An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan/Page 126-150
|The full text of this book has been converted into Wiki format by Laxman Burdak|
By H. W. Bellew
The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891
Ethnology of Afghanistan:Page 126-150
- 1 Nasar (Contd.
- 2 Ushtarani
- 3 Dadi tribes
- 4 The Baloch
- 5 Hadi, Bagal, Chaji, Chango, Mund. Suraj, Jhar, Kaleri,Rustam
- 6 Bhala,Chakar, Chango,Digar,Ladu, Lagar,Poladi,Jangal
- 7 Meherya, Bangi, Mor, Takhar, Jandi, Jangu, Jat, Kamal,Meo
- 8 Bhada, Bhati, Jand, Mando, Mir, Bagal, Chot,Gorchani
- 9 Bakar, Chang, Choti, Dalal, Gat, Hoti, Jand, Jangi, Kang, Korpat, Thalar, Turkal
- 10 Khatran
- 11 Jam, Nahar, Salar, Balait, Dahima,Hel, Jatal, Khidar, Mohra
- 12 Musa or Musa-khel
- 13 Luni, Ladu, Mado, Mal, Lasari, Kok, Mandi, Mangal, Nur, Sikhi,Aba
- 14 Barechi, Abu, Badal, Barak, Basa, Basok, Miyani, Lath,
- 15 Ormur, Haran, Malani, Kahan, Bhawal, Gusar,Jangi, Kandar, Khongari, Lohar, Pawadi, Salar, Sarwar
- 16 Mahal, Mandu, Nuri, Rohal
- 17 Kaspioi, Pausikai, Pantimathoi, Daritai
- 18 Ater, Bari, Kalasha, Katar, Kati, Mil, Pandu, Rana
- 19 Bashgali
- 20 Kator rulers in Kashkar
- 21 Daritai
- 22 Sahris dynasty
- 23 Shin, China
[Page-126]: Nasar sections are —
- Bhar is the name of an aboriginal Indian tribe, now represented in this region by the Brahwi of Kalat, Balochistan.
- Chalak is for Chaluk, or Solanki, Rajput.
- Daud for Dadu, to be noticed presently.
- Domush stands for Zwaemukkt, before described.
- Manak stands for Manat, mercantile Rajput.
- Shadi is the same as Khadi and Khodo, frequently met before ; stands for Shudi (the tschoudi of the Russians, and modern Esthonians), or for Chato Brahman.
- Spinki, Surki, and Tarahki, mean Nasar of the White, Red and Black classes respectively. Most of the other names have been previously noticed.
The Furmuli, or Purmuli (Pamphylai of Herodotus), are said to number six thousand families in Afghanistan, and to inhabit the eastern slopes of Suleman range bordering upon the Paltu pass. The district they occupy is named after them Furmul, and its chief town is called Wurghun, or Urghun, which has been before noticed. The Furmuli are very little known out of Afghanistan ; in their isolated position they are said to mix little with their neighbours ; they are a quiet and industrious people, engaged in agriculture, and trade in iron ; they are largely employed in Furmul (Burmul) in the smelting of iron ore ; they work up the metal for sale in "Western Afghanistan through the agency of the Kharoti. The Furmul district (Barmol of the Vaziri before mentioned) is described as a valley draining to the Kuram river, its sides thickly covered with pines and other forest trees, and its central part well cultivated and covered with gardens and orchards, and producing all the ordinary fruits of the country in abundance, the apples being of excellent quality. The Furmuli are situated between the Vaziri and the Kharoti, and are reckoned as Tajik ; their language is the old Persian of the Shah Nama ; they are quite distinct from both the Afghan and Pathan, but claim to be of common descent with the Khiliji, whose capital, they say, was the city of Khilij, to the westward of the Helmand and Kala Bost. Perhaps there is here some hazy reference to the ancient Kilikia in Asia Minor. There are, it is said some Furmuli at Kabul and in the districts to its west, chiefly engaged in trade. There is a village called Furmul, or Purmul, in the Yusufzai country, at the south entrance to the Surkhawai pass into Boner
[Page-127]: The Ushtarani, Ushturani, Ushturi, Sturyani, or Sturi, are the modern representatives of the ancient Stauri, mentioned by Pliny (Hist. Nat. vi. 18) along with the Tapyri, the Anariaki, and the Hyrkani as occupying the country between the Apavortene (Abivard) region and the district of Margiana (Murghab), According to the Afghan accounts, the Ushturyana formerly occupied the Sturyani chah and Tarawi or Tari districts to the north-east of Kandahar; districts freely watered by Korez streams, and celebrated for their fertility, and from which they were expelled by the Lahwan clan of the Kakar.
The Ushturyani are not allowed to be of Afghan or Pathan descent, though they are included among the Pathan tribes from having adopted their language and nationality; they are now partly an agricultural and partly a nomadic people; those of the former class inhabit the hills to the west of Kolachi in the Dera Ismail district, whilst the other join the Povindah caravan traders, and move backwards and forwards between the Derajat Daman on the Indus, and Kandahar plain on the Helmand, according to the seasons, spending winter in India, and summer in Khorasan. The nomadic Ushturyani live entirely in the black-hair tents called kizhdi which they pitch in small clusters — from two or three to a score or more — in the form of a camp, called kiri (kora of Eastern Turkistan) ; but the settled sections of the tribe live in small movable huts of mud-plastered wicker work made from the tamarisk, which they build in the form of a village called jhok (a Panjabi word), and kiri indifferently, both being terms of Indian origin, signifying "circle," or "cluster."
The Ushturyani are reckoned at five thousand families, and about half the number is settled as agriculturists and cattle dealers; they are a free, brave, and manly people, rough in manners, and of predatory inclinations. The Gandahpur section of the Ushturyani is chiefly settled in British territory along the Derajat Daman from Tank to Draband, and have become a quiet, orderly, and industrious people, and now number amongst them some enterprising and wealthy (for these people) merchants.
Gandahpuri Sections are : —
Akhta. Ali. Amar. Amram. Aydak. Babar. Bahir. Bara. Bazak. Bojar. Brahim. Dadi. Dana. Doda. Dreplara. Gadae. Ganda. Haji. Hayat. Huaen. Isa. Isap. Jafar. Jali. Jamak. Kamal. Khalil. Khubi. Khyri. Maki.
[Page-128]: Mala. Malang. Mani. Mareri. Mena. Nasrat. Nekal. Pabahi. Paek. Para. Sarwan. Sedal. Shabi. Shadad. Shekhi. Sikandar. Sultan. Taji. Tano. Tarab. Utman. Ya'cub. Yahya. Zaoli. Zami. Zohak, etc.
Of these names,
- Akhta is that of an ancient tribe of Ghor, still known amongst the Tymani as Akhtan.
- Amar and Amram are apparently the same, and stand for Umra Pramara, whence perhaps the Khojak Amran range of mountains.
- Babar is a Gujar clan.
- Bara a Brahman clan.
- Bojar may stand for Bhojak Brahman, or for Bijherya, Rajput.
- Gadae and Ganda may stand for Gadi and Gandwal Indian herdsman tribes.
- Jamak for Jaemo, mercantile Rajput.
- Khyri for Khyr, Pramara.
- Sikandar stands for Alexander, and may indicate descendants of Alexander the Great and his followers.
- Pabahi, for Pabya, Chohan.
- Para is the same as Pari, frequently met before, and stands for Parihara, Rajput of royal race.
