Devi Lal Ji.jpg

25 September
is the birthday of Chaudhary Devi Lal

Flowers.png

Rigvedic tribes

From Jatland Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The following text is mainly based on Bhim Singh Dahiya's book "Aryan Tribes and the Rig Veda". (1991) Dahinam Publishers, 16 B Sujan Singh Park, Sonepat, Haryana, India.

Jat clans and the Rigveda

On the basis of the Vedic Index of McDonnel and Kwith as well as from original hymns of Rigveda, I have noted the following tribes and all these tribes are found among Jats in India today, although portion of the same tribal population must have gone to West Asia and Europe also and that is the reason why these tribal names are common between European, Central and West-Asian and Indian population.


It is also a well known historical fact that authors of the Hymns of the Rigveda were not necessarily Brahmins. These authors are called Risi or Seer; suggesting that they "saw" the hymns. Many such seers are kings and in the later Vedic literature, they are called Rajarsi, in contradiction to the term "Brahmarsi."

The following are the main tribes in the Hymns:


  • (1) Aila: Seer of RV X/95 is Pururava Aila, with whom the Ailavat clan is identified. Br. Sam. mentions the Ailavatas, the Halavatians of Europe. Airavat is a seer of RV 34 X.[1]
आवदिन्द्रं यमुना तर्त्सवश्च परात्र भेदं सर्वतातामुषायत |
अजासश्च शिग्रवो यक्षवश्च बलिं शीर्षाणि जभ्रुरश्व्यानि || (RV7/18/19)[2]
  • (3) Atri: (RV V/39/5, V/40/9, V/52/9-17) etc. Seer of X/143; They are to be identified with the present Atri clan of the Jats, and therefore, Atri and Aitreya are not the same. Sat. Br. (IV.3/4.21) mentions that an Atri King gave charities to Brahmanas. All the hymns in Rigveda are by Atri Seers and not a single hymn stands in the name of Aitreya, who is of a Brahmana Gotra-Kara but not a Rigvedic seer [3]. A person "Aitreya Mahidasa" is named after female Itra ,as per the Vedic Index
अस्मा इत काव्यं वच उक्थम इन्द्राय शंस्यम |
तस्मा उ बरह्मवाहसे गिरो वर्धन्त्य अत्रयो गिरः शुम्भन्त्य अत्रयः ||[4]
asmā it kāvyaṃ vaca uktham indrāya śaṃsyam |
tasmā u brahmavāhase ghiro vardhanty atrayo ghiraḥ śumbhanty atrayaḥ ||
  • (4) Aulan: (RV X/98/11). They are stated to be the descendants of King Ula, and Santanu was name of the Aulan King. They are to be identified with the present Aulan clan of the Jats.
एतान्यग्ने नवतिं सहस्रा सं पर यछ वर्ष्ण इन्द्रायभागम |
विद्वान पथ रतुशो देवयानानप्यौलानं दिविदेवेषु धेहि ||

(RV X/98/11)[5]

