many menial castes in the Eastern Punjab, and in almost all cases carries with it an inferior standing in the caste.
Further west, in Nabha, the sub-castes are, however, said to be four in number, viz. ;—
1. Būnā (Bunia).
2. Chamār.
3. Chamārwa - who touch unclean things.
4. Chanbar(sic) - who touch unclean things.

The Buna appears in Ludhiana as the Bunia, a Sikh Chamar, who having taken to weaving ranks higher than the workers in leather. The Rahtia* is also said to be a Sikh Chamar who has taken to weaving, but many Rahtias are Muhammadans.

Territorially the Chamars in Patiala are divided into two groups which do not intermarry and thus form sub-castes. These are the Bagri, or immigrants from the Bagar, found in the south-east of the State, and the Desi.

Among the Desi in Patiala two occupational groups are found, viz., the Chamars who make shoes, and the Bonas, the latter sub-caste being weavers of blankets by occupation and Sikhs by religion.

The Jind account divides the Chamars into 5 sub-castes, viz., Rāmddsi, Jatia, Chāmar [sic), Pāthi and Raigar, but it is not clear whether these are occupational or territorial or sectarian groups. The Nabha account says they are divided into 4 groups, viz., Chāṇwar, Jatiā, Bahmnia (?) and Chimar [sic). The Chanwar are again divided into two sub-castes (?), Chanwar proper, who are Sultanis by religion and workers in leather; and the Bonas (or blanket-weavers) who are Sikhs of Guru Govind Singh. The Bonas are not found in the south-east. The Jatias (descendants of Jatti, wife of Ramdās) are found only in the south-east and are regarded as inferiors by the Chanwars, who do not drink or smoke with them. A curious story is told of the origin of the Jatiās, connecting the name with jhanṭ (pubes). No Chanwar Chamar would give the Jutias' forefather a girl to wife, so he married a Chuhra's daughter, but the pheras were not completed when a dispute arose, so the Chuhras and Jatias performed half the pheras outside and the rest inside the house until recently, the Jatia tan horse and camel hide, while the Chānwars of Bawal only tan the skins of kine which the Jatias refuse to touch.

* In Sirsa the word seems to be applied to the members of any low caste, such as Chamar or Chuhra. Mr. Wilson, however, had never heard the word used. In Patiala it is said to be applied t) a Sikh Chamar.

Chamār gots

The Bahmnia also claim descent from a wife of Rāmdas, and wear the janeo and thus assert their superiority over other Chamārs, but they are not found in Nabha.

The Bilai is apparently the village messenger of the Delhi division. He is at least as often a Chuhra as a Chamār, and ought perhaps to be classed with the former. But there is a Chamār clan of that name who work chiefly as grooms.

The Dusadh is a Purbi tribe of Chamārs, and has apparently come into the Punjab with the troops, being returned only in Delhi, Lahore, and Ambala,

Of the above groups it is clear that some are true sub-castes based on occupation, while others like the Buna are merely occupational groups which may or may not intermarry with other groups. This differentiation of the groups by occupation is most fully developed in the eastern and sub-montane tracts, where the Chamars form an exceedingly large proportion of the population and are the field-labourers of the villages. But in the central districts their place in this respect is taken by the Chuhra. In the west, too, the leather-worker, like all other occupational castes, is much less numerous than in the east. The weaver class, on the other hand, is naturally least numerous in the eastern Districts, where much of the weaving is done by the leather-working castes. And, when the Chamar sticks to leather-working in the eastern Districts, he is apparently dubbed Chamrang or Dabgar, just as in the Punjab proper a Chamār who has adopted Islam, and given up working in cow-hide becomes a Mussalman Khatik tanner.

The gots or sections of the Chamars are very numerous, and some of them are large. They include the Chauhan and Bhatti gots* (numerous in the (central and eastern Districts, especially Ambala) and

Of these eleven gots all but the Kathana are found in the Jullundhar division.

The Chamars are by religion Hindus or Sikhs.

Owing to the fact that the famous bhagat Ramdas was a Chamar by caste, many Chamars are Ramdasias by sect, and of this sect again some are also Sikhs.

Ramdas was a descendant of Chanu. His mother, Kalsia, was childless, but one day faqir came to her and she gave him flour, in return for which he promised her a son. On his return his guru cross-questioned him, as he was unable to pronounce the name 'Parmeshwar,' and learning of his promise declared that, as no son had been bestowed on Kalsia in her destiny, the faqir himself must be born to her. So he

* The two most numerous gots among the Mochis also, they may of course have adopted these got names from the Rajputs, as Bains and Sindhu may have been borrowed from the Jats.
The Ramdasia also claim descent from Ramdas. The Ramdasia (Sikhs) take the pahul from Chamars and drink amrit at their hands. Ihe Mazhabi take them from the sweepers' hands. (Kapurthala).


was reborn as Ramdas, who is called Raidas in Bawal. As his mother was a Chamari he refused her breasts, until his guru bade him suck. One day when placed by his mother at a spot where Rama Nand used to pass, he was touched by that teachcr's sandals, and when he cried out was told by him to be silent and repeat ' Ram Kam.' Thus was supernatural power bestowed upon him.

Contrary to the Chamars' customs Ramdas wore a janeo, sounded a conch, and worshipped idols. The Brahmans appealed to the magistrate, whereupon Ramdas cast the idols into a tank, but they returned to him, whereas the Brahmans failed in a similar test. Again, cutting his neck open Ramdas exhibited 4 jdneos, of gold, silver, copper and thread, typical of the 4 yugas. Thenceforth he was known as a famous bhagat.*

Chamar women wear no nose-ring, but among the Bunas it is worn by married women, not by widows. The Charimars of Bawal do not wear gold nose-rings, and all the Chamars of that locality avoid clothes dyed in saffron, and the use of gold. They also use beestings only after offering it to the gods on the amawas.


  • Chamarwa Brahman (चमरवा ब्राह्मण), the Brahman of the Chamars : see Brahman. Also a sub-caste of the Chamars in Nabha (see Chamar).
  • Chamang (चमंग), the caste or class which in Kanawar works in leather, correpponding to the Chamar of the plains.
  • Chamkanni (चम्कन्नी), or Pāra Chamkanni, a small tribe of Ghoria Khel Pathans, found in Kurram.
  • Chamrang (चमरंग), a synonym of Chamar, chiefly returned from Patiala and Sialkot), the term chamrang is probably a purely occupational term. The chamrang does not stain or dye leather, but only tans it: fr. rangnā (which as applied to leather means to 'tan'). The chamrang moreover only tans ox and buffalo hides, and does not work in the leather which he tans. By caste he is probably always a Chamar. In Delhi the term appears to be practically a synonym for Khatik ( q.V. ), but the Khatik is, strictly speaking, a carrier, not a tanner, and a Muhammadan, while the chamrang is a Hindu. In Gujrat also the chamrang is identical with the Khatik.
  • Chanal (चनाल), or probably Channāl, from Chandala, whom all Sanskrit authorities represent as begotten by a Sudra on a Brahman. His occupation is carrying out corpses, executing criminals, and other abject offices for the public service. The menial class of Kangra and Mandi, corresponding to the Dagi in Kullu and the Koli in the Simla Hills,

* In Jind the Ramdasias are the dominant group and form a sub-caste, which has 9 gots:— Berwal, Chauhan. Goru. Mahi. Sanyar. Laria. Siddhu. Linh-mar. Lokra.
Colebrooke, Essays, 274.

Chanan- Chandyi

the Chanals in Kangra appear to be inferior to the Kolis of that District, and some of them at least will not touch dead cattle, or mix on equal terms which those who do. On the other hand, in Kullu Saraj some of the Chanals rank below Kolis. Dagi-Chanal is a very common term for the caste : and in Kullu it appears to include the Nar. Yet a Chanal of Mandi State will not intermarry with a Dagi of Kullu. The Chanal is also found in Chamba, where the proverb goes : Chanal jetha, Rāthi kanetha, 'The low caste is the elder and the Rathi the younger brother,' doubtless pointing to a tradition that the Chanal represents an earlier or aboriginal race. See the articles on Dagi and Koli.

  • Chananyi (चानन्यी), a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar.
  • Chandal (चण्डाल)-ni, an outcast, one of low caste. Punjabi Dicty., p. 187. See Chanal.
  • Chandarh (चंदढ़), a Jat sept, found west of the Ravi : Punjabi Dicty., p. 187. Doubtless =Chadhar (चाधर) or Chhadhar (छधर), (q. v.)
  • Chandarsevi (चन्दर्सेवी), syn. Parbhu Kdyasth : one of the two classes of Kayasthas (q.v.) — found in the Deccan.
  • Chandel (चंदेल). One of the 36 royal (Rajput) races, and fully described in Elliott's Races of the N.-W. Provinces. It is not impossible that they are the same stock as the Chandal, outcasts where subjects, Rajputs where dominant. They are returned chiefly from the Simla Hill State of Bilaspur. Rajput tradition in Karnal avers that the Chandel once held Kaithal and Samana, but were driven towards the Siwaliks by the Mandhars. It would be interesting to know how this lowest of all the Rajput races finds a place among the Simla States, and whether the ruling family of Bilaspur is Chandel.
  • Chandia (चन्दिया) , a sept of Rajputs, found in Kahlur and descended from Gambhir Chand, younger son of Pahar Chand, 24th Raja of that State.
  • Chandla (चंदला), a Rajput sept, of the second grade, said to be found in Hoshiarpur. Probably = Chandel(a), q. v.
  • Chandu (चंदू), an agricultural clan found in Shahpur and in Multan. In the latter District it is classed as Jat.

Chāng- Channar
  • Chang (चांग), see Chahng.
  • Changala (चांगला), a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan.
  • Changgar (चंग्गड़), fem,-i,-iani, ni (Chhanggar in Multani). The Changgars are outcasts of probably aboriginal descent, who are most numerous in Gujrat, Amritsar, Lahore, Ferozepur, and Faridkot, but especially in Sialkot and they say that their ancestors came from the Jammu hills. They are originally a vagrant tribe who wander about in search of work;but in the neighbourhood of large cities they are settled in colonies. They will do almost any sort of work, but are largely employed in agriculture, particularly as reapers ; while their women are very generally employed in sifting and cleaning grain for grain-dealers. They are all Musalmans and marry by nikah, and say that they were converted by Shams Tabriz of Multan, who bade their ancestor, a Hindu Rajput, support himself by honest labour and husk the wild sawank in the jungles because it was good (changa). Their clans are said to be Phulan, Chauhan, Manhas, and Sarohe.* Their women still wear petticoats and not drawers ; but these are blue, not red. They are exceedingly industrious, and not at all given to crime. They have a dialect of their own regarding which, and indeed regarding the tribe generally, the late Dr. Leitner published some interesting information. He says that they call themselves not Changgar but Chubna, and plausibly suggests that Changgar is derived from chhānna to sift. It has been suggested that Changgar is another form of Zingari ; but Dr. Leitner does not support the suggestion.
  • Changri (चंगरी), a sept of Kanets which holds Pheta and half Dharuth parganas in Kuthar.
  • Chani (चनी), a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar.
  • Chankar (चनकर), a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan.
  • Chann (चण), an agricultural clan found in Shahpur.
  • Channar (चन्नर), a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Lodhran tahsil, Multan District.
They are said to be connected with the Jhakkars and other tribes in the couplet:—
Jhakkar, Channar, Kanjun, Nun teatera,
Hin Rāne Shaitān de panje bujh bharā.
All these five clans assume the title of Rana. In Bahawalpur they are also called Channun-di and are found chiefly in the kārdāris of Bahawalpur and Ahmadpur East, as cultivators, and in the Rohi, as landowners and cattle-breeders. Their septs are : Admani, Ram, Wisal, Bhojar, and Bharpal, said by some of the tribe to be descended from Pir Channar, but the more general belief is that the Pir never married and that the Channars are descended from his seven brothers, sons of Rai Sandhila. The Channars are, however, believed to be an offshoot of the Mahrs.
Channar Pir: — Four miles from Derawar, on a hillock, is the tomb of Pir Channar, or Chanan Pir, son of Rai Sandhila. Sayyid Jalal visited the city of the Rai, now in ruins some three miles off, and asked if there was any Muhammadan in the city, male or female. He was told that there was none and he then asked if any woman was pregnant. The Rai said his wife was, and the Sayyid then ordered him to employ a Muhammadan midwife for the child would be a saint. "When the child was born the Rai

* Or, in Kapurthala Bhullar, Bhatti, Chauhan, Tur and Khokhar.