- Ya'cub stands for Akobi, a clan of Sklab (Slave) Turk.
- Zaoli and Zarni are names of tribes so called from inhabiting Zawal and Zami, districts of Ghazni and Ghor respectively.
- Zohak is the same as Zak and Sak, and stands for the ancient inhabitants of Sistan and Makran, Assyrian subjects of Nimrod, king of Babylon.
Hamar Sections are : —
- Hamar is the name of a Rajput tribe of the Sind desert.
- Bagar may stand for Bagrya, Indian desert tribe (aboriginal).
- Gagal for Kakalsa, mercantile Rajput ; or for Gogadeva Rahtor.
- Jaru for Jora, Rahtor.
- Matak, Motik, Mata, and Mita, frequently appearing in the sections already reviewed, seem to be all the same, and to stand for the Rajput Sri Mat.
- Tusa for Tassaira, Chohan.
- Panya for Puni, Pramara.
- The Hamar clans differ a good deal from the Gandapuri proper in appearance and customs ; some of them wear the hair in long ringlets like the Baloch, the Aman especially.
This completes our review of the tribes inhabiting tive country assigned in a previous passage to the ancient Sattagydai.
[Page-129]: many of the Pathan tribes along the Indus frontier, and on the other side of that river, beyond the area of our inquiry, the Daudputra of Bahawalpur represent the ancient Dadikai in a Musalman disguise. The ancient Dadikai country, of which the capital is now probably represented by the town of Dadar, near the entrance to the Bolan Pass from the side of India, may be defined as bounded on the north by the Khojak Amran and the Vihova ranges ; on the south by the Mula Pass to Khozdar ; on the east by the Indus ; on the west by the Kharan country, including Nushki and Shorawak. In the area thus marked off is included the district of Sibi, the ancient Siwisthan. Anciently Kharan (Caarene of Strabo, previously mentioned,) seems to have included the whole of the modern Kelat province of Balochistan, with its Sarawan and Jalawan, or Jhalawan, divisions, north and south respectively ; which, it seems, derive their names from the Sarwani and Jalwani tribes of Afghans, who were, it is said, planted as military colonists in this part of his frontier towards Makran by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni ; whose son and successor, renewing the attacks against Makran, confirmed and enlarged these colonies, during the first half of the eleventh century. The Sarwani is a branch of the Batani, and the Jalwani of the Shirani previously described. The principal of the Jalwani sections are Kongari, Mayar, Marwat, Nekbi, Salar, and Sipand.
The Sarwani Sections are : —
Acho. Aghok. Ahmad. Ako. Ali. Asek. Aso. Bali. Bubak. Dai. Dodo. Gadae. Hadya. Harun. Hybak. Ismail. Isot. Jafar. Kakor. Karbori. Malana. Malata. Malikyar. Mamo. Mata. Musa. Nahar. Nor. Puni. Rustam Saknot. Sam. Samya. Sanjar. Seni. Shakha. Soda. Sripal. Suri.
Of these names,
- Sarwani is a Rajput tribe (Parihara ?).
- Acho is an Indian tribe before mentioned, and to appear again as the Achakzi Durani.
- Aghok may stand for Aghori, Indian religious tribe.
- Kakor for Kakke Khatri.
- Karbori for Karbaira, mercantile Rajput.
- Malana for Malani Chohan.
- Malata for Malavat Rahtor.
- Malikyar for Molak, Indian herdsman tribe, and Jora Rahtor joined together.
- Mamo for Mama Brahman.
- Nahar for Naghar, mercantile Rajput.
- Puni is a Pramara tribe, so also is Soda.
- Most of the others we have met and noticed before.
The plain country between the Indus river and the hills projecting from the Suleman range forms the British district of Dera Ghazi, in which the population is very mixed, comprising various tribes of Musalmans, such as Sayad, Afghan, Pathan,
The Baloch comprise Lagari, Bozdar, Mazari, Lund, Kasrani, Dreshak, Kosah, and many other clans, of very mixed descent, who are said to have come into these parts towards the middle of the sixteenth century, when Humayun advanced, with the aid of Persia, through Khorasan, to recover his throne of Delhi, at the head of a numerous army very largely composed of the Baloch and other tribes of the Kandahar country.
The Baloch is now a very large and mixed tribe; and, in fact, forms a distinct nationality, entirely separate from the Afghan, and not included at all in their genealogical tables. Nor indeed do the Baloch come under the appellations of Afghan or Pathan, for by political relationship, rather than by blood descent, they are Persian more than Indian ; though by race, language, manners, and features they are decidedly Indian and not Persian.
The Baloch were originally the Rajput Balaecha and occupied the Kharan country adjoining their fellow tribesmen the Rajput Bharaecha (now represented in Afghanistan by the Bahrechi of Shorawak), both being clans of the great Chahuman, or Chohan, Agnikula. The latter have established some important and extensive colonies in India, and have given their name to a district (Bahraech) in Oudh; the Nuwwabship of Jhajjar (Delhi district) was another colony of this tribe, the late chief of which, a Bahraechi Pathan, was executed for his treachery in the Indian Mutiny of 1857. We shall speak of the Baloch later on, but must here notice such of their nationality as are now found within the area above assigned to the Dadikai, First, however, it will be convenient to dispose of the Bahrechi in Shorawak of Afghanistan.
Their country is a poor plain of hard clay, traversed by the Lora river, and surrounded by wastes of sand. The Barechi live in huts of wicker and matting, called Kadal (Persian Kada = "house"), and rear large numbers of camels.
In the plain country between the Indus and the Kala Roh range of hills to the west, are found the Baloch tribes above mentioned, and they may be here disposed of. Instead of the -Khel and -Zi of the Pathan and Afghan, the Baloch add to the names of their clans and sections the Persian possessive plural termination -ani, which means "those of" or "belonging to" ; thus—
Aliaini sections are : —
Hadiani sections are : —
Bagalani sections are : —
Most of the above names are easily recognised.
- Bozdar for Buzdar, Persian for "goat-herd," and perhaps the Musalman substitute for the Hindi Bhagta.
- Chaji for Chajira, Rahtor ;
- Chandi for Chanda, Chohan ;
- Chango for Chohan ;
- Gabol for Kapol, mercantile Rajput.
- Jogi is an Indian religious tribe.
- Khalil may stand for Kohila, Pramara, or for Kohala, Khatri.
- Lanjo for Langaha, Solanki ;
- Mehro for Mehra, Khatri.
- Mita perhaps for Maithili Brahman.
- Mund for Munda Kachwaha.
- Hadi stands for Hodi, Jat ;
- Basham for Bisan ;
- Bijar for Bijheryaj Rajput (Parihara?) ;
- Debi for Deba, Pramara;
- Haji for Hayobansi, Rajput ;
- Jhar for Jinhar, Gujar ;
- Kalohi for Kohali, Khatri;
- Samala for Simala, Rajput (Kachwaha or Parihara?).
- Shaho, or Shahi, very frequently met in preceding pages, is the Musalman rendering of the Indian Raoka, Solanki, both words meaning "of the king" in Persian and Hindi respectively.
- Zangal for Jangam, Indian religious tribe.
- Bagal stands for Bhagela, Solanki, or for Bhagel, mercantile Rajput.
- Baghi for Byragi, Indian religious tribe ;
- Dadu for Dadi ;
- Kaleri for Kalhar Khatri.