etānyaghne navatiṃ sahasrā saṃ pra yacha vṛṣṇa indrāyabhāgham |
vidvān patha ṛtuśo devayānānapyaulānaṃ divideveṣu dhehi ||
  • (5) Aurava: They are descendants of King Uru (RV'I/63/3, IV/30/4). Also per Panini, V/1/122, a Warrior King, Kutsa, Aurava, killed his Purohit because the Purohit's father used to sing the glory of Indra who was the King's enemy (RV/1/53/10). -This story is given in Panca Vamsa Br-.14/6/8. They are to be identified with the Arav/Arb clan of the Jats who seem to have given their name to the Aravali mountain ranges in Northern-India. As per "The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea", the river Purali in Sind, was called Arabis, and on its eastern bank, dwelt " an Indian nation called Arabians" [6].
  • (6) Arksa: (RV Vlll/74/13; X/49/5, Vlll/68/16; Panini IV/1/105). A king is named "Srutarvan Arksa". They are identified with the Arkh clan of the Jats. Cf Arka (Sun).
अहं हुवान आर्क्षे शरुतर्वणि मदच्युति |
शर्धांसीव सतुकाविनां मर्क्षा शीर्षा चतुर्णाम || (RV Vlll/74/13) [7]
ahaṃ huvāna ārkṣe śrutarvaṇi madacyuti |
śardhāṃsīva stukāvināṃ mṛkṣā śīrṣā caturṇām ||
  • (7) Bheda: (RV Vll/18/18-19): This is the tribe mentioned in the famous battle of 10 kings fought on the river Yamuna. He was killed because he refused to give cows to Indra [8]. This tribe is to be identified with Bheda clan of the Jats still living on the river Yamuna in district Karnal.
शश्वन्तो हि शत्रवो रारधुष टे भेदस्य चिच्छर्धतो विन्द रन्धिम |
मर्तानेन सतुवतो यः कर्णोति तिग्मं तस्मिन नि जहि वज्रमिन्द्र ||
आवदिन्द्रं यमुना तर्त्सवश्च परात्र भेदं सर्वतातामुषायत |
अजासश्च शिग्रवो यक्षवश्च बलिं शीर्षाणि जभ्रुरश्व्यानि || (RV Vll/18/18-19)[9]
śaśvanto hi śatravo rāradhuṣ ṭe bhedasya cicchardhato vinda randhim |
martānena stuvato yaḥ kṛṇoti tighmaṃ tasmin ni jahi vajramindra ||
āvadindraṃ yamunā tṛtsavaśca prātra bhedaṃ sarvatātāmuṣāyat |
ajāsaśca śighravo yakṣavaśca baliṃ śīrṣāṇi jabhruraśvyāni ||
  • (8) Bhalan: (RV Vll/18/7). They are to be identified with the Bal-lan clan of the Jats.
आ पक्थासो भलानसो भनन्तालिनासो विषाणिनः शिवासः |
आ यो.अनयत सधमा आर्यस्य गव्या तर्त्सुभ्यो अजगन युधा नर्न || (RV Vll/18/7)
ā pakthāso bhalānaso bhanantālināso viṣāṇinaḥ śivāsaḥ |(RV Vll/18/7)[10]
ā yo.anayat sadhamā āryasya ghavyā tṛtsubhyo ajaghan yudhā nṛn ||
  • (10) Cedi/Caidya: (RV Vl//27/7 , Vlll/5/37-39) mention a king of this tribe to be identified with the Cedi clan of the Jats.
  • (11) Deva: mentioned in RV I/162/l a Dheva Jata. Devala is the seer of RV IX/5-24. Identical with Deval Clan.
  • (12) Druhyu: the famous tribe, fighting against Sudas (RV Vll/lg), may perhaps be the same as Drehval also written as Dhruv.
  • (l3) Godha: the seer of RV X/134/6-7. These are to be identified with the Godha clan of the Jats.
  • (14) Hari: ( RV X/96/6)mentions(rathe vahtho hritha hari) meaning "the forward looking Hari people travel in their Chariots". Swami Daya Nand translates it as forward moving people. The earlier hymn X/96/5 says; (Raadho harijat Hyrtam)- Its apparent meaning is the shining gold (wealth) of the Hari Jats (see also V/33/2, Arkai Harinam). In India, a king of this Hari clan, named Dumuha or Jaya, ruled over Kampillapura and defeated Pradyota, kinng of Ujjayeni.[11] They are to be identified with the Hari clan of the Jats. Even the West Asian form of the clan, is noted in RV Vlll/25/22 as Haryana, the same as Hurria people of West Asia in the second Mill. BC. They gave their name to the Haryanaka dynasty of pre-historic India, to the present state of Haryana" and also to certain towns in Punjab.
  • (15) Jahnu: (RV 3/58/6, 1/116/19). They gave their name to the river Jahnavi. Identical with Janu/Janvar clan. (Janvar is un-aspirated while Jahnavi is the aspirated feminine form).
  • (16) Krivi: (RV VIII/20/24; VIII/22/12). These people are mentioned as Kravya in Sat.Br. (Xlll/5/4.7). They are to be identified with the Kharab clan of the Jats. They are also to be identified with the Khalabes of West Asian history, who gave their name to Chalybes on the mouth of Euphrates river.
याभिः सिन्धुमवथ याभिस्तूर्वथ याभिर्दशस्यथाक्रिविम |
मयो नो भूतोतिभिर्मयोभुवः शिवाभिरसचद्विषः || (RV VIII/20/24)