Channozai — Chaudhriāl
exposed him on the hillock, but a cradle of santal wood descended from heaven for the child. Seeing this Rai Sandhila endeavoured to take the child out of the cradle, but failed, as, whenever he approached, the cradle rose in the air. When the child grew up, he accepted Makhdum Jahaniān as his Pir, and as he was brought up in poverty so his tomb is especially efficacious for the rearing of children. The Channar tribe is descended from the seven brothers of the Pir. Both Hindus and Muhammadans frequent the shrine, rot or thick bread and meat being eaten by both as brethren. Hindus are not polluted by contact with Muhammadans at the shrine.
  • Charhoya (चरहोया), Chaṛhoā* (the fem, in Multani is said to be chhirohi, P. Dicty,, pp. 195, 22G). The Charhoa is the Dhobi and Chhimba of the Multan division and the Derajat and not unseldom carries on the handicrafts of the Lilari and Rangrez also. In his capacity of washerman he is, like the Dhobi, a recognised village menial, receiving customary dues in exchange for which lie washes the clothes of the villagers. He is also found in Bahawalpur, in Gujrat (where he is described as a dyer in reds), and in Peshawar. See Dhohi.
  • Chasti (चस्ती), a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan.
  • Chatera (चतेरा), in M. chatrera, see Chitera.
  • Chatrath (चतरथ), a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar and Montgomery, in the latter District they are both Hindu and Muhammadan.
  • Chatta (चत्ता), see nest.
  • Chattha (चत्ता). A Jat tribe apparently confined to Gujranwala, in which district they hold 81 villages. They claim to be descended from Chatta, a grandson of Prithi Rai, the Chauhan King of Delhi, and brother of the ancestor of the Chima. In the 10th generation from Chatta or, as otherwise stated, some 500 years ago, Dahru came from Sambhal in Moradabad, where the bards of the Karnal Chauhans still live, to the banks of the Chenab and married among the Jat tribes of Gujranwala. They were converted to Islam about 1600 A.D. They rose to considerable political importance under the Sikhs; and the history of their leading family is told by Sir Lepel Griffin at pages 402 ff of his Punjab Chiefs.
  • Chattarsaz (चत्तरसाज़), an umbrella-maker : probably to be included among the Tarkhans.
  • Chatyal (चत्याल), a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan.
  • Chaudhrial (चौधरियाल), a faction or party which is opposed to the Zamindar (also called Chaudhri) party in the Chakwal tahsil of Jhelum. Broadly speaking

* Cf. the Balochi jarsodha, clothe-washer.

Chaudri — Chauhan
the Chaudhriāls are the representatives of the old taluqdārs, whereas the Zamindārs represent the new men put in during Sikh rule. The former is the more numerous and owerful, but the latter is more united. Marriages between members of these factions are much more rare than marriages between members of different tribes. These factions have ramifications which extend into Pind Dadan Khan tahsil, across the Shahpur Salt Range and down into the Shahpur plains. For a full account see the Jhelum Gazetteer, 1904, pp. 12d-b.
  • Chaudri (चौदरी)— (i) A tribe found in Bahawalpur. They have four main septs, Janjani, Jasrani, Samdani, and Dhadani. They say that their original name was Saluki,(?) Saljuki. (ii) a faction: i. q. Zamindar : see Chaudhriāl.
  • Chaughatta (चौघत्ता), (1) a Mughal clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar ; (2) a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan.


  • Chauhan (चौहान), a great Rajput tribe, one of the Agnikulas, and also one of the 36 (royal) ruling races. Tod calls them the most valiant of the whole Rajput race, and to them belonged Pirthi Raj, the last Hindu ruler of Hindustan. Before the seat of their power was moved to Delhi, Ajmer* and Sambhar in Jaipur seem to have been their home. After their ejectment from Delhi they are said to have crossed the Jumna to Sambhal in Muradabad, and there still dwell the genealogists and bards of the Chauhan of the Nardak of Karnal and Ambala in which Districts they have retained their dominant position more than elsewhere in the Punjab.
The Chauhans in Ambala claim to belong to the Bachas got and to be of Surajbans descent. In this District they hold 169 villages, and their traditions give them the following pedigree and history :-
Raja Nanak Rao, took Sambhal in Muradabad.
Rana Harra††: in the 5th generation founded
Pandri and Habri, c. 988 A.D.

Augha, ancestor of the Adhoa Rajputs. + Rantha.§ (→Subh Mal).

* The Ambala traditions mention Alal-kundor-puri as their seat before Ajmer was founded. They also add that Rana Har Rai founded Jundla in the Panipat tahsil: thence the Chauhan spread northwards. In Karnal their chaudhriats are Gumthala, Rao Sambhli, Habri and, chief of all, Jundla.
For the Chauhan migrations and their conquest of the Pundirs see the article on Raputs.
†† Rana Harra also had four illegitimate sons, by a Rorni, a Gujari, a Jatni and a Hujamni respectively. The latter's son. Kawal Kaj, founded a bāra or group of 12 villages, of Rajputs : the Jatni's son, Bhadhi, was the ancestor of the Mudhul Jats who hold two bārās, one in Kalsora in Thanesar, the other in Saharanpur. But the Karnal tradition is different. It assigns to Rana Harrai two Rajput wives and five of inferior status, viz., Rorni, wose descendants form the Dopla got of the Ror's, a Jatni, a Gujari, a Jogin and a Nain. The descendants of the two latter are the Rajputs of Mustafabad pargava in Jagadhri tahsil, while the Jatni's and Gujari's progeny appear to have settled east of the Jumna.
§ Rantha or Ranta was the son of Rana Har Rai's old age and his step-brothers disputed his legitimacy. So he appealed to the king of Delhi and his mother said that she had fed the Rana on dolah, a fish supposed to possess aphrodisiac qualities. The king declared that Ranti's sweat would smell of the fish if he were legitimate, he fulfilled the test and was declared legitimate.
Chauhan — Chaula

Rantha's descendants drove the Koli Rajputs across the Tangri, where they may still be found. Tilok Chand, son of Subh Mai, his descendant, retained 84 out of the 169 Chauhan villages — the chaurasi ; while Subh Mal's second son, Manak Chand, turned Muhammadan and took the pachasi or 85 remaining. Jagajit, 8th in descent from Tilok Chand, was Guru Govind Singh's antagonist c. 1700 A.D. In 1756 his grandson, Fateh Chand, with his two sons Bhup Singh and Chuhar Singh, fled from Ahmad Shah Durrani into Kotaha where 7,000 Chauhans were massacred by the imperial forces under the Rai of Kotaha.

In Hissar the true Chauhans are immigrants and may be divided into two branches, the Nimrana* and Sidhmukh or, as they call themselves, Bārā Thāl. The Nimranas who are descendants of Raja Sangāt, a great-grandson of Chahir Deo, brother of Pirthi Raj, are sub-divided into two clans, Rāth and Bāgauta, both of which came from Gurgaon, the former tracing their origin to Jātsāna. The name Bagauta would appear to be connected with Bighota.

The Bārā Thāl had a group of 12 villages near Sidhmukh in Bikaner, close to a famous shrine of Guga.

The Sohu and Chotia Pachadas claim Chauhan descent.

The Chauhans own a few villages to the south of Delhi city and have a small colony near Jakhauli in Sonepat tahsil, but in this District they have adopted widow remarriage and are disowned by their fellow Rajputs, but they are the best cultivators of the tribe, and otherwise decent and orderly.

In the central and some western Districts the Chauhans are found classed indifferently as Rajput or Jat, e. g., in Sialkot.††

In Amritsar they are classed as an agricultural tribe (Rajput, Jat and Gujar), and they are also so classed in Montgomery (Rajput and Jat) and in Shahpur.

In Bahawalpur the Chauhans have three clans : — Khalis ; Hamshira [found mainly in Uch peshkāri — they claim that Muhammad Husain, their ancestor, was Akbar's foster-brother (hamshir), but others say they are Hashmiras not Hamshiras] ; and Khichchi, who claim to be descended from Khichchi Khan, ruler of Ajmer 700 years ago, and say their ancestor founded Shergadh in Montgomery. Few in number they are confined to the kārdāri of Khairpur East, where they are carpenters and khatiks by trade, though in Multan they are well-to-do landowners.

Numerous Jat and other tribes comprise Chauhan sections or have sections which claim Chauhan descent, indeed it would be difficult to name a large caste in the Punjab which has not a Chauhdn section, e.g. see Chamar. The Kichi and Varaich are also numerous Chauhan clans in the Punjab. For the general history of the Chauhans and their organisation see Rajput.

  • Chaula (चाउला), Chawala (चावला) : lit. a preparation of rice : a section of the Aroras.

* Nimrana is a small state, a feudatory of Alwar, and ruled by a Chauhan family.
Eliot mentions four tracts as held by the Alanot Chauhans, viz., Rath, Bighota, Dhundhoti and Chandwar. Of these, Rath, the largest, lies mostly in Alwar, but it includes Narnaul, now in Patiala territory, Bfghota lies north of Rath, and Dhundhoti between Bighota and Hariana.
†† Punjab Customary Law, XIV, p. 2.