- Masu for Mahasu, or Mah Asu, " the great Aswa," Rajput tribe ;
- Nangri ? ? ? .
- Hybati, or Habti, those of the Hab river district ;
- Badoi for Bhadail, Rahtor ;
- Phero for Parihara.
- Rustam, the name of the celebrated Persian hero, may be ofIndian origin and affinity, his native country being Zabul or Ghazni, and his father's government Sistan and Kabul.
[Page-132]: passes, and have the Luni Pathan on their west border. Their sections are : —
Baskan. Bhala. Chakar. Chandya. Chango. Digar. Dol. Durk. Gadi. Gaham. Gamo. Ghulam. Isa. Jafar. Kalati. Kayani. Ladu. Lagar. Lund. Mari. Mir. Mita. Namwar. Nandu. Poladi. Shaho. Shamar. Shukar. Siha. Sobi. Sorb, etc.
- Baskan may stand for Bastab Kayasth ;
- Bhala is for Bhala Sultan Rajput, or for Bhalle Khatri.
- Chakar is the name of an ancestral chieftain of the Baloch of Kalat ; he may have been a Chakit Rahtor.
- Digar may stand for Dhengar Indian herdsman tribe, or for Dugal Khatri.
- Dol stands for Dohil, mercantile Rajput ;
- Durk for Durgbansi Rajput (Kachwaha).
- Gadi is both Khatri and Indian herdsman,
- Gaham for Gaharwar, and
- Gamo for Gamoha, both Rajput;
- Ladu is for Ladi, mercantile Rajput.
- Lund is a Rajput tribe from the banks of the Luni river in Rajwarra.
- Mari stands for Mori, Pramara ;
- Nandu for Nande Khatri.
- Poladi is the same as the Faoladi of the Hazara, and will appear again ; it represents a very ancient and important tribe in these parts, after whom is named the Bolan Pass, and whose memory is consecrated in the not far distant shrine of Polaji, as well as in the more famous and ancient temple of Bol, or Bola, at Multan. The real name is Bola ; the terminal di is merely the Sindi genitive affix, corresponding to the Hindi ki and the Pukhto da,
- Shamar stands for Samarphala, herdsman tribe ;
- Shukar for Shukul, Brahman ;
- Siha may stand for Sahani, Khatri.
- Sobi and Sorb are apparently the same, and stand for Sorhya, mercantile Rajput. The
- Bozdar are disciples of Hazrat Suleman, of Jafar parentage, the founder of the Taosa shrine, which, with that of Sakhi Sarwar, is the most popular place of pilgrimage in this part of the country. The above Suleman may be the Musalman substitute for Solanki, and
- Ja'far for Jipra, a clan of the Pramara.
Of these names,
- Khosah is that of an Indian tribe of the great desert, and may be a branch of the Kho, a great clan of the Kachwaha.
- Bada is for Badda Yadu ;
- Jajela for Jajothya Brahman ;
- Jangal is apparently the same as Changal higher up in the
[Page-133]: list ;
Abdal. Azad. Balach. Bangi. Batil. Bhimbar. Chaoghi. Chaongal. Dewa. Dharo. Garani. Golah. Gorak. Gulsher. Haro. Jala. Jask. Jurk. Kaisar. Kisr. Lot. Marvi. Masid. Mingal. Mor. Musi. Nozak. Pandi. Pirak. Polat. Rais. Sado. Salat. Samal. Sanjar. Sarga. Takar. Zad.
Of these names,
- Mazari stands for Mysari, Hindu tribe of the Indian desert;
- Balach is for Baloch, and stands for Balaecha Chohan ;
- Bangi is a Jat tribe ;
- Batil is for Botila Rajput ;
- Bhimbar for Bhimla Gahlot ;
- Chaoghi and Chaongal appear to be the same, and may stand for Chaonda Pramara ;
- Dewa is for Deba Pramara ;
- Dharo for Duharya Rahtor ;
- Haro for Hari Brahman ;
- Mor for Mohor, mercantile Rajput, and tribe of great Idian desert ;
- Musi is the Musa, frequently appearing in the sections of most Pathan and Afghan tribes, here thus altered for the affix -ani, as Musiani instead of Musa-ani ;
- Pandi for Pande Brahman ;
- Polat is the same as the Poladi above mentioned ; ,
- Rais, or Raisani, stands for Raoka Solanki ;
- Takar for Thakar mercantile Rajput ;
- Sarga for Sagra Pramara.
Alo. Baran. Chandya. Chato. Choli. Daolat. Dasti. Dego. Gadi. Garani. Genjur. Gorich. Hydar. Jamo. Jandi. Jangu. Jat. Kamal. Kambar. Kanj. Khundi. Kosa. Ladi. Lund. Mari. Melo. Meo. Natho. Pasham. Peshag. Rind. Sado. Sah. Sak. Shah. Sidik, etc.
Of the above names,
- Lund is that of a tribe from the banks of the Luni river in Marwar ; their divisions of Sori and Tibi are named after the districts they occupy.
- Chato is a Brahman tribe.
- Gorich is the Keruch Rajput, here commonly called Gorchani ; the name has appeared before, and we shall meet it again later on ;
- Jamo for Jaemo, mercantile Rajput ;
- Rind is an Indian tribe of the
- Rin or Ran of Kach, the great salt marsh into which the river Luni disembogues ;
- Meo, native of Mewat, aboriginal Indian tribe ;
- Sah a Hindu tribe on east bank of Indus, in Jhelam district.
The Kasrani inhabit the country at the junction of the Dera
Of these names,
- Kasar, or Kasrani, may stand for Kuchra Gahlot.
- Bhada and Bhati are for Badda and Bhatti Jadun or Yadu tribes.
- Bowa may be the tribe whence sprang the Bowi or Dilami, dynasty of Persia.
- Jarwar stands for Jarwarya herds-man tribe.
- Lagha is the same as Laghari, which has the plural possessive termination ari-ani before described and will be noticed again amongst the Baloch.
- Lango stands for Langaha Solanki.
- Mam is Brahman. The
- Nutkani, or Natak, inhabit the Sanghar division of Dera Ghazi district, and comprise the sections : —
Of these names,
- Nutak may stand for Nat, or Nath, an aboriginal Indian tribe of nomadic habits, and largely engaged as jugglers, rope-dancers, athletes, etc.
- Chot may stand for Chato Brahman. The others have been before noticed. Most of these sections of the Baloch tribes above described contain very few families, varying from fifteen or twenty in the smaller to only a hundred or so at the largest. All the Baloch above described are British subjects.
- Gorchani derive their descent from an ancestor called Garish or Goraish, which name has given rise to the notion of their affinity to the Koresh Arab. The Gorich are really Indian and the same people as the Keruch Rajput, a Kachwaha or a Parihara clan probably. The Gorich, or Korich, or Graish, or Kurush, as the name is pronounced in different parts, is a widely extended tribe on the Indus border. The name Koresh or Kurush is said to be the national designation of the Kafir tribes north of Lughman ; and it is not impossible it may have been the family name of the Cyrus king of Persia, who was born in the Cabul country.
- Keruch is the name of a Rajput tribe, or clan, which may have been adopted into the Rajput nation, though of different race and descent.
