|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)|
Site of Indus Valley Civilization
This site had multi-level structures, although it was never a big city. Amri culture is named after the site.
Pre-Harappan stage: The earliest phase was a fortified town that flourished from 3600 to 3300 BC, and belonged to the Pre-Harappan stage of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Situated near the foothills of Kirthar Mountains, this was an important earlier urban center in Lower Sindh. Amri is close to Balochistan where development of earlier farming communities from 6000 BC to 4000 BC ultimately led to urbanization. Amri is dated after Rehman Dheri.
The ancient mounds of 8 hectares on the west bank of Indus River have been extensively excavated. The pottery discovered there had its own characteristics and is known as Amri Ware. Like other Pre Harappa towns, no writings were found at this site. Evidence indicates widespread fire at the town around 2500BC.
In period II (ca. 2750-2450 BC), more and more elements of Indus Valley culture appear.
Period III (ca. 2450-1900 BC) belongs almost entirely to Indus Valley culture.
Period IV (ca. 1900-1300 BC) is marked by the mingling of cultural traditions. Elements of the Jhukar culture appear, and co-exist with the last phase of the Indus Valley culture. Later, the elements of Jhangar culture appear.
Period V is Muslim and dated much later.
Based on the evidence from this site, Indus culture was probably not developed directly from Amri culture. Also, at least at this location, rather than suddenly being replaced by the Amri culture, there was a co-existence of both cultures.
- Higham, Charles (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1-4381-0996-1.
- History of Humanity: From the third millennium to the seventh century B.C. UNESCO. 1994. pp. 674–. ISBN 978-92-3-102811-3.
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