Chawās — Chet-rāmi


  • Chela (चेला), [i] a disciple ; (ii) a sept of the Sials, q. v. ; [lii) a fem. diminutive form (chelṛi) is used in the sense of 'witch' or ' malignant female spirit'.
  • Chet-rami (चेत-रामी). — The name of a sect founded by one Chet Ram, an Arora of Buchhoke, which is still the central sanctuary of the sect, though its monastic headquarters are outside the Taxali Gate at Lahore. Chet Ram became a disciple of Mahbub Shah, a Jalāli faqir, of the Chishtia sect. After his death Chet Ham slept upon his tomb and there had a vision of Christ which is described in a Panjabi poem, partly composed by him, partly by his successors or followers. On his death in 1894 Chet Ram was cremated and his ashes drunk in water by his euthusiastic disciples. Before dying he had designated the site of a future Chet-rami town to be called Isapuri or ' Jesus' town,' and there his bones and those of Mahbub Shah are to find their eventual resting-place. Regarding the creed of the sect Dr. H. D. Griswoid writes:* — "The Chet-rami sect holds a double doctrine of the Trinity. There is the Christian Trinity consisting of Jesus, the son of Mary, the Holy Spirit, and God, which is found in the Chet-rami creed. There is also what might be called a Hindu Trinity consisting of Allah, Parmeshwar, and Khuda. Allah is the Creator, Parmeshwar, the Preserver, and Khuda, the Destroyer. This idea is, of course, based upon the Hindu doctrine of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva as Creator, Preserver and Destroyer, respectively. The three potencies of the universe, namely Alah, Parmeshwar, and Khuda have their counterpart in the human body, which, from this point of view, is a kind of microcosmos. There is a generative part orresponding to Allah, a nourishing part (the breast) corresponding to Parmeshwar, and a destroying part (the head) corresponding to Khuda." The Chet-ramis frequently carry a long rod surmounted by a cross, on which is inscribed their confession of faith. Some form of baptism also appears to be practised, but they distinguish between the external and internal rite, and are said to have four kinds of outward baptism, with water, earth, air and fire. Earth-baptism is used when a lay member tears off his clothes, casts dust upon his head and becomes a Chet-rd,mi monk, to mark his renunciation of the world. The monks are tho clergy of the sect, the theory being that 40 persons arc always to subsist on alms and preach the doctrines of Chet Ram. These 40 are called chelas and are addicted to intoxicating drugs. The sect is probably not very numerous, and it is said to be persecuted by both Hindus and Muhammadans, though, when a chela begs of a Hindu he does so in the name of Ram, and when from a Muhammadan in the name of Alah and Muhammad. All castes, even the lowest are recruited, but caste distinctions are at least so far observed that

* In an exhaustive Paper read at the Mussoorie Conference, 1904, which the curious reader may consult for further details and parallels.

Chhabala- Chhādhar
each caste of converts eats separately. Three melas are held annually at Buchhoke, one on Poh 1st (January) in memory of Mahbub Shah's death, another on Jeth 29th (May — June) to commemorate that of Chet Ram, and the third on Sawan 18th (July— August) in memory of one Malang Shah, of whom nothing appears to be known except that he was a friend of Mahbub Shah.


  • Chhabihwale (छबीहवाले), a term applied to the Khatri devotees of Shamji. His Gandia Jat devotees are called Rang Rangita and his Chandia Baloch worshippers are styled Chhabala — both, though still Muhammadans, presenting offerings to his descendants. (For an account of the Hindu revival in the south-west Punjab under Bairāgi influences, by the Gosains Shamji and his successor Lalji, see Census Kep., 1891, pp. 127-9.


  • Chhadhar (छाधर). Found along the whole length of the Chenab and Ravi valleys, but far most numerous in Jhang, where they for the most part regard themselves as Rajputs, the Chhadhars claim to be descended from Raja Tur, Tunwar. They say that they left their home in Rajasthan in the time of Muhammad of Ghor, and settled in Bahawalpur, where they were converted by Sher Shah of Uch. Thence they came to Jhang- where they founded an important colony and spread in smaller numbers up the Chenab and Ravi. Steedman describes them as good agriculturists, and less given to cattle-theft than their neighbours. Mr. E. D. Maclagan spells the name Chaddrar, which is undoubtedly the correct form, and writes : —
"The Chaddrars are Tunwars. Their chief tribes in the Sandal Bar are the Rajokes, Kamokes, Jappas, Luns, Pajikes, Deokes, Ballankes, Saiokes, etc. The Chaddrars of the Bar are said to have expanded from Dhaban, a small rahna or encampment south-west of Khurianwala.
The Luns of Awanwala in the Bar say they have been there for seven generations. At Bajla rahna there is a separate class of Luns or Lunas called Bala Luns, who celebrate marriages, wash the dead and so forth, and act more or less as mullas."
The following genealogy of the Chaddrars is given by mirasi of the tribe in the Hafizabad tahsil :
PanduGarjanBhinBatisarMandlikTunwarAnakJodhRaji RavilanChaddrar.
Chaddrar ballads

The same mirasi also gave the following chāp or ballad regarding the great deeds of the Chaddrar : —

1.Datār agge Mir Braham,
2.Parh lichār sunāeā ne :
3.Tur phir tawāna hoeā,
4.Jis kul Tārā pāeā ne ;
5.Rājā khub bhalā Ravilan.
6.Jis Dilii Koṭ banāeā ne ;
7.Dilli Koṭ bandhā ne kaisā
8.Jo khutba sachch paṛhāeā ne.
9.Duā jo maidān ditto ne
10.Chaddrar nām dharāeā ne.
11.Dhare nām te vaddhe aggo,
12.Allāh Nabi dehāeā ne.
13.Bākim ā, hakumat kiti.
14.Mulk sārā kankāeā ne.
15.Chhatti Painti te Lunāke
16.Damra ghar dhāoeā ne.
17.Bannhi hatth Nakodar lijā
18.Diniar des niwāeā ne.
19.Peihle jā Gagiāne hathi,
20.Phir Lahaur pauhnchāeā ne.
21.Kharralā nāl pea, jāl jhagrā,
22.Takhto Kharral hatāeā ne.
23.Modā de Chinioṭ leone.
24.Zor changerā lāeā ne,
25.Malik Macche Khān kuttho ne,
26.Ragrā rok rullāeā ne,
27.Urārpār hukm Chaddrar dā.
28.Siālā di kuriā bereā dāl chikāeā ne.
29.Ajjūn, Cha, Sultāna yāge
30.Dāgar rāh ghalāeā ne.
31.Vijjar, Vise bān chāye
31.Sir chattṛ Nabi jhulāeā ne.
33.Hambi nadi Chitrāng vasāe,
34.Bakhrā purā pāeā ne.
35.Jappeā ne bhi rutbā chokhā,
36.Daftar wāle karāeā ne.
37.Dingliān Bulghān Bilochān.
38.Mār Biloch vānjāeā ne.
39.Chulhe te ral vandi de sapharā.
40.Sār garāhi khāeā ne.
41.Mirjā Dhir hoeā kurerā
42.Baggā shih chirāeā ne.
43.Nithar, Kālu, Dallā, Mallu mani gāwā
44.Jauro takht machāeā ne ;
45.Jiṭhe satt shahid akatthe hoe,
46.Uṭhe duddh piāeā ne.
47.Is kul te dātā Nūrā,
48.Gahna, Jāni, Wāchi, Ibrahim Haqqāni.
49.Jas mir Prāhim gāeā ne.
English Translation:
1.Saith the Mirasi Ibrahim to the generous,
2.He pronounces as follows ; —
3.Tunwar then became, strong.
4.From which family Tara was born ;
5.Raja Ravilan was a fine hero.
6.Who built the fort of Delhi ;
7.He built Delhi Fort so
8.That his name of a certainty was sounded in the Kbutba.
9.Secondly, when he had cleared a wide space (empire),
10. He fixed the name of Chaddrar.
11.His name was established and grew from day to day.
12.He worshipped God and his Prophet.
13.A ruler came and ruled.
14.The whole country called for help.
15.The Chhattis-Paintis and the Lun country,
16.Carried rupees to the home of the Chaddrars.
17.With only half a hand the Chaddrara took Nakodar
18.And made the Diniar-des do obeisance.
19.First they went to Gagiana (in the Bar) and settled,
20.Then they reached Lahore.
21.When they quarrelled with the Kharrals,
22.They stripped the Kharrals of their throne.
23.With a push of the shoulder (i.e., with a certain amount of trouble) they took Chiniot.
24.They used more force.
25.They killed Malik Macche Khan.
26.They harried and destroyed him.
27.The Chaddrars were rulers on both sides of the river (Chenab).
28.They put the Sials daughters on rafts and dragged them away.
29.They cleared a wide road of (i.e., dispersed)
30.Ajjun, Chā and Sultān the rebels.
31.When Vijjar and Viso (Chaddrars) grew to wisdom
32.The Prophet held his canopy over them.
33.Hambi (a Chaddrar) lived on the Chitrang nadi,
34.And divided his share fully.
35.The Jappas' line was also good,
36.And separated off a share.
37.They met the Bulghan Biloches.
38.They boat and defeated the Biloches.
39.They fed in common, but their share was divided.
40.They fought to their hearts' content.
41.Mirza, son of Dhir, was a stalwart man ;
42.He struck tigers (with his sword).
43.I sing of Nithar, Kalu, Dallu and Mallu :
44.They also held power :
45.Where seven martyrs were together (i.e., among enemies),
46.There they gave them milk to drink (killed them).
47.Of this family were the generous Nur,
48.Gahna, Jani, Wachu and Ibrahim the Haqqani.
49.I, Ibrahim, bare sung this praise.

The Rajoke Chaddrars once got hold of a Mughal emperor's elephant and yoked it to a well at a place near Khuriānwāla, still called the Hathi Theh. The following- chāp on the subject was given by the Mirāsi faqir at Shaikh Sābu : —
Malik Dādu, bāh chāi, Malik Dadu (a Rajoke Chief) lifted his arm ,
Indra Rāja ris āe. Indra Raja became envious.
Vass baddal kāleā ! Rain, O black cloud !
Hāthi leā ne khass. He seized the elephant
Mahāwat ne māreā. And killed the mahaut.
Hāthi Akbar Bādshāh de, It was an elephant of the emperor Akbar's,
Iṭṭhe chaṛe dhāmni, Lahāur kamānd. Here it grazed on dhaman grass, in Lahore on sugar-cane.
Rāju ke Rājoke, The Rajokes, descendants of Raju,
Sundh vaḍḍhke khuhe jutte dānd. Cut off its trunk and yoked it to the well.


  • Chhajju (छज्जू), Chhajju-panthi (छज्जू-पंथी). — A sect which exhibits a curious combination of the Hindu and Muhammadan creeds among the lower orders. It is said to have been founded by Chhajju, a bhagat of Lahore, who lived about the time of Aurangzeb.* His followers burn their dead, but do not throw the ashes into the Ganges ; they take them to a place called Parnaji, in Bundelkhand, where they bury them. They believe in the divine mission of Muhammad, but have no social intercourse with the Muhammadans. One of their sacred places is Malka Hans, in the Pakpattan tahsil of Montgomery, where their mahant, Lachhman Das, lives, and their sacred book is kept in a kind of temple. It is called the Kul Jama Barup, is written in Bhasha, and its doctrines are based on a mixture of Hinduism and the Quran. They also have adherents at Qabula Tibbi and Harappa, and are said to be strong vegetarians and teetotalers.
  • Chhajra (छाजड़ा). A tribe of Jats who claim descent from the royal race of the Bhattis of Jaisalmer. They came to Multan under Rao Kehar, a chieftain of their own, and settled there. Kehar is a name of note in Bhatti annals. One Kehar was contemporary of the Khalifa-ul-Walid, A.D. 713. He and his sons advanced the Bhatti kingdom of Jaisalmer. Another Kehar ruled Jaisalmer in the sixteenth century, and his son conquered all the Multan country up to the Indus. The Chhajṛas marry their daughters to their own tribesmen only, but receive the daughters of other Jat tribes in marriage.
  • Chha Khang (छा खांग), a caste found in Spiti (from chha, 'owner' and Khāng, 'land'). But according to Sir James Lyall Khāng means 'house' or 'household' not 'land'. Zing means land : cf. Chāhzang.
  • Chhalapdars (छलपदार). A small community of some 10 houses in Delhi, who say that they came from the Mewat in Mughal times and that in the United Provinces they are known as Mujawars.†† Shaikhs Mujawar and Qalandar were their ancestors, and so the latter's descendants are called Qalandars. But this seems to be an absolute fable. That they came from the Mewat may be conceded, but, in spite of what they

* Chhajju's chaubāra is a conspicuous edifice rear the Divinity School at Lahore. The local histories describe him as an Arora who worked miracles in that city, but not as having founded a sect. Chhajju-panthi would appear to be a local term for the more general term 'Parnami' (q.v.).
Walid was Khalifa from 705—15 A.D, : Elliot's Hist, of India, I, p. 428.
†† Ar. lit." a neighbour.' The word is used in India to denote an attendant at a shrine.