Gorchani sections are : —
[Page-135]: Doda. Dorak. Gabol. Gandaghwalakh. Gat. Ghoram Gishkori. Gokchalam . Gorak. Helo. Hoti. Jalab. Jalal. Jamo. Jand. Jangi. Jaro. Jask. Jogi. Kambar. Kang. Katal. Khalil. Khyri. Kohan. Korpat. Kulang. Lasha. Maluk. Manik. Melobar. Meo. Mita. Motik. Nok. Pahid. Pitafi. Pir. Pomel. Sagor. Sarmor. Saro. Shalo. Shekh. Soho. Sur. Tango. Thalar. Turkal. Umar. Zuwad. Zahr, etc.
Of the above names, we have met and explained many before.
- Babol stands for Babar Gujar.
- Badol for Bhadail Rahtor.
- Bangal for Bankat Chohan.
- Dalal is a Jat tribe.
- Doda is a tribeless Rajput clan.
- Gat for Gatwara Jat.
- Helo and Hoti are for Hela and Hodi Jat.
- Jaro is for Jora Rahtor.
- Gishkori is Kori, a Jat tribe of Gish ;
- Korpat for Kor, herdsman tribe.
- Lasha, or Lashari, may mean Lasi, or people of Las.
- Soho is for Sohor, mercantile Rajput.
- Arab has been before explained.
- Araho may stand for the Aharya Gahlot.
- Gamuk is for Gamuka, and Gamu for Gamoha Rajput.
- Gondfaz and
- Gopang are herdsman tribes (Indian).
The Khatran inhabit the hills, west of Dera Ghazi, between the Luni Pathan on the north, and the Mari Baloch on the south, and bounded on the west by the Jadran range of hills, beyond which are the Tarin Afghan. They speak a peculiar dialect called Khatranki, which is quite distinct from the Pukhto, and differs notably from the Balochki, containing a large proportion of Panjabi and Sindi words. The Khatran wear their hair long like the Baloch, whom they resemble also in features, but are of lighter complexion ; they are an independent people, and reckoned at five thousand families ; their chief town is Nahar Kot, or Laghari Barkhan.
Khatran sections are : —
- Dahima is Indian herdsman tribe, and a Brahman tribe also.
- Ganjura is said to be the name of the common ancestor of the Khatran tribe, who belonged originally to the Tarin tribe. Chachi is said to be a branch of the Dodai Baloch.
- Hosi may stand for Oswal, mercantile Rajput.
- Isablata is a compound of Isap and Lata joined together.
- Mat is for Sri Mat Brahman.
- Nahar, in the time of the Mughal emperors, furnished the chieftain of the Khatran, his residence being at Nahar Kot.
- Rothar is Rahtor,
- Taik is for Tyka Pramara.
- Most of the others have been before explained.
Musa or Musa-khel
To the north of the Khatran is the Musa, or Musa-Khel, Pathan tribe. Beyond them again to the north are the Shirani, previously described, and to the west are the Kakar. The Musa-khel is reckoned at six thousand families, and by some considered a branch of the Kakar, though the latter do not acknowledge them as of their kindred. The Musa-khel speak Pushto, and are all Sunni Musalmans, but they resemble the Baloch in the form of their feudal government rather than the democratic Pathan.
Musa-khel sections are : —
Adjoining the Musa-khel to the north is another Pathan tribe — Isot, or Sot, a Rahtor clan. They number only about three hundred families, and are mostly nomadic, ranging the spurs of Kala Roh, west of Dera Ghazi, and living in caves during winter. They are allied with the Ja'far Pathan (Jipra Pramara) by marriage, and some of them are engaged as carriers and husbandmen.
Ja'far sections are : —
- Hel and Jatal are Jat tribes.
- Jira is for Jiran mercantile Rajput.
- Mohra for Mohor ditto.
- Pato for Paturya Rajput.
- Rajali for Rajwar, orRajar, Rajput of Indian desert.
- Ramid for Ramdeva Rahtor.
- Rawani for Rewari herdsman tribe.
- Silha for Sinhala Khatri, or for Silhala Rajput.
To the west of the Khatran are the Luni Pathan, the modern representatives of the ancient Lavanya, who with their neighbours the Damara, the modern Dumar, figure prominently in the history of Kashmir during the tenth and eleventh centuries.
The Luni Pathan — so called to distinguish them from the Lund Baloch of the same race — number about a thousand families, and inhabit the Tarin country to the north of Chotiali. Their language is a corrupt Pukhto mixed with Balochki.
Luni sections are : —
The Tarin tribe occupies the Sibi and Peshin districts, and is one of the five tribes composing the Sharkhbun division of the Sarabanri Afghan ; the others being the Shirani, Myana, Barech, and Aormur. Of these the Shirani tribe has been described ; the others we will notice presently. The Tarin are partly agricultural and partly pastoral, and are in three divisions — Spin, Tor, and Abdal. The Abdal comprises the Durani tribes, and will be described further on.
The Tor Tarin, "Black Tarin," inhabit the Peshin valley, having the Achakzi to their north, the Barech to their west, and the district of Shal (Quetta) to their south, whilst on the east they are separated from their Spin Tarin tribesmen by a strip of Kakar territory. They are reckoned at ten thousand families, and comprise the sections :—
Spin Tarin means the "White or Superior Tarin," and Tor Tarin the " Black or Inferior Tarin " ; and it may be that the
[Page-138]: epithets Spin and Tor refer to the political factions thus named, which we have previously noticed. The name
- Tarin itself seems to be the same as the Tari Brahman.
- Ababakar, frequently met before, together with Aba and Abi, may stand for the ancient Abioi of Strabo, a Scythian tribe.
- Hykal may represent the ancient Aiglai before mentioned.
Barechi, or Bahrech, are the Bhardecha Chohan Agnikula Rajput, and inhabit the Shorawak district between Peshin and the Sistan desert. They are reckoned at four thousand families, and have small settlements at Kala-Bost, at Rudbar and Pulalak, and some other places west of the Helmand. They are mostly nomadic, but many live in huts of matting and tamarisk wicker plastered over with mud, and called Kadal. These are mostly along the course of the river Lora, which flows through their country on its way to join the Tarnak.
- Basa and Basok are the same, and stand for the Basi Indian serf tribe before noticed.
- Chopan is derived from the Hazarah clan of that name.
- Mahali may stand for Mahaila herdsman tribe.
The Myna, or Miyina, tribe is not now found in Afghanistan as a distinct territorial people, but are distributed over most of the eastern border of the country amongst the sections of the larger Pathan tribes, such as Shirani, Bangash, etc., and amongst the Povindah traders. The Shirani Miyani are settled in the Gomal valley ; their sections are : —
The other Miyani sections are : —
Of these names,
- Miyani may represent the ancient Meionoi, afterwards called Lydi, and mentioned by Herodotus among the subjects of Croesus, king of Lydia, conquered by Darius.
- Lath or Las may stand for the Lais or Laith of Sistan, whose dynasty flourished there after the Tahiri.
- Samra is Sumra Pramara.
- Zeri and Zura may be the same, and stand for the Zuri of Ghor.
The others have been noticed before.
The Ormur or Aormur, tribe (Umra Pramara), so named from the sect of Chiragh-Kushan to which it belonged, does not now exist as a distinct tribe in Afghanistan. The head-quarters of these heretics were at Kanigoram in the Vaziri country, where,it is said, some Ormur families are still found ; of the sections : —
About four hundred families altogether. The rest of the Ormur are scattered about this border of Afghanistan and in the adjoining districts of Hindustan, some being found amongst the Baraki in Logar, and others in Peshawar, where they have a village called after them Ormur. They are a quiet and industrious people, chiefly engaged in agriculture and trade.