  • (17) Kali: used in singular in RV. I/112/5, X/39/8. A soused as plural in VII/66/15. With the addition of suffix-an; this clan is identified with Kalian clan of the Jats, the same as Gothic Klein. Also see AV 10/10/13 etc.
  • (18) Ksattri : mentioned in RV 6/13/2; AV 3/24/7, 5/17/4. Identical with the Khattri clan of the Jats today.
  • (20) Mana: (RV 1/169/8, 171/5. 1/86/5, 117/11, Vlll/18/20). The last hymn mentions a king, named Manya Mana. They are to be identified with the Mana, Mannai of West Asian history. They were on the river Purusni (Ravi) at the time of Rigveda. That it is a warrior clan, is proved by the fact that it is not found in the Brahmanic Gotra list of Purshottam. [12]
तवं मानेभ्य इन्द्र विश्वजन्या रदा मरुद्भिः शुरुधो गोग्राः |
सतवानेभि सतवसे देव देवैर्विद्यामेषं वर्जनं जीरदानुम || (RV 1/169/8)
  • (21) Martta: The RV Vll/l/9 says that the worshippers of Pitra, the Martta people, have spread your (Agni's) glory in many lands. They are the Mardha/Mirdha people, the Mardai of Greek accounts.
  • (22) Matsya: (RV Vll/18/6). A tribe opposing Sudas in the famous Battle of the Ten Kings. They are to be identified with Machar dan of the Jats on the ground that the Sanskrit Matsya becomes Mach in Prakrit and -ar is a suffix. Mahabharata [13] records the name of king Virata of the Matsya people, as Machela. ( Virat: She Putrehsh Ch Machelsh Ch Maharatha :) There is also a Jat tribe in Rajasthan called Motsara, to be identified with Motsiya of Iran.
  • (23) Mura: They are mentioned in RV IV/26/7; X/4/4, X/46/5 and VH/61/5. Both forms of the name- Mura/Amura appear. They are identified with Maur clan of the Jats- the famous Mauryas, also the "Amorites of West Asia." Muram, their kingdom mentioned in Mahabharata, may be Merv in Iran, and also their city called Amurum near Ashur, was admittedly named after these people. [14]
  • (24) Narya: (RV VIII/24/29). A king of this tribe is mentioned as a great donor, son of Nara (1/112/9) 1/54/6. They are lo be identified with Nara clan of the Jats, the Nairi of West-Asia.
नार्यस्य दक्षिणा वयश्वानेतु सोमिनः |
सथूरं च राधः शतवत सहस्रवत || (RV VIII/24/29)[15]
vyaśvebhyaḥ subhaghe vajinīvati ||
ā nāryasya dakṣiṇā vyaśvānetu sominaḥ |
  • (25) Paravata : (RV. VIII/34/18), mentions them going in their chariots-They are identified with Paroda/Parota clan of the Jats. Also recorded in RV 3/9/5; 6/61/3 etc. Ptolemy mentions them as Parouetal (6/50/1). Panca Vamsa Br.piaces them on the river Yamuna(lX/4/11).
  • (26) Parsu : (RV X/86/23, Vlll/6/48) Parsava (1/105/8). A great donor King named Tirindira of this clan is mentioned in RV Vlll/6/46. Prithu Parsva, the great donor king is mentioned in Vlll/6/46. They are to be identified with Parsval clan of the Jats; gave their name, Pars, Persia to Iran. They are also mentioned by Panini (V/3/117).
  • (28) Pangala/Pingalaka : (AV XI/7/26, XX /36/14,16).SatBi:. mentions them as Paingya (Xll/2/2,4,8). They are to be identified with the Panghal clan of the Jats, who gave their name Pangala Nadu, in South India.
  • (29) Pramara : Mentioned in RV 10/27/20. They are the Parmar Jats today.
एतौ मे गावौ परमरस्य युक्तौ मो षु पर सेधीर्मुहुरिन्ममन्धि |
आपश्चिदस्य वि नशन्त्यर्थं सूरश्च मर्कौपरो बभूवान || (RV 10/27/20)
  • (30) Paura : (RV Vlll/3/12) mentions a prince named Paura who was helped by Indra along with Rusam and others. They are descendants of Puru. They are to be identified with Por/Phor/Paur clan of the Jats. It was this tribe which fought against Alexander, under the name Porus in 326 BC. The name Porus was not that of the individual king but name of the tribe because a nephew of Porus is also called Porus. Naturally, they were leaders or representatives of Por tribe.
शग्धी नो अस्य यद ध पौरमाविथ धिय इन्द्र सिषासतः |
शग्धि यथा रुशमं शयावकं कर्पमिन्द्र परावः सवर्णरम || (RV Vlll/3/12)
  • (31) Patara : (RV 11/2/4, X/106/8, Vl/23/6). They are to be identified with Patara clan of the Jats.
  • (32) Sarangya : A king, Daivavata, of this tribe, is named in RV l/27/7,4/15/4,7. Also the charity of Prastoka Sringya is mentioned in Rigveda. They are to be identified with the Sarangh clan of the Jats, and also with the Sarangai of the Greek authors and Sarank/Zarank of Iranian history.