Chhalapdar rites

say, it is probable that they are Hindu converts to Islam, and that in their former faith they were temple musicians or wandering minstrels. On the conversion of the Mewat their deities were overthrown, but the spirit of idolatory which remained, and is not yet quite extinct, set up Muhammadan pirs in their stead, and they found employment in dedicating themselves to these saints. But it is doubtful whether they were ever really attached to the shrines of the saints to whom they are dedicated, viz., Khwaja Moin-ud-Din of Ajmer, Badi-ud-Din or Madar Sahib,* or Saiyid Salar Masaud Ghazi, known as the 'Bālā Miyān.' The Mujawars belonging to these shrines are of authenticated descent and certainly of higher status than the Chhalapdars, who derive their name from chhalap, the musical instrument which they carry and which is in itself a sign of low social status. That they call themselves Mujawars may be taken as a mere attempt to claim a higher origin, though they certainly take upon themselves certain duties connected with the anniversaries of their saints, especially at Delhi, where they are to be seen wandering from house to house as harbingers of the approaching ceremonies, and singing songs to the accompaniment of the chhalap in praise of their saints. The anniversary of the first-named saint, who is the most reverenced of them all, is held at Ajmer from the 1st to the 6th of Rajab, when thousands from all parts of India gather at Ajmer. When there were no railways, people used to start on this journey weeks and even months beforehand, so that the month preceding Rajab actually came to be called ' the month of Khwdja Moin-ud-Din.' On the 14th, 15th, and 16th of this month large numbers from the Mewat, and the countryside generally, assemble at the Qutb, 11 miles from Delhi (which, as the name signifies, is the shrine of Khwaja Qutb-ud-Din, the chief disciple of the Ajmeri Khwaja) for three days, which are observed as great holidays. On the 16th this great concourse forms a huge caravan which sets out on its way to Ajmer. Even now the journey is mostly performed on foot, though bullock carts are also employed, chiefly for the women. The sight is picturesque and interesting, young and old being dressed in their best attire ; trains of chhakras (country carts) which carry the thousands of women and children, singing to the accompaniment of drums, flutes and all kinds of instruments. A conspicuous feature of the procession is the red and green banners and flags, called chhaṛiān (lit. 'sticks'), to which the three days' gathering at the Qutb owes its name of the chharion hi mela or 'fair of the flags', which are moreo precisely called Khwaja ji ki chharian. In the preparation and erection of these flags and in the ceremonies connected with them the Chhalapdars are the principal actors. The flags look like so many

* On the first day of Jamadi-ul-awal, also called the month of Madār, when tho banners or Chhariyans of Madār were erected under tho walls of Delhi tho Chhalapdārs, accompanied by a band of drummers, used to appear with Madar's banner before the emperor in his court of private audience, and on their arrival he came out of the palace and his attendants used to give them trays of malidah, the Chhalapdars in return placing a baddi or garland on the emperor's body in memory of the Saint Madar. Prayers were then offered in the name of the saint and the malidah was doled out to all present. After this the king gave the Chhalapdars a standard from tho top of which hung a cloth called pharaira, embroidered with gold (called task or tamami, etc.) to the loose ends of which were attached silver cups or katoras. This standard was given to the Chhalapdars in order that it might be presented at the convent of Madar Sahib in the king's behalf.

Chhalapdar rites

standards, distinguishing the various bands and contingents which form the great Khwaja's camp or lashkar. They are gaudily draped, have guilded tops, and are garlanded with flowers, which have peculiar names. The cloth, and even fragments of it, after having been once twisted round the stick are considered to be not only sacred, but possessed of healing virtues, and are eagerly sought after, especially by mothers who cause them to be worn by their children, if sick or otherwise in danger, in order to get them cured. They collect women of their kith and kin, form a procession headed by the men beating drums, and follow them singing the Khwaja's praises, till they reach one of these flags, to which they make offerings of sweetmeats, pice and cowries and sometimes even rupees, the whole being the perquisite of the Chhalapdars, who are in proprietary charge of the sticks. A portion of the sweetmeat, after it has been offered, is returned to those who bring it and also distributed among any others present. Sometimes this ceremony is performed at the house of the child's parents, in which case the Chhalapdar takes his stick or flag there and the rite is gone through midst the singing of the child's relatives and with great festivities. In some cases the ceremony of putting on the garlands and draping a child in the cloth of a flag is repeated yearly during its minority, or until the term of years, for which its parents had vowed to perform it, has expired.

For three days the scene at Qutb is most noisy and the din of the vocal and instrumental music of innumerable processions passing through the streets and crossing each other is enhanced by the noise and rowdyism of the jumping Darweshes called Qalandars. In front of every shop and place where a rustic family is staying during the fair, as well as around every stick or flag erected by Chhalapdars, groups of these Qalandars may be seen marking time with their feet which movement by degrees rises into high jumps. Their chorus,* while they are thus jumping, is—

Mast Qalandar ! Allah hi degā ! !
Tāmhe kā paisā ! Allah hi degā ! !
Dudh malidah ! Allah hi degā ! !
Dham Qalandar ! Dudh malidah ! ! Allah hi degā ! ! !
and so on.

"O Darwesh free and drunk ! God will give it ! Copper coin ! God will give it! Milk and malidah ! God will give it ! Jump Qalandar! God will give milk and malidah ! (lit., a sweet dish)."

This is repeated again and again until the shopkeeper or the person or family addressed, gives them something in cash or kind taking which they move on to jump before others.

In all the songs sung by the Chhalapdars, and others generally, on this occasion the Khwaja's praises are the principal theme. The following which forms the burden of a popular song is given here as a specimen : —

Mere dil daryāo Khwāja ! Tere jhalare pe lāgi hai bhir. "My bountiful river-like Khwaja ! Look what a concourse of people (with eager prayers) has assembled at thy jhalara."

* Sung in a loud and emphatic voice,
Jhalara is a large spring at the shrine of the Khwaja at Ajmer.

Chhāligar - Chhaner

The second fair of flags is hold in honour of Madār Sāhib below the walls of the fort or red palace of Shah Jahan in Delhi. It is similar to the one described above, with this difference, that it is less attended and the flags are taken to the tomb of the saint at Makkinpur. One of the songs (or sohlās as they are called) snug by the Chhalapdārs which refers to Madār Sahib is : — Lei to chaloji bālama Makkinpur ? In this song a newly married girl implores her husband to take her with him to Makkinpur. These fairs are especially popular among the women.

The third fair is held in honour of 'Bala Miyān' Saiyid Sālār Masaud Ghāzi, who is said to have lost his life in one of the early wars of the Musalmans with the idolatrous Hindus. He was young and about to be married, but fought bravely and died in the hour of victory. As in the case of the second fair, the chhariān are erected under the walls of the Delhi Fort. One of the songs sung in praise of Saiyid Sālār runs : — Merā nit banra Sālār bālā ! Bālā merā jāgo nā : "My bridegroom ever young, the young Salar, why- does he not awake ? "

The Chhalapdārs say they have no chaudhri, but a Panchāyat system is in vogue among them. A transgressor is punished with a fine of 10 or 12 annas with which sweetmeats are purchased and distributed among the panchs. In extreme cases he is punished by temporary excommunication. Marriages are confined to the community. The nikāh is in vogue, but the bride's dower does not exceed the legal minimum under Muhammadan Law. The ceremonies connected with birth and marriage, such as sachaq, chauthi, etc., and those observed till 40 days after death are the same as those of the other Dellii Muhammadans. Widow remarriage is not unlawful, and a deceased brother's widow may be taken in marriage. Some of the Chhalapdārs' songs are :—

(1) Sung on the bridegroom's side: — Apne Haryāle bane pe main chunchun wārungi kalyān! Merā jive bana! Apne haryāle bane pe main, etc. "I will pick the choicest flowers and shower them upon my dear bridegroom, the beloved of God ! May he live long."

(2) Sang on the bride's side :- Meri acchchi bano sohāg banri ! " My good, and of her husband most beloved, bride !"

(3) Sung at a birlh:- Aye lāl re tere hath men jhunjhuna. "0 my pretty little baby, with a rattle (jhunjhuna) in thy hand."

One of the ceremonies observed prior to birth is held when the woman has been enceinte for 7 months. It is called sath wānsā or 'the custom of the 7th month.'

The Chhalapdars say that they also sing the praises of Saiyid Ahmad, surnamed Kabir.

Chhangar - Chhāzang
  • Chhapera (छापेरा), a synonym, rarely used, for Chhāpegar or Chhimba, q. v.
  • Chhazang (छाज़ंग). — A term confined in the Punjab to the Buddhists of Spiti, among whom caste was said to be unknown. It includes all the land-owning classes of Spiti, where everybody except Hesis and Lohars owns land. The Chhāzang are by nationality Tibetan, or as they call themselves, Bhoti, and Chahzang means the land-holding class, and the people towards Tibet, Ladakh, and Zanskar are known as Chhāzang. It appears to be used in a very wide sense to mean all who speak Bhoti, just as Monpa means 'the people that do not know,' that is, the Hindus.

Mr, A. H. Diack, a high authority on Spiti thus described the tribal system in that country, where four grades of society are recognised : —

" (i). Jo or Tso.*— This is a title enjoyed for his lifetime by one who marries the daughter of any high-class family, such as that of the Nono of Spiti or the Thakur of Lahul, or any family of equal importance in Ladakh or Tibet.

(ii). Lonpo. — This term is applied to the class not so high as the Jo or as low as the Chha-zang. Lonpo means ' minister' and is an hereditary title and office. Lohrag and Da-tong-kar-po (Dhongrukdru) are said to be synonyms for Lonpa.

(iii). Chhā-zang. — The word means 'middle-class,' ['good position'] as opposed on the one hand to 'Tarap,' or high-class, such as members of the family of the Nono of Spiti, and on the other to ' Marap,' or Mow class,'which includes the blacksmiths, Hesis, etc.

{iv). Lobon. — The word means 'teacher' and is probably the description given of himself by some wandering Tibetan pilgrim. There was some difficulty in ascertaining the 'caste' of Tibetan pilgrims at the census of 1891. They treated the question as a joke, and returned themselves as " stones,"" or articles of wearing apparel,†† and the like.

