Atreya

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Atreya (आत्रेय) was an ancient northwestern primitive tribe mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.10.67) and by Panini. Atreya is name of Shiva included in the List of Shiva's thousand names.

Origin of name

Jat Gotras

History

V. S. Agrawala[1] writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Bhārdvāja (भारद्वाज) - Bhārdvājas were people living in Garhwal. Panini mentions Atreyas as division of Bhārdvāja.


Sandhya Jain[2] has mentioned Atreya (आत्रेय) under the heading Tribes in 'Geography' and 'Tributes', whose Position is not Known or did not Join the War or Unknown Tribes in the list of The Mahabharata Tribes. Atreya has been mentioned as northwestern primitive tribe in Mahabharata (VI.10.67), possibly located in Atari, between Lahore and Amritsar. They were later initiated in the Brahmin gotras of Atri and Bharadwaja.


Ram Swarup Joon[3] writes that the earliest gotra adopted by the Puru dynasty was Atreya.

Herodotus has described himself as a descendant of Atre (Atreya), an ancient Jat clan.[4]

इतिहास

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[5] लिखते हैं: चन्द्रवंश में अत्रि नामक जो वंश प्रचलित है उसके मूलाधार ब्रह्मा जी के पुत्र अत्रि ऋषि माने जाते हैं। अत्रि जाट गोत्र, ब्राह्मणों के अत्रि गोत्र से अलग है क्योंकि महाभारत भीष्म पर्व 10वां अध्याय श्लोक 67 में अत्रि वंश को शूद्र लिखा है। ब्राह्मण अपने गोत्र को शूद्र नहीं कह सकते[6]। एक शिलालेख मिला है जिसके लेख को पढकर कनिंघम ने लिखा है कि “अत्रि वंश (कुल) का शिवसेन था, जो पोथोहार का मण्डलेश्वर (Satrap of Pothohar) था[7]।” यह अत्रि जाट गोत्र है। अत्रि वंश, शतपथ ब्राह्मण, मार्कण्डेय पुराण और महाभारत में भी इसको जाति (संघ) लिखा है। महाभारत में लिखा है कि अत्रि गोत्र का राजा इन्द्रदमन ब्राह्मणों को अनेक प्रकार के दान देता था[8]। मध्यकाल में अलीगढ़ जिले के खडे़हा गांव से यह अत्रि जाटवंश लोकप्रसिद्ध हुआ। इसी गांव से चलकर इस वंश के लोग अलीगढ जिले की खैर और टप्पल तहसीलों में जाकर बस गये, जहां पर इनके 60 गांव हैं। इनमें घरबरा और हरजीगढ़ गांवों के जाट अति उन्नतिशील हैं। ये लोग खड़ेहा गांव से आकर इन गांवों में बसे, इसी कारण इनको खड़िया अत्रि कहते हैं।

In Mahabharata

Atreya (आत्रेय) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.48.8), (II.9-), (VI.10.67), (III.83.102), (VI.10.67)


Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 48 describes snake-sacrifice of the king Janamejaya of the Pandava line and the names of those who became the monarch's Ritwiks and Sadasyas at that sacrifice of the son of Parikshit. The snake-sacrifice was so frightful to the snakes, and begetting such sorrow in them. This sacrifice of the son of Parikshit was for the extermination of the the race of Nagas. Takshaka (I.48.14) was the prince of Nagas. Atreya (आत्रेय) is listed in verse (I.48.8). [9]


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 9 mentions Rivers Langali, the Karatoya and Atreyi. Atrai River (आत्रेयी) flows in West Bengal and northern parts of Bangladesh. It is linked with Karatoya River.


Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 83 mentions tirthas and ....Those foremost of Rishis, Valmiki, and Kasyapa, and Atreya, and Kaundinya, and Viswamitra, Gautama,.....Atreya (आत्रेय) is listed in verse (III.83.102). [10]


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 mentions the province of Bhardwaja along with Atreyas and Kalingas in shloka 67.... Then again there are the Shudra-abhiras, the Dardas, the Kasmiras, and the Pattis; the Khasiras; the Atreyas, the Bharadwajas, the Stanaposhikas, the Poshakas, the Kalingas, and diverse tribes of Kiratas....See verses VI.10.66-67[11]

References

  1. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.59
  2. Sandhya Jain: Adi Deo Arya Devata - A Panoramic View of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface, Rupa & Co, 7/16, Ansari Road Daryaganj, New Delhi, 2004, p.128
  3. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V,p. 97-98
  4. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter III, p.41
  5. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, पृ.183
  6. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.24
  7. J.F. Fleet, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1941 P. 103.
  8. Jats the Ancient Rulers, P. 278, B.S. Dahiya; महाभारत भीष्मपर्व अध्याय 9 में अत्रिवंश का जनपद भारतवर्ष में था।
  9. असितॊ देवलश चैव नारदः पर्वतस तथा, आत्रेयः कुण्ड जठरॊ दविजः कुटि घटस तथा (I.48.8)
  10. ऋषिमुख्याः सदा यत्र वाल्मीकिस तव अथ काश्यपः, आत्रेयस तव अथ कौण्डिन्यॊ विश्वा मित्रॊ ऽथ गौतमः (III.83.102)
  11. शूद्राभीराद दरदाः काश्मीराः पशुभिः सह, खशिकाश च तुखाराश च पल्लवा गिरिगह्वराः (VI.10.66)आत्रेयाःभरद्वाजास तदैव सतनयॊषिकाः, औपकाश च कलिङ्गाश च किरातानां च जातयः (VI.10.67)

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