अयं यः सर्ञ्जये पुरो दैववाते समिध्यते |
दयुमां अमित्रदम्भनः || (RV 4/15/4)
  • (34) Sibi : (RV RV Vll/18/7) co-seer of Sukta (X/179). A king named Amitra-Tapana Saibya is mentioned' in the Ait. Br. (Vlll/23) as the killer of Atyarati. They are to be identified with Sibiya clan of the Jats, the tribe was also called Sibai, who fought against Alexander the Great. This was the clan which also went to Europe and was called Suebi/Sibi of the Germans.
  • (35) Sahota : They are descendants of Sauhotra, seer of RV IV/43; Mahabharata mentions them as Sahota; along with Sauvala, identified with the Sahota and Sauhal clans, respectively.
  • (36) Sigru : (RV Vll/18/19): This tribe was fighting against Sudas on the Yamuna. This tribe is to be identified with the Sigru/Sigarwal/Sigar clan of the Jats still on the Yamunain Haryana. A Sigru is noted in Luder's list of Brahmi inscriptions. [17]
आवदिन्द्रं यमुना तर्त्सवश्च परात्र भेदं सर्वतातामुषायत |
अजासश्च शिग्रवो यक्षवश्च बलिं शीर्षाणि जभ्रुरश्व्यानि ||
  • (37) Sindhu : These are the people who gave their name, first to the river Sindhu (Indus) and then to the entire sub-continent of Hindustan [18]. The RV contains numerous references to them, many limes in the plural. Later, the name was given as Sindhu Sauvira, jointly with another Jat tribe, Sauval, who were their neighbours. In RV VJI/33/3, we find Sindhu Tatara, and the latter may stand for the Tatran clan of the Jats.
  • (38) Tura : (RV 1/18/2, VI/25/5, VIII/3/13, VII/41/2, V/4/5. VI/48/12 VII/40/1, l/171/1, VII/40/l etc.). Turvas is also mentioned as a king in RV X/63/10 and VI/20/12 etc. Turan are noted in RV 1/173/1, and ancient King Tura in 1/121/3.
यो रेवान यो अमीवहा वसुवित पुष्टिवर्धनः |
स नः सिषक्तु यस्तुरः || (RV 1/18/2)
नहि तवा शूरो न तुरो न धर्ष्णुर्न तवा योधो मन्यमानो युयोध |
इन्द्र नकिष टवा परत्यस्त्येषां विश्वा जातान्यभ्यसि तानि || (RV VI/25/5)
कन नव्यो अतसीनां तुरो गर्णीत मर्त्यः |
नही नवस्य महिमानमिन्द्रियं सवर्ग्र्णन्त आनशुः || (RV VIII/3/13
They are also mentioned in Sat.Br. IX/5/2,35. Zimmer and McDonnel, took this tribe as one of the five main Aryan tribes. They are justified also because the Avesta mentions these five tribes as Arya, Turya, Dahi, Shor,and Sarmat.
The last, in fact, is the name of the Alans. Perhaps the Alinas of RV, but I am taking it as Aulan. All these five tribes can be identified with the five tribes of the Jats, who are now Known as Arya, Tur, Dahiya, Sheoran, and Aulan/Sarmata respectively. In the Rigveda, they are expressly called Panca Jatah i.e. five Jats.
  • (39) Tanva : The seer of RV X/93 is Tanva Parthya (R V X/95/6, X/93/15) mentions. "Rajah MeHn Vir Tanva" - "May the brave Tanva be my King". Daya Nand takes it in the sense of nation (Rastra), though it may refer to the body of Urvasi. They are descendants of King Tanva and are identified with Tanvar clan of the Jats.
  • (40) Tugra : (VII/74/14, 1/117/15, VIII/5/2, X/39/4). The father of Bhujya is called Taugrya. They are to be identified with Tokhar/Togar/Togra clan of the Jats, the Tochari of Indo-Greek Bactria.
अजोहवीदश्विना तौग्र्यो वां परोळ्हः समुद्रमव्यथिर्जगन्वान |
निष टमूहथुः सुयुजा रथेन मनोजवसा वर्षणास्वस्ति || (RV 1/117/15)
कदा वां तौग्र्यो विधत समुद्रे जहितो नरा |
यद वां रथो विभिष पतात || (RV VIII/5/22)