Tribal distinctions are recognized in Spiti, the chief being the following : — (l)Nandu, (2) Gyazhingpa, (3) Khyungpo, (4) Lon-chhenpo,

* See under Nono for the precise meaning of this term. Mr. Diack also added that the same name is borne by the lady whose marriage has invested her husband with the title, but the feminine form is generally jo-jo. The children of the union do not eujoy the title, Jo and Tso (Cho) are synonyms. This however is contradicted by later information from Spiti, (See under Jo.)
Mr. Diack refers to the Census Report of 1881, § 562. and apparently accepts the derivation (given therein) fr. zang.. 'land,' chāh 'owner.' But 'land' =zhing, and 'owner' is dagpo in Spiti, and the derivation appears to be untenable.
†† Using family names, probably.

Social grades in Spiti

(5) Hesir, and (6) Nyekpa * Marriage is forbidden within the clan but one clan intermarries freely with another. A woman on mrrying is considered to belong to her husband's clan and the children of both sexes are of the clan of the father. The tribes (ru'wa) are not local ; members of each may be found in any village. The members phaibat, of the clan, wherever they may live, inherit in preference to the people of the village, in default of natural heirs. The Lonchhen-pas and the Gyazbingpas are considered somewhat superior to the others, but my informant, a Spiti man, says that in his country, as elsewhere, wealth is the real criterion of respectability." More up to date information shows that Mr. Diack using (no doubt) a Luhula interpreter has confused Lāhula and Spiti nomenclature: the true class distinctions are these—

S.No. Ladakh Lahul Spiti
I. Royal or noble r(gyalrigs) Jorigs Nono.
II. Upper official class rjerigs Lonrigs or Lon-chhonpo. Lonpo.
III. Farmers or yeomen h(mangrigs) h(mangrigs) Chhazang.

All these three classes are Nangpa or Chajang, 'insiders.' All below them are styled Pipas in Spiti, Chipas in Lahul, or Tolbeyrigs in Laddkh.

Mr. Francke describes the Spiti people as divided into three main classes : Nono, Chajang and Pipa. The older accounts averred that only in the lower parts of Spiti must menials provide their own stems for the common huga, which in the upper part was used by all without distinction of rank. This is now indignantly denied, and, it is said a nangpa or commoner will carefully remove the stem from a nono's (noble's) pipe and 'start' it with his mouth. As a fact any one, except a pipa, may use an ordinary man's pipe, and the nonos admit that if the stem were used by an inferior it would only be necessary to wash it. The tendency is, however, for etiquette to become stricter. Just as the Lahulas have advanced an utterly unfounded claim to be Kanets by caste, so the people of Spiti, in the presence of Hindus who pride themselves on their caste rules, pretend to caste distinctions of their own.

As to the clan system, it must be borne in mind that the thing most necessary to ensure in the Buddhist world is that when a man dies there shall be some one ready to prepare his body for burial. Persons reciprocally bound to perform the last offices for each other are called phuspun (father-brotherhoods), as well as phaihat, as they are in theory of the same ru'wa as it is called in Spiti. From this origin have sprung the clans which are found in every grade of society. Such are the Stond-karpo, the Rumpu, the (b)Lonchhenpa or 'great ministorr,' the Khyung-buba, the (r)Gyansheba and the Dreba all found at Dhankar. Even the pipa class has clans. In marriage the

* For an explanation of these Tibetan clan names see Tibetan.
The word means 'bone' and is pronounced ruspa in Ladakh.

'bone' must be avoided, just as in Kullu and the Simla Hills the haddi kā nātha is the exogamous limit. It almost goes without saying that the ' bone brethren ' or phaibat inherit in preference to any one outside the clan.
  • Chhatar (छतर), a tribe of Muhammadan Jats found in Gujrat. Its eponym came from Uch, but his real name is unknown. As a child he visited his maternal grandfather's house and was weighed against shces (chhatar) whence his nickname.
  • Chhelar (छेलर). a small clan of Jats whose principal settlement is Chhelar in the Narnaul tahsil of Nabha. They revere Bhagwan Das, a Hindu saint of Mukla in that State, and shave their children at his shrine. They avoid tobacco.
  • Chhibbar (छिब्बर), (1) a section of the Muhial Brahmans ; (2) a sept of Kanets, who give their name to the Chhibrot pargana of Keonthal, to which State they migrated from Chittor in Rajasthan with its founders. Cf. Balbir.
  • Chhimba (छीमबा). The Chhimba, Chhipi (छीपी) or Chhimpi (छीम्पी), called Paungar or Charhoa in Dera Ghazi Khan, is by occupation a stamper or dyer, but he also turns his hand to tailoring or washing. Hence the caste includes the Darzis or tailors, the Lilāris or dyers, and the Dhobis :* also the Chhapgar. By religion the Chhimbās are mainly Hindus and Muhammadans.
The Chhimba is properly a calico-printer, and stamps coloured patterns on the cotton fabrics of the country, and he is said occasionally to stamp similar patterns on paper, but he can hardly be distinguished from the Dhobi. Besides printing in colour, he dyes in madder, but as a rule, in no other colour. He is purely an artisan, never being a village menial except when a washerman. In some places, though not in all, Chhāpegar is used to distinguish those who ornament calico with patterns in tinsel and foil only.
The Hindu Chhimbās are divided into two sub-castes, which may not intermarry, but may eat and smoke together.†† These are the Tank and Rhilla. And in Patiala the Hindu Dhobis are said to form a third sub-caste. §
The following legend explains the origin of the two former sub-castes :— At Pindlapur in the Deccan lived one Bamdeo, who one night entertained Krishna and Udhoji, but, as the latter was a leper, the villagers ejected them. They were in māyavi form, and at midnight both of them vanished, leaving Bāmdeo and his wife asleep. Udhoji hid in a shell (sipi), and when Bāmdeo went to wash clothes he found the shell and placed it in the sun. It produced the child Nāmdeo who was fostered

* Shahpur. See below. †† In Patiala the Hindu Dhobi gots are not separately given, and it is said that the Tank print cloth, while the Rhillas are tailors and the dhobis washermen.
§ But in Maler Kotla the Tank claim to be of higher status than the Rhilla, and do not even eat or smoke with them.

The Chhimbā gots

by Bāmdeo's wife. Nāmdeo taught his son Tank, and Rhilla, his daughter's son, the arts of dyeing, printing and washing clothes.*

Territorially the Hindu Chhimbas have various divisions, e.gf., in Sialkot they are divided into the Lahori and Dogra sub-castes, which are said not to intermarry and which have separate gots. In Amritsar too is found a Lahori group, which is also called Chhapagar or Nawandhi.†† It is looked down upon by the other Chhimbas, who avoid all social relations with its members, because at weddings, it is said, they make a cow's imago of flour and shoot arrows at it.

The Lahori got a are : — 1. Pharwain. 2. Bagri. 3. Takhtar. 4. Ded.

The Dogra gots are :— 1. Karaku. 2. Panotra. 3. Dowathia. 4. Andh. 5. Rihania. 6. Pabe. 7. Saragra. 8. Bagri. 9. Chebhe. 10. Bhumral. 11. Tanotra.

The Hindu Chhimbas have few or no special observances at births, etc. In or near Delhi after childbirth, if the child be a son, the mother worships at a well to which she is taken 15 days after her confinement, accompanied by the women of her quarter of the city who sing songs as they go. The mother docs obeisance to the well, and throws some sweet stuff and rice into it.

Hindu Chhimbas never grind turmeric, except at a wedding. They will not make baris, and their women avoid wearing kānch bracelets and the use of henna.

The Hindu Chhimbas§ observe the ordinary Hindu rites, but Namdeo, the famous bhagat, is their patron saint, for no bettor reason than that he was himself by caste a Chhimba. Accordingly they pay yearly visits to his dera at Ghaman near Amritsar, and offer him a rupee and nārial at weddings. Sikh Chhimbas appear to favour the tenets of Guru Ram Rai.

The Muhammadan Chhimbas have several territorial divisions, e. g., in Patiala there are three, the Sirhindis (endogamous), the Deswals and Multanis, who intermarry, as is also tho case in Jind. In Gurgaon the Desi Chhimbas are said to be converts from the Tank and Rhilla

* But in the Maler Kotla version it is said that originally the Chhimbas were a homogeneous caste, until Namdah (deo) Chhimba took unto himself two wives, one Chhimba woman, the other of another caste. From the former sprang the Tank, from the latter the Rhilla. Hence the Tank assert their own superiority as they are pure Chhimbas, while the Rhilla are not.
But the Bagri is found in both groups.
†† Nawandhi = of low degree.
§ In Gurgaon Hindu Chhimbas, who are very superstitions, worship a Muhammadan's grave, real or supposed, calling it a Sayyid's grave, offering a cock in the Sayyid's name or a dish of boiled rice at his grave, lest their domestic peace be disturbed.
In this State the Muhammadan Dhobis are said to have five sub-castes — Lahori, Sirhindi, Alultani, Purbia and Deswal. Of these the two latter only are found in the State. They do not intermarry. The Deswal sections are : — Goriya, Chauhan and Kanakwal — all Raput clans.
For some of their sections see the Appendix.


sub-castes, while the Multanis are of the Inroi clan which dwelt in the Indus valley and took to printing calico.

In Leia the saint of the Chhimbas is Ali,the dyer, who is said to have been a pupil of Luqman and to have invented washing and dyeing. Before beginning work they invoke him saying: — Pir ustād Luqmān hākim, hikmat dā, bādshāh, Ali rangrez, chari rahe deg ; i. e., 'Luqmān the physician is the priest and teacher, the king of craft, and Ali is the dyer. May his bounty endure for ever.'

Most Muhammadan Chhimbas are Sunnis, but in Karor some few are Shias.

The Muhammadan Chhimbas have a loose system of panchāyats, and in Dera Ghazi Khan elders or mahtars are elected by the caste.

The women of the Muhammadan Chhimbas and Dhobis wear no laung (nose-ring), no ivory or glass bangles, or blue clothing. The Muhammadan Chhimbas will not make acharn or baria ? and avoid building a double hearth.

Chhina (छीना), an agricultural clan found in Shahpur : also classed as Jat, (agricultural) in Amritsar. The Chhina are undoubtedly distinct from the Chima Jats of Sialkot and Gujranwala, though the two tribes are frequently confused. That there are Chhina in Sialkot appears from the fact that the town of Jamki in that District was founded by a Chhina Jat who came, from Sindh and retained the title of Jam, the Sindhi equivalent for Chaudhri. Yet if the Chhina spread up the Chenab into Sialkot and the neighbouring Districts in large numbers, it is curious that they should not be found in the intermediate Districts through which they must have passed. The Chhina are also found in Mianwali and in Bahawalpur state. In the latter they are mainly confined to the Minchinabad kārdāri, opposite Pakpattan, and there have three septs, Tareka Mahramka and Azamka, which own land. Other septs are tenants. Their genealogy gives them a common origin with the Wattus : —



Pheru, 18th in descent from Chhina was converted to Islam by Bawa Farid-ud-Din of Pakpattan. The Chhinas are courageous and hard-working, but they are also professional thieves, though they will not steal from Sayyids, faqirs or mirasis, dreading the abuse of the latter. Though a small tribe in comparison with the Wattus they will not allow the latter to got the upper hand, and if they steal one buffalo from the Chhinas, the latter endeavour to retaliate by stealing five from the Wattus.

  • Chhinba (छिन्बा), fem., -an see Chhimba, P. Dicty., p. 225.