Ormur sections are : —
Many of these seem to be names of places; as those ending in toi, which is a Pukhto noun meaning "rivulet," Kanigoram, etc.
The Mari is a widely-spread tribe in this quarter, and musters strongly also in Lower Sind about Sakar and Khyrpur. The portion of the tribe we are concerned with inhabits the hills bounding Kachi on the east and north, alongside of the Khatran, the Luni, and the Tarin, and having the Bugti to the south.
Their chief place is Kahan, around which they extend into Sibi and the Sham and Phelawar plains. They are a nomadic and predatory people, have no villages, and but little agriculture, and have some small forts. Their sections are : —
Of these names,
- Ah may stand for a Naga tribe ?
- Bhawal for Bhawar Chohan,
- Bijar for Bijherya Rajput.
- Gusar for Gasora, mercantile Rajput.
- Khongari for Khangar, aboriginal Indian tribe.
- Pawadi for Pawarya, minstrel tribe. The others are easily recognisable.
Bagi. Chandar. Damgi. Drig. Firoz. Gor. Ja'far. Jakar. Jask. Kaheja. Kalpar. Kamak. Mahal. Mandu. Mysuri, Nath. Nok. Nuri. Pajalor. Phong. Rama. Rohal. Sekhar. Shalo. Shambi. Soda. Sundar. Surki, etc.
Of these names,
- Chandar for Chandra Brahman, or for Chanda Chohan.
- Kalpar for Kalpusar Pramara.
- Rama for Ramdeva Rahtor.
- Rohal for Rohila, native of Roh.
- Shalo for native of Shal, or Quetta.
The Bugti, like the Mari, are nomad and predatory, but of late years, in common with many other of the independent Pathan tribes on the British border, have become more orderly, and are taking to agriculture.
This completes our enumeration of the tribes inhabiting the country assigned to the Dadikai of Herodotus. It also completes our review of the four nations named by that historian as comprising the seventh satrapy of the empire of Darius Hystaspes. The eighth, ninth, and tenth satrapies lay beyond the region comprised in the Ariana to which our inquiry is confined, but the eleventh comes within our range.
Kaspioi, Pausikai, Pantimathoi, Daritai
Kaspioi may represent the tribe of the Kasyapa Budha, after whom the Kashmir country was called, in Sanskrit, Kasyapamar or Kasyapagara, and as such lie beyond the area of our inquiry. The other three nations were contiguous one to the other — at least, if my identifications are correct — and extended from the Helmand to the Indus, through the Paropamisus region ; that mountainous tract along the southern borders of Baktriana, now constituting the Highlands of Zabulistan, or Ghazni, of Kabulistan or Kambojia (the present Kafiristan), and the mountainous region of Dardistan, or Kohistan of Bolor. The whole region lay obliquely between the northern borders of the seventh satrapy, just described, and the southern borders of the twelfth satrapy, to be next described. The order in which these three nations lay, from west to east, was, first the Pantimathoi, next the Pausikoi, and then the Daritai.
Pantimathoi - The Pantimathoi are nowhere traceable in Afghanistan by that name, so far as I can learn. The name may be a Greek compound signifying "All the Mati," which tribe, according to the Afghan genealogy, comprised, as we have before seen, all the descendants of Mato, the daughter of Shekh Bet, Batani, who
[Page-141]: were collectively styled Mati, the Ludi and Ghilzi being the chief. On the other hand, the Pantimathoi of Herodotus may be the Greek form of Pandumati or Pandu Mati, in contradistinction to the Persian Mati, the Matienoi of the eighteenth satrapy, who are the same people as the Matianoi mentioned by Strabo (Greog. xi. 8) as adjoining the Medes below the Parakhoathros mountains ; that is, in Persia to the south of the Alburj range. In another passage (ii. 5) Strabo mentions the Sauromatai amongst the nations dwelling between the Caspian and the Euxine seas as far as the Caucasus. These are a different branch of the Mati — the Sur Mati, or Mati of the Solar race, a qualification which is inapplicable to the Mati of Afghanistan, who were descendants of Shekh Bet, Batani, the ancestral representative of the Lunar race of Rajput, or Royal Skythian, in Afghanistan, as before related. The Lunar race of Rajput in Afghanistan as descendants of Shekh Bet, the Bhatti chieftain, were all of Pandu descent, and the Pandu sovereigns of the Pal dynasty of Delhi — the Tuar, Tawari, or Tori tribe of Rajput — ruled in Afghanistan, together with other Rajput kings, for many centuries, until their power was finally broken by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, in the early part of the eleventh century.
The Mati of Afghanistan are divided into the two great branches of Ghilji and Ludi. The Ghilji are supposed to derive from a Turk tribe beyond the Jaxartes, called Khilichi — "Swords-men." But, to judge from the composition of the tribe, the name Ghilji is more like a corruption of the Rajput Keruch of Hindustan and Rajwarra, pronounced along the Indus as Groraish, Gorich, Koresh, Gurich, Kurush, etc. ; for the names of the clans are mostly referable to a Rajput or Indian source, whilst the tribe speaks the Pukhto and observes the Pukhtunwali (Pathan code of laws and customs); and, instead of any tradition of a Turk origin, traces its descent from a prince of Ghor by the daughter of a Batani chieftain whose occupancy was in the hills about Ghazni. This is one view of the case. Another is, that the names Batani and Ghilji may represent tribes of Asia Minor — Bithyni and Kiliki — subjects of Croesus, king of Lydia, when he was dispossessed by Darius Hystaspes, king of Persia, by whom these tribes, and others from the same quarter, may have been transplanted to the eastern provinces of his empire, where the former may be represented by the Bateni of Pliny. How-ever this may be, the Ghilji clans, as we have seen, are very largely Indian in name.
[Page-142]:highlands of Ghazni to the base of the Suleman range, and onwards to the north through the western highlands of Sufed Koh to the borders of Jalalabad, the Kambojia district of Kabulistan. The western portion of this tract was formerly occupied by the Ludi branch of the Mati, but they have long since left the country and settled in Hindustan, chiefly in Sarhind; whilst its eastern portion, from the vicinity of Kalati Ghilzi to Jalalabad, is still occupied by the Ghilzi.
Pausikai - Next to the Pantimathoi come the Pausikai of Herodotus. The name may stand for Hindi Pashi-ki — " of the Pashi." They are the same people evidently as the Pasiani (the Persian plural form of the Indian name and meaning "Pasi kindred") mentioned by Strabo as one of those Skythian tribes who deprived the Greeks of Baktriana. Speaking of the Skythians, Strabo says (Geog. xi. 8),
- " The best known tribes are those who deprived the Greeks of Baktriana, the Arioi, Pasianoi, Tokharoi and Sakarauloi, who came from the country beyond the Jaxartes, opposite the Sakai and Sogdianoi, and which country was also occupied by Sakai."
- The Arioi would be the people of ancient Aria (modern Herat) to the west and south-west of Baktria (modern Balkh), and were already in that country prior to the arrival of the Greeks.
- The Tokharoi would be the people of the mediaeval Tokharistan to the north and north-east of Baktria, a province which included the eastern portion of Baktria and adjoining portion of Sogdia, and comprised the whole of the hilly country at the head waters of the Oxus. This people spread all down the Indus valley under the name of Toghiani Turk ; the proper name appears to have been Togh in the singular, and Toghiani and Tokhari are plural formations, the one Persian, the other Baloch ; the plural termination, 'drij often occurring in the names of Baloch tribes instead of the -ari of the Persian.