  • (41) Udara :(X/45/5). The Vedic index notes the plural form also. They are identified with Udara clan of the Jats.
शरीणामुदारो धरुणो रयीणां मनीषाणाम्प्रार्पणः सोमगोपाः |
वसुः सूनुः सहसो अप्सु राजावि भात्यग्र उषसामिधानः ||


  • (42) Vasu : mentioned in RV 8/34/16; Their king Vasu Rocis is mentioned in the same hymn. They are also mentioned in the plural. They are the Vasuan/Basuan/Baswan Jats of today. Vasu+an = Vasuan/Basuan.
  • (43) Vasa : A king of the tribe, Vasa Asuya, a protege of the Asvins is mentioned in the RV 4/112/10, 116/21, 8/8/20 etc. Ait. Br. (8/14/3) mentions the Vasa people. They are the Vasi/Basi Jats, the Busae of Iran.
  • (44) Vrika : a prince named Dasyave Vrika is mentioned in Rigveda (Vlll/51/2, Vlll/55/1 Vlll/56/1 etc.) They are to be identified with the Virk clan of the Jats and also with the Virk people of Iranian history who gave their name to the province of Varkania /Hyrcania in Iran.
  • (45) Venya : (RV X/171/3) descendants of King Vena (RV X/64/23). Vena is Devata of RV X/123. Their most famous king was Prithu Venya, the inventor of agriculture, as per AV Vlll/10/24 and seer of RV/X/148. RV 1/117/21 says that Asvin-s used the plough for sowing seeds. He was the first of the ordained emperors as per Sat. Br. (V/3,5,4). They are to be identified with the Venya-Val/Benhval clan of the Jats . They are not to be confused with the founder of the ancient Van Kingdom in West-Asia; which was named after another clan, the Bana/Vana of Jats.
  • (46) Visanin : RV VII/18/7. They are the Bisnhnoi/Vissu of today and they live in the area where river Sarasvati (Ghaggar) was lost in the Thar desert.
  • (47) Vricivat :(RV VI/27/7). They are mentioned as Vricivant in RV VI/27/7 etc. They are to be identified with Vraich/Varaich clan of the Jats, the Varcin -geto -ric of the time of Julius Caesar in Europe.
  • (48) Vrisa : (AV V/22/4,5,8); Panca-Vamsda Br. notes it as Brisya (IX/4/11). They are to be identified with Brish clan of the Jats.
  • (49) Vyamsa : (RV IV," 8/9). He is supposed to have struck Indra on the Jaw; some say, he was father of Indra. To be identified with Bains clan of the Jats - the same as Vance/Baynce in Europe.
  • (50) Yaksu : (VII/18/18-19). They were also fighting against Sudas and are to be identified with Jakha/Jakhar/Jakhu clan of Jats.
  • (51) Yamuna : RV VII/18/19,V/52/17. They are now called Jamun Jats who gave their name to Yamuna river.