The Chibh feudal system

Chibh (चिभ).— A Rajput tribe confined in the Punjab, to the northern portion of Gujrat under the Jammu Hills, but also found in the hills above that tract which belong to tho Kashmir State. It gave its name to the Chibhāl, the hill country of Kashmir on the left bank of the Jhelum river along tho Hazara border, though it appears to no longer occupy those hills. The Chibh claim to be an offshoot, at least in the female line, of the Katoch of Kangra, and their eponym Chibh Chand is said to have left Kangra 14 centuries ago* and settled at Maghlora near Bhimbar in tho Jammu Hills, receiving from Raja Sripat of Bhimbar his daughter's hand, with part of his country as her dower.

The first of the tribe to become a Muhammadan was one Sur Sadi, who died a violent death in Aurangzeb's reign. He is still venerated as a martyr, and the Muhammadan Chibh offer the scalp looks of their male children at his tomb, till which ceremony the child is not considered a true Chibh, nor is his mother allowed to eat meat.

The Chibhs had at one time or another a very curious and interesting feudal organisation, survivals of which are still traceable in its social gradations. Succession to the throne of the Bhimbar kingdom was governed by the rule of primogeniture, but younger sons had a right to a share and so it would seem that the rāj was divided into four mandisMahlot, Bundala, Kahawalian and Rajal, and each of these great fiefs was held by a " prince of tho blood," the eldest son being Raja of Bhimbar, Hence the raj always remained in the family of the Ghaniyāl Chibhs, descendants of Ghani Khān, grandson of Shādi Khān, the ancestor of all the Muhammadan Chibhs, who is identified with the martyr Sur Sadi.

Tho rāj also contained four strongholds, garhs, viz., Dewa, Butala, Ambarial and Kadhāla. These garhs were distinct from the mandis and were in charge of the Ghaghial, descendants of Ghani Khain's cousin. Their precise relation to the mandis is by no means clear, but both garhs and mandis owed allegiance to the Raja ; though their holders collected their own revenue and were independent in the management of their estates. But whatever the precise nature of the mandis and garhs may have been, there were also minor fiefs, which were bestowed on younger sons : these were 84 in number, at least in theory, and were called dheris. Tho dheris again were classed as dheri ālā, i.e., a fief with a few villages attached to it, and dheri adnā or one which had no dependent villages.

Accordingly the Chibhs are divided into three grades, Mandiāl, Garhiāl and Dherial, but now-a-days it is difficult to say who are Mandiāl and who Garhiāl, though feeling still runs high on the point. Further the Gharhiāls are all regarded as standing high, since they once held the rāj, though some have now slender means, and they will not give

* Tradition makes Chibh Chand's father, Nāhar Chand, Raja of Kangra, a contemporary of Taimur, but the Chibhal (Jhibhal) was alrady known by that name to Taimur's historian.
A variant says that the Chibhs are of Persian descent. Na'mān, a descendant of Dārāh, son of Rahman, ruled Khurasan, and his descendant, Gauhar Shah, came to the Deccan and married Nahir Chand's daughter and their son was named Ahdār Chand, a Hindu. His descendant Nahir Chand became Raja of Kangra.

The Chilāsis

daughters to others. The Samwalias, Mianas and Malkanas are also regarded as superior for unknown reasons, and either intermarry or seek matches for their girls among the Sayyids or Gakkhars whom they admit to be their superiors. Lastly the Chibhs descended from Shādi Khān have 14 septs, mostly named after eponyms: —

1 . Rupyāl, descended from Rup Khān.

2. Barwāna, from Baru Khān.

3. Daphrāl, from Daphar Khān.

4. Dhurāl, from Dhaur Khān.

5. Darwesāl, from Darwesh Khān.

6. Jaskāl, from Jaisak Khān.

7. Maindāl, from Jalāl Din, Kiās Din and Bhurā Khān.

8. Bārānshāhia, from Bāran Khān.

9. Samwāliā, from Muhammad Khan.

10. Miānā, from Muhammad Khan.

11. Malkc4nii, from Muhammad Khan.

12. Malkāl, from Malik Khān.

13. Ghaniyāl, from Ghani Khān.

14. Ghaghial, from Ghaghi Khān.

Chilasi (चिलासी), an inhabitant of Chilās, which is a canton comprising six valleys in the Indus Kohistan. Its inaccessibility has given the Chilasis a spirit of independence and a distinctive character among all the Kohistan communities. Though but somewhat recent converts to Islam they are more fanatical than any other Dard community, and being Sunnis, every Shia who falls into their hands is put to death, without the usual alternative of slavery. Once subject to Gilgit, the Chilāsis were notorious for slave-raiding and they once repulsed a Sikh expedition from Kashmir. In 1851 they were however subdued by that State and now give no trouble to its government. The love of music, dancing and polo, so general in the Indus Kohistan, is unknown in Chilās. Tradition says that the whole of Shinkāri was once ruled by a Hindu rājā, Chachai by name, from Chilas, which, on his death without issue, became divided into republics, as it is now. Later, a civil war between two brothers, Bot and Matchuk, ended in the expulsion of the latter's adherents, and the Bote are now the most prosperous family in the canton. Tradition also preserves the name of Naron, the old tutelary deity of Chilas. Each village is independent and has a number of elected elders, jushteros, but they are the servants, rather than leaders, of those whom they represent. The elders are mostly occupied in the details of the village administration, but all matters are discussed in the sigas or public meeting, whose decision is announced by them. If several villages combine to hold a sigas, each appoints a jushtero, and after the general discussion, which is as open as that at a village sigas, a loud whistle is given, after which none but the representative jushteros are permitted to speak. The elders' decisions about land disputes are respected, but criminal justice is administered by the mullahs, who profess to follow the Muhammadan Law, but who are really guided by ancient custom, which is very strong in some villages. Murder is rare and is generally regarded as a tort to be avenged by the nearest relation. The blood feud is however not allowed to continue indefinitely and after a time the parties are made to swear peace on the Quran,— Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh, pp. 17 and 18.

Chiliss — Chishti
  • Chiliss (चिलिस्स), a group of some 200 families, so called by their neighbours, but styling themselves Galis, found scattered in the Kohi tract in the Indus Kohistan. Originally, say their traditions, settled in Buner, they migrated to Swat and thence to the Indus in vain attempts to escape conversion to Islam. They are looked up to by their neighbours and occupy, as a rule, the best land in the country. Probably an offshoot of the Torwalik, they doubtless derive their name from Chahil,* the principal village in Torwal: Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh, pp. 10, 69.
  • Chima (चीमा).— One of the largest Jat tribes in the Punjab. They say that some 25 generations back their ancestor Chima, a Chauhan Rajput, fled from Delhi after the defeat of Rai Tanura (Prithi Raj), by Muhammad of Ghor, first to Kangra in the Delhi District and then to Amritsar, where his son Chotu Mal founded a village on the Beas in the time of Ala-ud-din. His grandson was called Rana Kang, and the youngest of his eight sons, Dhol (the name appears among the Hinjra), was tho ancestor of their present clans— Dogal, Mohtil, Nagara and Chima. The Chima have the peculiar marriage customs described under tho Sahi Jats, and they are said to be served by Jogis instead of Brahmans, but now-a-days Bhania purohits are said to perform their ceremonies. They are a powerful and united tribe, but quarrelsome. They are said to marry within the tribe as well as with their neighbours. The bulk of the tribe embraced Islam in the times of Firoz Shah and Aurangzeb, but many retain their old customs. They are most numerous in Sialkot, but hold 42 villages in Gujranwala, and have spread both eastwards and westwards along the foot of the hills.
It is noteworthy that tho tribe takes its generic name from its youngest clan, and is descended from Dhol, a youngest son.
Another genealogy is—
I. Rai Tanura → Chotu Mal → Chima (4th in descent) → Audhan → Ravan, founded Chima.
II. Rai Tanura → Chotu Mal → Chima (4th in descent) → Audhar
The Sialkot Pamphlet of 1866 makes them Somabansi Rajputs, claiming descent from Rama (sic) Ganj. It also says they follow the chundavand rule of inheritance.
  • Chishti (चिश्ती). — The Chishtis are by origin one of tho regular Muhammadan orders. They trace their foundation to one Abu Ishaq, ninth in succession from Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, who migrating

* But Chiliss also occurs as a proper name in Hurza, Ibid, p, 27.
Sic : for Pithora.

The Chisti sect

from Asia Minor, settled at Chisht, a village in Khurasan and became the teacher of a large body of Musalmans.* One of his successors, Khwaja Muin-ud-din Chishti, a native of Sanjar in Persia, migrated to India in the time of Ghias-ud-din Balban, settled in Ajmer and established the order in India. His khalifa or immediate successor was Khwaja Qutb-ud-din Bakhtiar Kaki, who is buried near the Qutb Minar at Delhi, and his successor was the celebrated Baba Farid Shakarganj, whose shrine is at Pakpattan in Montgomery. The surname of this saint is said to be derived from the fact that, owing to the purity of his body, all he ate became sugar : if we may trust another story, he " nourished himself by holding to his stomach wooden cakes and fruits when he felt hungry. This miraculous but inexpensive provender is still preserved." An immense fair is held at his shrine each year, and the object of every pilgrim who attends is to get through the narrow gate of the shrine on the afternoon or night of the 6th Muharram. The saint is adored by Hindus†† as well as Musalmans, and to be a disciple of Baba Farid does not necessarily imply being a Chishti ; and, again, the descendants of this saint and his relations, carnal or spiritual, have formed themselves into a separate caste of men who are found on the Sutlej in Montgomery and who, though bearing the name of Chishti, are now in all respects an ordinary lay caste, quite apart from the religious order of the same name.

Baba Farid had two disciples : one of these was Ali Ahmad surnamed Sābir, whose shrine is at Piran Kaliar near Rurki, and whose followers are known as Sabir Chishtis ; the other was the celebrated and mysterious Nizām-ud-din Aulia (1232-1324 A.D.), around whose tomb are collected some of the choicest monuments of ancient Delhi, and whose disciples are known as Nizāmis.

The Chishtis in repeating the profession of faith lay a peculiar stress on the words Illallāhu, repeating these with great violence, and shaking at the same time their heads and the upper part of their bodies. The sect is said to be specially affected by Shias, and it is distinguished by its adoption of vocal music in its religious services. The members of the order are worked up by these religious songs to a high pitch of excitement, and often sink down exhausted. They frequently Wear coloured clothes, especially clothes dyed with ochre or with the bark of the acacia tree. Their principal shrines in the Punjab are the tomb of Nizam-ud-din Aulia at Delhi, The khangāh of Miran Bhik in Ambala, the shrine of Baba Farid at Pakpattan, and the khangāh of Hazrat Sulaimān at Taunsa in Dera Ghazi Khan.

In Bahawalpur the Chishti sect has in modern times shown great vitality. Shaikh Taj-ud-din Chishti was a grandson of Farid-ud-din Shakarganj and his descendants founded the village of Chishtian in that State. His shrine is also called Roza Taj Sarwar. Many tribes accepted Islam at his hands, especially the Sodha and Rath, and this led to war with the Rajputs of Bikaner. The saint on going forth to battle

* " The Chishti or Chishtia is an order of Muhammadan faqirs founded by Banda NawaZ who is buried at Kalbargah." — Punjab Census Report, 1881, Section 518.
See the interesting account of this saint given in the late Mr. Carr Stephen's Archaeology of Delhi, p. 174 seqq. He is the patron saint of the Afghans,
†† In Gurgaou the shrine of Shaikh Ahmad Chishti is mainly frequented by Hindus.