- The Sakarauloi are by some supposed to be represented by the modern Sarikoli, but a preferable identification is obtained by reading Sakatauroi instead of Sakarauloi ; we should then have on the east of Baktria the great and powerful Kataur or Kator nation, which established contemporary branch dynasties at Kabul and in Kashmir, and which is at this day represented in Afghanistan by the Shah-Kator princes of Chitral and Kashkar.
- Lastly, the Pasiani would be the modern Pashae to the south of Baktria, in the hilly tract from Bamian through Kafiristan to the Kunar Valley. The proper name of this people in the singular is Pas, or Pash; the name occurs in this form in the "Rajataringini", in the appellation of a military chief styled Pasika Thakur, Chieftain of the Pasi (Bk. viii., SI. 1481); the Pukhto
[Page-143]:Pakh and the Balochki Pugh, Pogh, or Puzh, Pashae, or Pashai, or Pakhae are Pukhto attributive plural forms, meaning "of the Pash, or Pakh" The Pashae are still found by that name in the Bamian and Lughman districts and in the southern valleys of Kafiristan. Though now professing Islam, the Pashae are reckoned of the same race as their unconverted neighbours in the independent country on the southern slopes of Hindu Kush, who are collectively styled Kafir, or "Infidel," and their country Kafiristan, by the Muhammadan nations around. These opprobrious terms are said, incorrectly I believe, to have become adopted by the people to whom they are still applied, as the national designation of themselves and their country, though they are neither appropriate nor stable, since they formerly had a much more extended application and affected a greater variety of races than at the present day. Four or five centuries ago, the whole of Badakhshan and the adjoining States at the upper waters of the Oxus, together with the whole of the Bolor country and Baltistan, were included in Kafiristan, and their peoples under the name Kafir ; but the steady advance of Islam has since then absorbed all these populous and hardly accessible regions within the pale of the Faith, so that at the present day the terms Kafir and Kafiristan are restricted to the people and country on the main range and southern slopes of Hindu Kush between the valleys of the Panjshir and Kunar affluents of the Kabul river only. The Pashae of these parts speak a dialect cognate with those spoken by the Kafir tribes, and they are all, so far as known, of distinctly Sanskrit origin. Anciently the Pashae, it appears, were a much more numerous, widely extended, and influential people than the obscure tribe by which they are now represented would lead one to expect. It is supposed that the Pashae formerly included a number of the tribes around them of similar speech and of probably kindred stock, but who are now known by different names, such as Safi, Lughmani, Dehgani, Dara Nuri, etc.
The Kafir, as they are called, are, and have been for many centuries past, so completely isolated in their inaccessible mountain retreats, and so completely shut off from free intercourse with the outside world, that very little is known about them accurately. Those communicating with Lughman call themselves Korish, Gorish, Koresh, or Kurush, as the name is variously pronounced, and occupy the hilly tract up to the Panjshir valley itself ; and this has led some of the border tribes, who have been converted to Islam, to pretend Arab descent, from ancestors of the noble and celebrated Quresh tribe, to which the Prophet Muhammad belonged; without anybody stopping to
[Page-144]: inquire why or how, in this case, these descendants of such illustrious Arab progenitors have lapsed from so honourable a connection to the despised and degraded condition of Kafir, It is clear that the Curesh descent claimed by the Kafir is merely a bit of Muhammadan vanity, to hide their real descent from the Rajput Keruch, a very ancient tribe in these parts, and widely distributed throughout the Indus valley, as we have seen in the Gorchani, or Goraishani, of Dera Ghazi and the Koresh of Dera Ismail and Banu districts. Anciently the Keruch was probably a very important tribe of Afghanistan ; and the Kurush tribe, to which Cyrus, King of Persia, belonged (and of which the Arabian Curesh may have been a branch), may have been the same as the Keruch prior to its adoption, under the latter name, into the Rajput nationality ; which was established in Afghanistan in consequence of the cession of the country, up to the Paropamisus inclusive, to Sandbakottos (Chandragupta Maurya ; the title is suggestive) by Seleukus Nikator, as before related.
Besides the Keruch Rajput amongst the Kafir, there are several other Rajput and Indian tribes amongst those of their clans, of which we have the names. Some of the largest and most important divisions of the Kafir communicating with the Chitral or Kashkar valley are the tribes called Kho, and Kalasha, and Aranya ; all three names of well-known Rajput tribes without any alteration at all. The Kho is a clan of the Kachwaha, a great tribe, which formerly appears to have extended throughout Eastern Afghanistan, from the sea to the mountains, and to have given its name to the countries at opposite extremes of its occupancy — to Kach Gandava and Kach Makran of modern Balochistan in one direction, and to Hindu Kush and Kashkar in the other.
- The Kalasha, or Kalacha, is a Chaluk or Solanki Rajput clan ; and the
- Aranya, or Aruya, are also Rajput (Rator or Kachwaha?), and may represent the Arisni of the Dionysiacs of Nonnus, where (as Troyer observes in his ";Rajataringini," vol. ii. pp. 307-8) they are coupled with the Khouthi (Khothi Pathan, or Kutah of Nawagai), the Zaori (Zuri of Ghor), the Jori (Jora Rahtor, and Yaru Pathan), and the Kaspeiri (Kashuri of Kashmir).
- The Arienoi are also mentioned in the Bassarica of Denis of Samos along with the Kaspeiri and the Kossai (Kashuri and Khasa), who were the original people of Kasperia (Kashur, or Kashmir), as the same author observes. Another Kafir tribe of Rajput name is the Nurgal or Dara Nuri, which stands for the Nor, or Norka, a tribe very widely distributed in Western Afghanistan, chiefly in Sistan and about Herat. The Indian affinities of the Kafir are shown in one view in the following list of their tribes and sections : —
[Page-145]: Amishi. Arnya. Ashpin. Askin. Ater. Ayrat. Bari. Bashgali. Beragali. Chanak. Chanesh. Chimi. Chunya. Dangarik. Deba. Demish. Ding, Duhtak. Gado. Gambir. Gawachi. Gumi. Goshta. Jamaj. Jamka. Kahrah. Kaigal. Kalasha. Kaltar. Kama. Kamoj. Kamoz. Kampar. Kamtoz. Kastoz. Katar. Kati. Kayath. Khachin. Khalam. Manchashi. Mandigal. Mandul. Mil. Nura. Paintar. Pandu. Paroni. Pashagar. Pet. Pimich. Punuz. Rana. Saigal. Salar. Samajil. Sano. Shuna. Sokoe. Sonindesh. Tapakal. Tari. Wadihu. Wae. Waegal. Wamah. Weli-wae, etc.