Jat Rishi in Rigveda

The clan (Gotra) name of some of the seers of the Rigveda are worth noticing.

These are identifiable with the existing Jat clans, e.g.

  • i. Lusaka Dhanaka, the seer of RV 10/35, 36 is apparently of the Dhankar clan; from Dhanaka, we have the derivative for descendants as Dhanaka as well as Dhanaka(r).
  • iii. Jaya Aindra, (X/180), Sarvahari Aindra (X/96), Vimada Aindra (X/20-26)-Labah Aindra (X/119) Apratiratha Aindra (X/103)—all these seers are from Aindra clan, now called Andar which was later on called Andhra, a case of seudo-Sanskritisation by ignorant PaurSnikas, perhaps.
  • iv. Asvamedha Bharata (5/27), Deva Vata Bharata (3/23) Deva Srava Bharata (3/23)—these seers are from Bharata clan, which exists even today.
  • v. Puru mila and Ajamilah - The two Sanhotra clan seers, Puru mila and Ajamilah (4/43-44) represent the present Suhota clan.
  • vi. Arista nemi Taraksya (X/178) is from the Tarkhan clan.


  • vii. Asit Kasyapa (IX 5-24) is from the Kashyapa clan.
  • viii. Tanva Partha (X/193) may represent the present Parad clan, the well-known Parthians of Iran.


  • ix. Yamayana clan seers, Kumar (X/135), Damana (X/16), Deva Srava (X/17), Mathita (X/19) etc. represent the Yamana/yamun clan, now called Jaman/Jamun. For Yamuna, see RV 4/9/10 also. The river Yamuna is named after them, just as River Indus (Sindhu) is named after Sindhu clan and Ganga is named after the Kang/ Ganga clan.
  • x. There are two seers from Manu clan, called Manava, viz. Nahusa Manava (9/7-9,101) and Nabhanedista (X/61-62). This clan is now-a-days called Manu.
  • xi. Drona Saranga (X/142)represents the Sarangal/Saramgha clan of today.


  • xii. Panya Asura (X/108) represents the present Asra clan, the Jat + Asura of the Mahabharata.
  • xiii. Similarly, Ghaura (1/36-43), Kanva, Bharadvaja etc. are also clan names, they are found today as Gaur/Gauri, Kanval and Bharadvaj, respectively & Manava, Airavat, Vairupa, Sarpa (seers of the Xth Book) are from Manu, Airavat, Berupal, Sarpiya clans respectively.