The Chishti revival

pitched a flag on top of his house and told his women-folk that as long as the flag stood they would know he was safe. Unfortunately the flag was accidentally knocked down and the women prayed for the earth to swallow them up as the saint had commanded. Their prayer was granted and they were engulfed, only the edges of their shawls remaining outside. A tower was built on the spot and at it women still make vows. One of the women, however, a Bhatti by tribe, did not join in the prayer and was not engulfed, but made her escape. Hence the Chishtis do not marry Bhatti women to this day. Near this shrine, at the tomb of Khwaja Nur Muhammad, stood five large jand trees, called panjan Pirān de jand, or the jand trees of the five pirs. Under their shade Bāwa Nānak once sat and prophesied that he who should obtain possession of it would indeed be blessed, for it was a part of paradise. Muhammadans hero sacrifice goats and sheep after offering prayers for rain. Hindus offer a covering of chintz for the restoration of health, and sugar and boiled grain for rain.

The Chishti revival. — The decay of the movement headed by Bawa Farid Shakarganj had become marked, when Khwaja Nur Muhammad Qibla-i-Alim, a Punwar Rajput of the Kharral tribe, revived it. This saint was a disciple of Maulana Fakhr-ud-din, Muhib-ul-Nabi, of Delhi. He had miraculous powers and once saved the sinking ship of one of his disciples,* his spirit being able to leave his body at will. He had promised another disciple to pray for him at his death, and though he pre-deceased him, re-appeared in the flesh and fulfilled the promise. It would seem that in a sense the rise of the Chishti sect marks an indigenous revival of Islam, under religious leaders of local tribes, instead of the older Sayyid families. Thus the Baloch tribes on the Indus are often followers of the Chishti saints, but even the Sayyids of both branches recognize their authority.

The four chief khalifas of Qiblā,-i-Alim were, Nur Muhammad II, of Hajipur or Narowala, in tahsil Rajanpur, Qāzi Muhammad Aqil, of Chācharān Sharif, Hafiz Muhammad Jamal, Multāni, and Khwāja Muhannnad Sulaiman Khan, of Taunsa Sharif, in tahsil Sanghai. Khalifa Muhammad Aqil was a Qoraishi and one of his descendants. Shaikh Muhammad Kora, founded the religious tribe of that name. Muhammad Aqil's shrine was at Kot Mithan, but, when Ranjit Singh conquered the Derajat, Khwaja Khuda Bakhsh, Mahbub Ilahi, his descendant, settled at Chacharan Sharif, which may now be regarded as the head- quarter of the Bahawalpur State religion. Muhammad Aqil displayed many miracles and in his old age, owing to his spiritual enlightenment, had no shadow ; so he used to come out of his house on dark nights only, in order to conceal his sanctity. A cloth (luugi) which passed through his body is kept as a relic to this day. One of his khalifas was Maulvi Sultan Mahmud whose shrine is at Khan Bela. This saint was fond of missi, a kind of bread, of fowls and of snuff, in his lifetime; so these are offered at his shrine — a clear instance of anthropolatry — very similar are the offerings made to Birs. The Sufis, or devotees of the Chishtia sect, have a number of songs (kāfis) which they consider the food of the soul. Their principal poets are Budha Shah, Ghulam Shah, a

* Cf. the story of the Sikh Guru Ram Rai given at section 32 of the Punjab Census Report, 1902.
Chitragupta-bansi — Chitrāli

Sindhi, and Khwaja Ghulam Farid, late sajjdda-nisin of Chacharan Sharif. The Chishtis, generally, are devoted to music. Outwardly the followers of the sajjāda-nashins of Chacharān are distinguished by a special head-dress, the Chācharān-Wāla top, or hat, which is shaped like a mosque and is about 15 inches high, covering the ears and neck.

As a caste the Chishtis appear to be absorbing the Naqshbandis, many of the Qadrias and other Sufi sects, especially in the south-east Punjab. Like the Bodlas the Chishtis were till lately wholly nomad. They take Rajput girls to wife. There is a saying — " You can tell a Chishti by his squint-eye " ; but the origin of the saying is unknown.

Chitragupta-bansi (चित्रगुप्त-बंसी), one of the two classes of the Kayasths q. v., found in Northern India.


Chitrali (चितराली ),* an inhabitant of the State of Chitral. The Chitralis are divided into three classes — Adamzadas, Arbābzādas and Faqir-Miskin. The first-named are divided into some 23 clans including the Kator, the family of the Mihtar of Chitral, whence it is also called Mihtari. The other Adamzada clans are —

Khushwakte. ††
Raza. ††
Muhammad Bege.††
Sangale. ††
Khaniye. ††
Zundre or Ronos.
Atam Bege.
Khoshal Bege.
Munfiat Khane.

From the Rono§ families the wazirs are generally, but not always, chosen. The Ronos are most numerous in Yassin, Mastuj and Chitral, and are found, though in decreasing numbers, as one goes eastward, in Nilgar, Gilgit, Punyal, etc. In Nagar and Yassin they call themselves Hara or Haraiyo, in Wakhan and Sarikul Khaibar-Khatar, and in Shighnan Gaibalik-Khatar. Wherever found they are held in great respect. Three principal traditions as to their origin exist, (1) that they descended from Zun, Rono and Harai, the three sons of Sumalik who ruled in Mastuj before the Shdhrei dynasty of the Shins was established ; (2) that they are of Arab descent, from Muhammad Hanifa, son of Ali ; and (3) that they came from the ancient principality of Rajauri, near Punch, and are descended from three brothers, Sirang, Surung and Khangar Phututo. In appearance generally taller than the other inhabitants of Chitral, with rather high cheek-bones, oval faces not thickly bearded, and fairly developed features, some of them resemble high-class Rajputs in type. They give daughters to the ruling families, and the children of

* Chitral, Chitrar or Chitlar, as it is also called, will be found described in the Imperial Gazetteer.
The Khushwakte were rulers of Mastuj and conquered Yassin. Descendants of the Katore and Khushwakte families are alike called Mihtarjao or Mihtarbak, i,e. sons of Mihtars.
†† Called collectively Shah Sangale : descended from the common ancestor and founder of the Katori and Khushwakte families.
§ Rono appears to be unquestionably the same word as Rana, the change from a to o being very common. Philological speculation might suggest the following equivalents: Sumalik = Siwalik ; Zun = Jun, the aborigines of Sialkot ; Khatar = Kshatriya, Khattri, or Khattar (in Rawalpindi).

Chitral Continued:to be added



Chokar - Chuhṛā
  • Chokar (चोकर), Chhokar (छोकर), a Gujar tribe, found in Karnal, where they have long been settled. Immigratiag from beyond Muttra they once hold a chaubisi, or group of 24 villages, with Namaunda as their head-quarters.
  • Chotia (चोटिया), one of the clans of the Pachadas (q. v.). They claim to be Chauhan Rajputs by descent from their eponjm, Chotia. Most of them are Muhammadans and only a few Hindus.


  • Chuhal (चुहाल), an agricultural clan found in Shahpur.
  • Chuhan (चुहान), (? Chauhan) a sept of Baurias, claiming Chauhan descent, found in Ferozepur. They avoid the use of oil in lamps, and use ghi instead. After the wedding a girl seldom revisits her parents' home, and if in consequence of a quarrel with her husband's people she does do so, and dies in her paternal home, her parents are bound to find another bride for her husband in her stead. Fornication in this sept is punished with excommunication and re-admission to the caste only permitted on payment of a fine, but even that does not remove the stigma.
  • Chuhra (चुहड़ा). — The sweeper or scavenger, and hence the out-caste, par excellence, of the Punjab, whose name is popularly supposed to be a corruption of Sudra.* It has many synonyms, but few of them are precisely the exact equivalent of Chuhra. Thus a Chamār is, probably by origin, a Chuhra who works in leather, but the Chamars appear to form almost a distinct caste, though both the castes are placed in the same rank and lumped together in the popular phrase Chuhrā-Chamar, just as Mochi-Julāhā, is used to denote collectively the two castes which bear those names. As a scavenger or rather as a 'sweeper up of dust ' the Chuhra is termed khāk-rob. As a domestic he is ironically styled Mihtar or 'chieftain': as a worker in leather he is called a Ḍheḍ (lit. 'crow '), as a weaver he is styled Megh, at least in Sialkot, in which district the Meghs however form to all intents and purposes a separate caste : and as an executioner he is known as Jallad. Further as a tanner the Chuhra is called a Khatik in the Eastern Punjab, and as a breeder of swine he is known as a Hāli. These two groups appear to form distinct castes, or at least sub-castes which rank below the Chuhrā, proper. The Khatiks have a sub-group called Basur. Change of religion also involves the adoption of a new title and the Chuhra on conversion to Sikhism becomes a Mazbi or Mazhabi,

* Once Balmik, founder of the caste, arrived late at a feast given by a Bhagat and found only fragments of it left. These he devoured and earned the name of Chuhra or 'one who eats leavings.'
But in Gurgaon mihtar is used as equivalent to chaudhri and the term may be originally free from any taint of irony.

Chuhras Continued: To be added


The Chuhrās have oral traditions which they recite at their gatherings. If a Chuhrā, wishes to learn them, he becomes the disciple of some one who is in possession of them, i. e., who can repeat them from memory. I heard, however, that there was a book of the Chuhrās in Gujranwala District, but I was unable to obtain it, as the owners had the idea that I would use it to their disadvantage.

Chunian (चुनियन), a Muhammadan Jat clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery.

Churahi (चुराही) is the generic name for the people of the Churāh wizārat, in Chamba State, who include Brahmans, Rajputs, Thakurs, Rathis, and the following low castes : — Hālis, Kolis, Sippis, Barwālas, Lohārs, Chamārs, Dumnas, Rihāras, Chanāls, Meghs, etc. The low castes are all endogamous.

Tradition makes the Thakurs descendants of the old Ranas, or petty chieftains, who held Chamba, prior to the foundation of the State by the Rājās, and the Hālis, its oldest inhabitants. It also makes the Brahmans immigrants from Brahmaur and the Rajputs from the plains ; but the Rathis preceded these two castes, having been expelled from the Dugar country by Gugga Chauhan — a curious legend.

Marriage among the Churāhis is adult, and women are allowed every license before marriage. Three degrees on either side, counting from the grandparents, are avoided, but otherwise there are few restrictions, Brahmans intermarrying with Rathis, by both forms of marriage, and also with Rajputs and Thakurs. Polyandry is not recognized, but polygamy is, and the first or head wife (bari Iāri*) is given Rs. 6 when a second wife is admitted into the house. This fee is called jethwagh.

The observances at betrothal are simple. The initiative is taken by the boy's people, and the binding rite consists in the boy's agents placing eight Chamba coins, worth nearly 2 annas, in the plates used for entertaining the bride's rubārus or representatives, and giving one rupee for ornaments to the girl.

Marriage is of three kinds. In the superior form, called janāi, the preliminaries are as follows : — Some six months before the wedding the boy's father or brother goes to the girl's house with one or two friends and gives her father Rs. 7 and a goat as his lāg. A rupee is also given to the bride to buy ornaments, and this is called bandhā denā. If the parents

* Lāri = wife.
Fr.jeiha. elder and wāgh, a share,
†† Janāi (jāni = marriage), janāi appears to be a diminutive.
§ Lāg, a customary due.
Bandhā — jewellery.