The termination -gal, -gali, -kal of some of the above names corresponds to the Hindi -Kula and Pukhto -Khel and is also found unaltered in some of the Balochistan tribes ; it means "clan," or "tribe," or "family," or "association." Some of the above sections have adopted Islam, and are subjects of the Kabul Government on the sides of the Jalalabad and Kunar valleys, and of the independent, or now tributary, chiefs of Kashkar on the side of the Chitral valley. But the greater part remain free and retain their ancient religions, customs, and languages. Formerly the Kafir occupied the whole of the Kashkar and Kunar valleys, and extended into the adjoining districts of Yasin and Panjkora, towards the East ; that is, into the Darada country, with the natives of which they appear to be of common descent. But now they — the inhabitants of Kunar and Kashkar — all profess Islam ; the ruling classes being of the -Sunni sect, and the subordinate and servile of the Shia' ; besides these two orthodox Muhammadan sects, there is a heretic sect called Maulai, a word which, according to De Guigne, is the Chinese rendering of the Arabic Mala hida = " Heretics " ; the latter being the name given to the" Ismaili," known in Europe as the sect of the " Assassins." The Maulai are very numerous in the Upper Oxus States north of the Hindu Kush, but in the Kashkar valley they are confined mostly to the Ludkho valley, which is inhabited by the Arniya and Khachin Kafir, who are together styled Kho, and their language Khowar, or Khajima (Khachina).
In the above list of Kafir clans and sections, a large proportion bear pure Rajput names.
- Amishi stands probably for Amasht, Kayasth clan. *Askin for Yaskun (ancient Assakani), or Yashkun, of Yasin and Gilgit.
- Bari is the name of a Brahman tribe of Northern India ; but here the Bari constitute a servile class, and are held in no estimation by the Kafir ; it is said, indeed, that the Bari are a different race from the other Kafir, who in consequence have enslaved them, and frequently sell them to
[Page-146]: Musalman slave-dealers.
- Bashgali is partly converted to Islam. Their women wear the horned head-dress which was peculiar to the ancient Jata of Kashghar. The proper name of this tribe is Bash or Posh, which represents the Pausikai of Herodotus, and Pasianoi of Strabo, and the Paishae of the Afghans.
- Bera-gali stands for the Beri Khatri.
- Chanak, Chanesh, and Chunya may stand for Chanan and Churya, Indian herdsman clans.
- Chaimi or Chimi for Chamain Gujar.
- Dangarik is an Indian herdsman tribe.
- Deba is Pramara Rajput.
- Demish, for Dama Brahman ?
- Gado for Gadi Khatri, or for Gadi herdsman.
- Gumi for Gamo, or Gamoha, Rajput.
- Jamaj and Jamka for Jam, the Musulman substitute for Shuma Jareja Rajput.
- Kahrah, or Kaharah, for Kahorya Pramara, or for Kaharya Brahman.
- Kama, Kamoj, or Kamoz, Kampar and Kamtoz, are all clans of the Bashgali.
- Kamoz and Kamtoz are Upper and Lower Kama respectively. The Kama district is, or was, the chief seat of the Pashae of Lughman ; prior to whom it was probably the seat of the ancient Kamboh, after which it was called Kambojia.
- Katar, or Kator, is the same people as the Katoran or Katorman, who established a Turk dynasty which ruled contemporaneously in two branches at Kabul and Peshawar respectively, from the beginning of the fifth to the latter part of the ninth century, when, after losing much of their power and territory to the Tuar Rajput kings of Delhi, they were finally overthrown by them and the Ghaznavis. Under the rule of the Kator Yuechi (Getai or Jata) Buddhism was the religion of the country, but during the century or so of Tuar Rajput sovereignty, Brahminism was the dominant religion, till the Hindu was finally dispossessed by Sabaktagin, who founded the Ghaznavi Turk dynasty. The Shah Katori of Kashkar and Chitral, who, as above suggested, represent the Sakarauloi of Strabo, are the same people as the Katar of Kafiristan, the name of which country was formerly Kator ; at least in the time of Tamerlane, the beginning of the fifteenth century.
- Khalam for Kalam, Gahlot Rajput.
- Mandigal and Mandul for Mandu Kachwaha.
- Pashagar, or Pashagal, for Pashae, before noticed.
- Paroni or Paroti for Purot, Gahlot.
- Pandu for Pande, Brahman.
- Rana, or Rono, for the Raoka Solanki ; or, being called also (says Biddulph) Horaiya, for Harair Pramara.
- Saigal is a Khatri tribe.
- Sonindesh for Sonigara Chohan.
- Tari is a Brahmin tribe.
- Wadihu appears again amongst tribes of Balochistan, and probably represents the Videha of the Mahabharat, etc.
- Wae, Waegal, and Weli Wae are for Bai, before assigned to the Boioi Greek, and adopted as a tribeless clan by the Rajput.
- Wamah for Bama Brahman.
[Page-147]: At the present day the ruling family in Kashkar is of the Kator tribe ; the senior branch of the family being designated Shah Katori, and the junior Khushwakhti. The Kator are spread all over Kashkar as a privileged class, their principal clan being the Sangalya. In subordination to them, and also a privileged class paying no taxes nor revenue, the
- Rono, called also, according to Major J. Biddulph (" Tribes of Hindoo Koosh ") Zundre and Haraiyo ; they are scattered over Kashkar and Yasin, and fill most of the government offices, and furnish the rulers with their ministers.
- Zundre is probably meant for Chandra, Brahman tribe. The rest of the population of the Kashkar valley is composed of agricultural tribes and the various artisan classes, who are designated fakir or "vassals". Most of them are of Rajput and Hindu origin ; one of the most numerous of these tribes is the Kalasha (Kalacha Rajput), another the Arniya, or Kho (Kachwaha). The
- Dangarik of Ashret and Kalkatak districts are Indian Jat ; the
- Shaoki, Jakani, and Kashi are also Indian. The
- Kashi probably represent the original Kashwaha (the Kachwaha of Balochistan) or Kash, after whom are named Kashkar and Hindu Kush.
- Gabar - In the Birkot and Narisat districts of Chitral is a tribe called Gabar, or Nasrati ; formerly they were very numerous in Swat, which was called Gabrak after them up to the middle of the thirteenth century. The Gabar, Gabare, Gaware, Nasrati, or Nasrud-dinkhel, as they are sometimes called, are now widely dispersed through Boner and across the Indus in Pakli.
- Bashgali Kafir inhabit the country north of the Waegali, the valleys runing south-east from Hindu Kush to the Kunar river at Birkot, and represent a tribe of different stock from the Rajput and Indian races. Biddulph says, the Kafir are separable into three main tribes, viz. : the Rumgali or Lumgali (Lughmani) who inhabit the upper valleys running south-west from Hindu Kush ; the Waegali, who inhabit the valleys running south-east from Hindu Kush to Kunar Valley at Chaghan Sarae ; and the Bashgali who inhabit the upper valleys farther north, running south-east to Kunar Valley at Birkot. These divisions may mean, Rumgali (Ramakula, or Ramadeva, Rahtor), Rajput tribes ; Bashgali (Bash-kula, or Pashae, or Pausikai) Skythian Jata tribes ; and Waegali (Bai-lula, or Boioi), Greek tribes.
Daritai - The last of the nations mentioned by Herodotus as composing the eleventh satrapy of the empire of Darius Hystaspes, is the Daritai. They are the Darada of Manu and the Purans, the Derdai of Strabo, the Dardai of Pliny, the Daradrai of Ptolemy, and the Dardu of the natives of our day; a people regarding whom the researches of Professor W. G. Leitner have furnished us with much interesting and instructive information.