Abbreviations used in B S Dahiya's books

  • AA - Ariana Antique
  • ABORI - Annals of Bhandarkar Oriental *Research Institute, Poona,
  • AIS - Alberuni's India, by Sachau.
  • AIG - The Age of Imperial Guptas.
  • AIU - The Age of Imperial Unity.
  • AN&M - The Age of Nandas and Mauryas.
  • ASR - Archaeological Survey (of *India) Reports.
  • ASI - Archaeological Survey of India.
  • ASIAR - Archaeological Survey of India *Annual Reports.
  • Ait. Br. - Aitereya Brahmana.
  • AMMK - Arya Manjusri Mula Kalpa (K.P. Jayaswal). In Imperial History of India.
  • BBKI - Brihad Bharat Ka Itihas (2 Vol. in Hindi) by Bhagvata Datta.
  • Bmd P. - Brahmanda Purana.
  • Br, - Brahmana.
  • BSOAS - Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London).
  • BRWW - Buddhist Records of the Western World, by S. Beal.
  • CAH - Cambridge Ancient History.
  • CII - (or Corp. Ins. Ind.) Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum.
  • CCIM - Catalogue of the Coins in the Indian Museum, Calcutta (V.A. Smith, 1906).
  • DKI - The Purana Text of the Dynasties of Kali Age (F.E. Pargiter).
  • DS - Daivata Samhita, by S.D. Satavalekar, 1943 (4 Vol. in Hindi).
  • DHNI - Dynastic History of North India (H.C. Ray).
  • EHI - Early History of India (V.A. Smith).
  • EHNI - Ethnic History of North India (S. Chatopadhyaya).
  • EB - Encyclopaedia Brittanica.
  • EI - Epigraphica Indica.
  • ESM - Eransahr Nach der Geographic des Ps Moses (or Eransahr) Xorenac-i, by J. Marquart, Berlin 1901.
  • HC - Harshacharita by Bag a Bhatta.
  • HCIP - History and Culture of Indian People.(Majumdar and Pusalkar).
  • HHC- Heou Han Chau (History of later Han Dynasty by Fan ye).
  • HIOH - History of India, as told by its Own Historians (Elliot and Dowson).
  • HVI - Hindi (Translation of) Vedic Index of Macdonnell & Keith by Ram Kumar Rai 1962).
  • IA -Indian Antiquary.
  • IC - Indian Culture, Calcutta.
  • IHQ - Indian Historical Quarterly.
  • Invasion - Invasion of India by Alexander the Great by J.W. Me Crindle.
  • ICR - Indian Coins (by Rapson, E.J.)-
  • JA - Journal Asiatique,
  • JAOS - Journal of American Oriental Society.
  • JASB - Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal.
  • JBBRAS - Journal of Bombay Branch of Royal Asiatic Society.
  • JBORS Journal of Bihar and Orissa Research Society.
  • JIH - Journal of Indian History.
  • JNSI - Journal of Numismatic Society of India.
  • JRAS - Journal of Royal Asiatic Society.
  • JKI - Jat Kshatriya Itihas (in Hindi) by Y. P. Shastri (1944).
  • JPASB - Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
  • KSIU - Kushan Studies in USSR (B. Gafurov & others, Calcutta 1970).
  • MAKI - Madhya Asia Ka Itihas (2 Vol. in Hindi by Rahula Sankrityayana).
  • MASI - Memoirs of Archaeological Survey of India.
  • MBT - Mahabharata.
  • Mark. - Markandeya Purana.
  • NHIP - New History of Indian People.
  • P. - Purana,
  • PIHC - Proceedings of Indian History Congress. Person English Dictionary (F, Steingass) 1930 London.
  • PHAI - Political History of Ancient India (H. C. Ray-Chowdhary).
  • P& SM - Political and Social Movements in Ancient Punjab, by Buddha Prakash.
  • RSCE - Rise and Splendour of the Chinese Empire (by R. Grousset, London, 1952). Rajat Rajatarangini of Kalhana, by A. Stein.
  • SBAW - Sitzungsberielite der Pressischen Akademie der Wis-.sen-Schaften (Berlin).
  • SIH&C - Studies in Indian History and Civilisation by Buddha Prakash.
  • SED - A Sanskrit-English Dictionary by M. Monier-Williams (Oxford 1960).
  • VIJ - Vishveshvaranand Indological Journal (Hoshiarpur, Pb.).
  • Vayiu - Vayu Purana
  • VGA - The Vakitaka-Gupta Age.
  • VS - Vikrama Samvat (Era of 58 B.C.)
  • Tribes and Castes - A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes in Punjab and N.W. Frontier—compiled by A.C. Rose, , Punjab Language Dept. Edn.)

See also

Notes

  1. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rvsan/rv10095.htm
  2. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rvsan/rv07018.htm
  3. ABORI Vol. XLII (1962) PI 09 ff
  4. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rvsan/rv05039.htm
  5. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rvsan/rv10098.htm
  6. W.H. Scholf, New Delhi. 1974 (P.161 f
  7. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rvsan/rv08074.htm
  8. AV Xll/4/49-50
  9. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rvsan/rv07018.htm
  10. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rvsan/rv07018.htm
  11. I.C. Jain, 'Life in ancient India as depicted in [he Jain Canons" Bombay (1947) p385, see P. 25 for Hariyana.
  12. J.BrOugh 'The early Br. System of Gotra & Pravara P.216-28
  13. Sabha Parva 31/13, SD. Satavalekar Edn.
  14. CAH Vol. J (2) P.720
  15. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rvsan/rv08024.htm
  16. Sarasvati and Vidyalankar Vol. Xlll P. 48 10
  17. Ep. Ind. X A No. 82
  18. Toynhee Vol. VJII/P 649

References


Back to Jatland Library