Weddings in Churah

agree, an auspicious day is fixed for the wedding, and a day before it two messengers (dhāmu*) from the bride's house come to fetch the boy, who worships the family deva or devi. Next day, accompanied by a few friends and one of the dhāmu, he goes to the bride's house. One of the boy's menial Hālis accompanies him, carrying the badhāi, a present of two mānis†† of grain, to her father. This Hāli is called putriār§. On his arrival at the entrance the boy worships the kumbh (a vessel full of water) ; throwing two copper coins into it and then seating himself on a blanket placed near the wall. The bride's sister now has a mimic fight with him and does not let him sit down till he has paid her two annas. This is called bishk. She then fetches the bride and seats her by the boy whose future brother-in-law brings a vessel of boiled rice which he and the boy's brother scatter over the floor. This is called bhāt chingāna**. The pair are then seated, as are the guests, and a feast with songs and dancing follows. The bride's dowry called suāj††† is then given to her by her parents. In the afternoon the boy's party returns to his house with two or three of the girl's friends, and the bride herself and other men and women of the bride's party. Before leaving the threshold of the bride's house the ceremony of ārti*** is performed, a lighted lamp being waved four times rouud the head of the pair by a priest, who recites verses from the Suklāmber and Deo Lilā. At the boy's house this observance is repeated, and the kumbh worshipped by the bride and bridegroom, at the door. Then the boy's mother lifts up the bride's veil and presents her with a rupee or half a rupee according to her position. This is called ghundu§§ kharā karnā. After this a feast is eaten and another feast given on the following day, and songs and dances performed. The binding portion of the ceremony is when ārti is waved round the couple's heads at the boy's house. At his wedding the boy wears a high peaked cap like a Gaddi's, but not a sehra‖ ‖.

Within a month after the marriage the married pair pay a visit to the wife's parents and make them a small present. This observance is called har-phera¶¶.

Widow remarriage is recognised. Formerly the widow was obliged to many one of the deceased husband's brothers, but now this is not the practice. She can choose her own husband within her own caste or sub-division. This union is solemnized by an inferior form of marriage called sargudhi**** . There are no dhāmu, and the bridegroom simply goes to the woman's house with his putriār and brother. The bandhā is given as at a regular wedding, but ārti is not performed, and there is less feasting and the cost is much less. The binding ceremony in this form is when an ornament is put on her, usually a nose-ring.

* Dhāmu, fr. dham a feast: dhāmu = guest.
Badhāi, fr. baṛhna, to increase.
†† Māni, a measure.
§ Putriār, from putr, a son .
Kumbh = a new ghaṛā full of water.
Bishk, fr. bishnā = baiṭhnā, to sit down.
** Chingāna, to scatter.
††† Suāj, dowry : fr. suā, red.
*** ārti. to swing round anything from right to left.
§§ Ghundu-chādar, a bride's head-dress.
‖ ‖ Sehra, bridegroom's bead-dress.
¶¶ Har-phera, fr, har, God, and pherā, to go ; to visit in the name of God,
**** Sargudhi, fr. sar, head (hair) and gudhnā or gundhna, to plait.

Marriage in Churāh

A quiet form of sargudhi marriage is called garib chāra*. The lāg, etc., are all rendered as in the other form, but on an auspicious day the bridegroom accompanied by his sister simply goes to the bride's house, and at the entrance worships the kumbh. He then seats himself on the blanket in the usual way, and the girl is seated next him by her mother. After eating the couple take leave of the girl's father and proceed to the boy's house where the kumbh is again touched. This second worship of the kumbh makes the marriage binding.

The third and lowest form of marriage is the bandhā luāndā in which a widow, who is to marry her husband's brother, is married to him on the kiria day, i.e., 7th to the 11th or 13th day after the first husband's death. She puts aside her late husband's ornaments and puts on his brother's, in token that she accepts him. A he-goat is sacrificed at home to the deceased husband and a small feast usually given. The widow's parents need not attend, but they are entitled to a lāg, called bakrā, as being the price of a goat. If the widow wishes to marry a stranger, he must pay the bakrā of one rupee, and Re. 1-8 or Rs. 3 as chadyāli†† to her parents. An auspicious day after the kiria karm period is ascertained from a jotshi,§ and the ornaments changed as described above.

Lastly a man who elopes with a girl can, after a certain interval, open negotiations with her father, and if he assents, pay him Rs. 7 and a goat as compensation. This observance is termed lāg rit and operates as a valid marriage.

The custom of gharjawāntri or service in lieu of a money payment for a wife, is common among all castes in the State, especially in the Churah and Sadr wizārats. The term of service is usually three or seven years, and the marriage may take place at any time if the girl's father is agreeable.

A husband may divorce his wife if he cannot get on with her. The divorce is complete if the husband receives back his ornaments and says : "I have divorced you, Rājā ki durohi** i.e., on the Raja's oath. The husband also breaks a stick in her presence. Divorced wives can remarry if they like.

In succession all sons, even bastards, if recognized by the father, succeed on equal terms, but the eldest son gets the best field as his jethwāgh ; the second son gets a special implement, sickle, sword or axe as his hathiār, while the third gets the family house as his mulwāher.

The son (rand put) or daughter (rand dhiā†††) of a widow born in her husband's house has all the rights of her deceased husband's own children. It is, however, essential that the widow should continue to live in her husband's house and the child be begotten therein.

* 'The custom (chāra) of the poor.'
Luānā = to put on as a dress.
†† Chadyāli, fr. chadnā = choṛnā, to let go.
§ Jotshi, an astrologer.
Rit = custom.
Marriage customs differ considerably in the eastern and western portions of Churah, and the above description chiefly applies to the eastern half. In the western half the byāh or full marriage rite, according to orthodox Hindu custom, is the rule, and the janai is uncommon ; but the other forms are as above.
** Durohi = oath,
††† Rand = 'widow', and dhiā = daughter.

Tenures in Churāh

All dead Hindus except children not yet tonsured are burnt. The head is placed towards the north and the hands on the chest, the face being turned skyward. The Hindu rites are, in essentials, observed, but the place of the achāraj is taken by the Bhat.

For seven, nine or thirteen days mourning is observed, only one meal a day, called upās*, being eaten, and on the day on which mourning is to cease, a suit of good woollen clothes (which are prepared beforehand in anticipation of death and worn on festival days) is given to the priest , who presides over the obsequies. Sixteen balls of rice are prepared and offered to the deceased's ancestors and finally removed and thrown into the nearest stream. The relations of the deceased also wash their clothes and a he-goat is killed. Then a feast is given to the relations and the mourning ends. This feast is usually given by the deceased's wife's parents. Ceremonies are performed and balls made and offered after one, three and six months, a year and four years, to the deceased. At the latter, i. e., at the end of the fourth year, called chubarki, the ceremonial is done on a big scale.

The obsequies of any man who dies childless are done in the same way, but if he brings any calamity on the household an effigy is made and placed near a spring or on the roof of the house or in some good place and worshipped by offering him a cap, bread, and an earthen pot of ghi which are finally worn and eaten by the man who is supposed to have been affected by him. The spirit of the person who dies a violent death is appeased by taking an earthen pot full of boiled ghi, a pitcher full of water, and a goat to the spot where he met his death, and the goat is killed there and his head and the vessels rolled down the hill. This is done on the paniyāru, i.e., on the kiria karm day. The people perform sarādh. Ceremonies are also performed for the propitiation of ancestors in general.

The Churāhis are zamindars and hold land on two forms of tenure. Those who pay half its produce are called ghārā†† and those who pay a fixed share of grain, etc., are called mudyāri.§ The half share is alone divided after deducting the seed for the next crop. Occupancy tenants are not allowed any special privilege in the shape of remission of rent or favourable rates. The Churāhis are primarily and essentially cultivators, but many of them own flocks of sheep and goats with which, like the Gaddis, they visit Pāngi in summer and the low hills in winter.

The Churdāhis worship the deities on the following days :—

Shiv — Sunday, Monday and Thursday.
Sakti — Sunday, Monday and Tuesday.
Nag or Mahal — Thursday and Saturday.
Kailu — Thursd ay .
Kyelang — Sunday and Thursday.
Sitla — Sunday, Tuesday and Thursday.
Chaund — Tuesday, Thursday and Sunday.

* Upās = fast.
Men who have died childless are propitiated by putting garlands of flowers and a red woollen cap on their effigies on the Sankrānt and Uāns days.
Fr. ghār = half,
§ Fr. muda, a fixed amount.

Churāhi festivals

To Shiv are offered a chola or woolen coat, a sheep, charms of silver oblong; in shape worn round the neck, a nādi (a silver-arch ornament shaped like a drum). These offerings are taken by the head of the family, and the ornaments are worn by him out of respect for Shiv and to avert his wrath. To Sakti Devi are offered, as elsewhere, a goat, trident and cakes. The offerings to a Nag are an iron mace (khanḍa), a crooked iron stick (kundi), (these are left at the shrine), a sheep and cakes (these are divided among the priest, chela and worshipper, and eaten). To Kailu are offered a red cap, an iron mace and a kid. The cap and part of the kid go to the priest, the rest to the worshipper. Kyelang's offerings are a mace, a goat and a red cap. Sitla's offerings are a goat and cakes like the Devi's. Chaund gets cakes, and occasionally a goat, is also sacrificed at her shrine.

Churahis make a pilgrimage to Manmahesh in Bhadon or in Asuj, on the Drub Ashtami day.

Blocks of wood or stone which are supposed to possess some supernatural attributes are worshipped. When a deity is to be set up for the first time and consecrated, a Brahman's presence is necessary. The priests preside at shrines; and in dwellings the elder members of the household. Priests are not selected from the Brahman class only, but from all the other castes except low castes. Brahmans, Rajputs, Rathis and Thakkars are eligible to hold the position of a priest.

The following are some of the festivals observed in Churāh :—

1. Biswā., on 1st Baisākh, at which pindri or balls of grain are eaten with honey and ghi or gur. People also collect together tor singing and dancing, this being the Hindu New Year's Day.

2. Patroru ki sankrdāt* on 1st Bhadon, held in memory of their ancestors. Flour is mixed with water, salt and spices and spread on bhuji leaves, called patroru, and eaten.

3. Māsru, held on the same day as the Drub Ashtami at Manimahesh in honour of Shiva — that is, on the eighth day of the light half of Bhadon. It is accompanied by dancing.

4. Several of the ordinary melas observed in the capital, such as Holi, Diwali, Lohri, etc., are also held in Churāh.

5. Chhinj, or wrestling matches, associated with the Lakhdāta cult, are held annually in every pargana of Churah.

Churera (चुरेरा), a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery.

Churigar (चूरीगर) : (i) a maker of bracelets, called in the west Bangera or Wangrigar. Also called sometimes Kachera or glass-worker, the Churigar generally makes bracelets of glass or lac, which are sold in the east by the Maniār, and in the west by the Bangera. The Churigar also makes bracelets of bell-metal or any other material except silver or gold. The term is probably merely an occupational one, and in the east of the Punjab practically synonymous with Maniār. (2) A Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan.

* Sanhrānt = first day of the month.

End of C

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