[Page-148]: The country of the ancient Daritai may be described as comprising all that cluster of lofty mountains lying directly to the south of the junction of the Tsungling portion of the Himalaya and the Hindu Kush in the great Taghdumbash (Taghnungbash) or " Head of the Mountains," glacier region ; and extending as far south as the watershed range of the Panjkora and Swat rivers, and of the Kanra-Ghorband valleys north of Boner, on the west of the Indus, and to the Pakli district and watershed ridge of the Kishanganga river on its east bank. On the west it includes the Mastoch Valley in the highest part of Kashkar ; and on the east it is bounded by Baltistan, or Little Tibat, if it did not formerly include this tract also. The Dard country, or Dardistan, thus curves round the northern borders of the region we have previously assigned to the Gandarioi of the seventh satrapy, and, crossing the Indus, borders upon Kashmir and Baltistan on the south and north banks respectively of the western course of the Indus, before its bend to the south near Bunji. The country thus defined contains, in its northern half, the districts of Mastoch, Yasin, Ponyal, and Gilgit, together with the Kanjud country of Hunza and Nagar ; all which, along with Baltistan further to the eastward, constitute the Bolor country. In its southern half, it contains the subordinate valleys of Gor, Darel, Tangir, Kandya, etc., on the west bank of the Indus south of Gilgit, and the Chilas, Astor, Kaghan, and Shinkari district of Pakli on the opposite east bank ; all which tract constitutes the Kohistan, or Shinkari territory of the Dard, part of which, on the west bank of the Indus, still retains its independence as a free country. Formerly the whole of the Pakli country seems to have been included in Dardistan ; its southern frontier corresponds to the Darvabhisara of the Rajatarangini, that is to the Dorh and Abhisara districts. From this Abhisara (the country of the Abissares mentioned by Arrian) is derived the modern Hazara, which includes Chach and Pakli.
In all this country of the modern Dard, or Dardu, the predominant tribe is called Shin, and their language Shina. Major J. Biddulph, in his " Tribes of Hindoo Koosh," has supplemented the discoveries and researches of Dr. Leitner in this previously unknown region — to the European world at least — with much interesting and valuable information about the various castes now found in the country. From his account it appears that Gilgit, anciently called Sargin, and still spoken of as Sargin Gilit by its inhabitants, is supposed to be the Gahlata of ancient Sanskrit literature ; that its former rulers, the last of whom, named Shiri Buddutt, was dispossesed and slain at the commencement of the fourteenth century by a Muhammadan invader whose dynasty
[Page-149]: was called afterwards Trakhane, had the title of Ra, and ruled over the whole of the country above defined as Dardistan ; and that the predecessors of Shiri Buddutt in the rule of this country were called Shahreis. All this seems to mean that formerly Gahlata, Gilit, or Gilgit, was the seat of the rule of a Rajput prince of the great Grahilot or Gahlot tribe (afterwards successively called Aharya and Sisodia), whose kingdom comprised the whole of the Dard country above defined.- Tod, in his "Annals of Rajasthan," mentions, in regard to this Rajput tribe, that it changed its ancient name of Grahilot, or Gahlot, to that of Aharya, and that later again this last was superseded by Sisodia, which is the name by which the Gahlot is now known. The Sisodia we have met with before, as traced in the Yusufzi and other Pathan clans under the forms Sihsada, Sada, and Sado ; and we shall meet the name again among the Durani clans.
The Muhammadan Trakhane conqueror was probably a Turk, or a Mughal Tarkhan of the court of Changiz Khan or one of his successors ; Tarkhan being the title of a privileged class of princes and nobles amongst the Mughal ; and many families of Mughal and Turk chieftains bearing this title, having risen to posts of power and rule in the times of the Mughal ascendency in Central Asia from the days of Changiz to those of Babar ; whilst the Shiri Buddutt, who was dispossessed and slain by the Muhammadan invader, was probably a chief, or prince, of the Badda clan of the Yadu Rajput of the Lunar race and Buddhist faith. As Tod has observed ("Annals of Rajasthan"), at the period of, and for centuries before, the invasions of Mahmud Ghaznavi, there were four great kingdoms in Hindustan, viz. : —
- Delhi, under the Tuar and Chohan ;
- Kanauj, under the Rahtor ;
- Mewar, under the Gahlot ; and
- Anhalwara under the Chaora and Solanki.
They all fell in turn to the Sur of Ghor, the Sultan Shahabuddin, who made a permanent conquest of India. The Shiri Buddutt above mentioned may have held his principality of Gilgit as a dependency of the Mewar kingdom. The Shahreis, mentioned as the predecessor of Shiri Buddutt in the rule of the country, may have been a branch of the family of the Raja Sahris, who, as Tod states on the authority of Abulfazal and Farishta, anciently reigned in Sind, his capital being Alor, and his dominions extending to Kashmir in the north. The Sahris dynasty endured, it appears, for a long series of many generations till it was finally destroyed in 717 A.D., when Muhammad Casim, the pioneer of Islam in the direction of India, conquered Sind and slew the Raja Dahir; from whose family, later on, when converted to Islam, very probably sprung the Tahiri dynasty of Khorasan, established in 869 A.D., in the Khilafat of Al Mamun, by Tahir of
[Page-150]: the family of Massab, who was surnamed Al Khuzi (" native of Khuza"), and nicknamed Dhull Yaminain, or Ambidexter, and was general of Mamun's forces when he was governor of Khorasan, before Tahir himself raised him to the Khilafat. The Tahiri dynasty (observes D'Herbelot, from whom the above details are derived) was the first which was established among Musalmans under the empire of the Khalifs. It lasted for a period of fifty six years under a succession of five kings, and was succeeded by that of the Suffari, established by Yacub bin Lais of Sistan. I mention these particulars because in Sistan, as we shall see later on, there is a tribe called Shahrei, or Shahreki (" of the Shahre"), who may represent the descendants of another branch of the family of Raja Sahris. After the death of Casim, Sind was ruled by the Ansari Arab, but they were soon deprived of power by the native Sumra dynasty (the Umra Sumra Pramara Rajput), which in turn was subverted by another native dynasty called Sama, or Shama (the patronymic of the Jareja), Yadu Rajput, of Siwistan (modern Sibi), the princes of which, after conversion to Islam, pretended a Persian descent, and adopted the title of Jam, which is still borne by the Jareja chieftains of the petty Las Bela State in Balochistan. We have seen the wide and plentiful distribution of these Rajput tribes in the Umar and Shamo sections of the Pathan tribes all along the Indus valley and Suleman range.
The Shin of Gilgit and Dardistan represent the China named by Manu amongst the races of the Kshatriya class, or Rajput, who by their neglect of Brahmanism, gradually sunk to the Sudra class, the lowest of the four classes of Hindus. The China who thus lapsed from the Kshatriya to the Sudra class are named by Manu along with the Parada, Pahlava, Kirata, Darada, and Khasa ; all which races inhabited the mountainous country between Kabul and Kashmir in which Buddhism long held its strongest sway. The Parada and Pahlava probably occupied the Paropamisus and Balkh, Bamian countries; the Kirata and Khasa inhabited Kashmir (where the cooly class is still called Khasa, a distinct people from the Kashtiri or Kashmiri) ; and the China and Darada dwelt in the Pakli and Bolor countries, the Dardistan above defined. The words Kirata and Darada are both said to be of Sanskrit origin and to signify "mountaineer" ; in which case the name Dardistan is synonymous with Kohistan, which is the common modern name of this mountainous region. Other nations mentioned by Manu in the same category are the Kambojia, Yavana, and Saka; these may be the Kamboh or Kama tribes of the modern Kafiristan, the Yuna, or Musalman Yunus, the lwvos; Greeks of Persia or Baktria, and the Saka of
Back to Index of the book