Bhitari Ghazipur

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Bhitari (भीतरी), also known as Saidpur-Bhitari, is an ancient village in Ghazipur district situated 32 km from Ghazipur in Uttar Pradesh. It is about 7 km in north-east from Saidpur-Bhitari railway station. It an archeological town, and many significant remains have been excavated from here. Formerly, Bhitari was a Buddhist center. It shot to fame during the reign of Gupta Empire.

Buddhist relics

Prominent of the relics found here is a monolith of red sandstone, which stands in the fort enclosure on the block of ruff stone. It has a bell shaped capital, which takes after Ashoka Pillar.

Gupta Inscriptions

An inscription describing the reign of Skanda Gupta and Kumara Gupta I can be found on it. From the Bhitari pillar inscription it is known that Purugupta was the immediate successor of Kumaragupta I.

The excavations made here include a silver plate bearing inscription of Kumara Gupta I, seal and coins depicting the genealogy of nine generations of Gupta kings.

Bhim Singh Dahiya [1]writes that there is the famous passage in the Bhitari Pillar inscription of Skandagupta, गीतैशच स्तुतिमिशच वन्दकजनो यं प्रापत्यार्य्यांताम् Fleet has translated this line in the following manner: 'Whom the bards raised to distinction with (their) songs and praises'. But he seems to have missed the real significance of the use of the word 'Aryatam' in the inscription. Actually, it means 'the Arya status' to which Skandagupta was raised by the song and panegyrics of the bards.

Bhitari Pillar Inscription of Skandagupta (=A.D. 455-67)

  • [Perfection has been attained]! The son of the Mahârâjâdhirâja, the glorious Samudragupta,-who was the exterminator of all kings; who had no antagonist (of equal power) in the world; whose fame was tasted by the waters of the four oceans; who was equal to (the gods) Dhanada and Varuna and Indra and Antaka; who was the very axe of (the god) Kritânta; who was the giver of many millions of lawfully acquired cows and gold; who was the restorer of the ashvamêdha-sacrifice, that had been long in abeyance; who was the son of the son's son of the Mahârâja, the illustrious Gupta; who was the son's son of the Mahârâja, the illustrious Ghatôtkacha; (and) who was the son of the Mahârâjâdhirâja, the glorious Chandragupta (I.), (and) the daughter's son of Lichchhavi, begotten on the Mahâdêvî Kumrâdêvî,-
  • (L 4.)-(was) the most devout worshipper of the Divine One, the Mahârâjadhirâja, the glorious Chandragupta (II.), who was accepted by him; who was begotten on the Mahdâdêvî Dattadêvî; (and) who was himself without an antagonist (of equal power).
  • (L.5.)-His son (was) the most devout worshipper of the Divine One, the Mahârâjadhirâja, the glorious Kumâragupta I, who meditated on his feet, (and) who was begotten on the Mahdâdêvî Dhruvadêvî.
  • (L. 6.)-The son of him, the king, who was renowned for the innate power of (his) mighty intellect (and) whose fame was great, (is) this (present) king, by name Skandagupta, who possesses great glory; who subsisted (like a bee) on the wide-spreading waterlilies which were the feet of (his) father; whose fame is spread far and wide; -who is amply endowed with strength of arm in the world; who is the most eminent hero in the lineage of the Guptas; whose great splendour is spread far and wide; by whom, practising (good) behaviour, the conduct of those who perform good actions is not obstructed; who is of spotless soul; (and) who is well disciplined in the understanding of musical keys(?) :-
  • (L. 8.)-By whom,-having, with daily intense application, step by step attained his object by means of good behaviour and strength and politic conduct,-instruction in the art of disposition (of resources) was acquired, (and) was employed as the means of (subduing his) enemies who had put themselves forward in the desire for conquest that was so highly welcome (to them) :-
  • (L. 10.)-By whom, when he prepared himself to restore the fallen fortunes of (his) family, a (whole) night was spent on a couch that was the bare earth; and then, having conquered the Pushyamitras, who had developed great power and wealth, he placed (his) left foot on a foot-stool which was the king (of that tribe himself ) :-
  • (L. 11.)-The resplendent behaviour of whom, possessed of spotless fame,-inherent, [but increased] by . . . . . . . . and patience and heroism which are emphatically unequalled, (and) which destroy the efficacy of the weapons (of his enemies),-is sung in every region by happy men, even down to the children:
  • (L. 12.)-Who, when (his) father had attained the skies, conquered (his) enemies by the strength of (his) arm, and established again the ruined fortunes of (his) lineage; and then, crying "the victory has been achieved," betook himself to (his) mother, whose eyes were full of tears from joy, just as Krishna, when he had slain (his) enemies, betook himself to (his mother) Dêvakî;-
  • (L. 14.)-Who, with his own armies, established (again) (his) lineage that had been made to totter . . . . . . . . . .. ., (and) with his two arms subjugated the earth, (and) shewed mercy to the conquered peoples in distress, (but) has become neither proud nor arrogant, though his glory is increasing day by day; (and) whom the bards raise to distinction with (their) songs and praises:-
  • (L. 15.)-By whose two arms the earth was shaken, when he, the creator (of a disturbance like that) of a terrible whirlpool, joined in close conflict with the Hûnas; . . . . . . among enemies . . . . . . arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . proclaimed . . . . . . . . . . . . just as if it were the roaring of (the river) Gangâ, making itself noticed in (their) ears.
  • (L.17.)- . . . . . . the fame of his father . . . . . . . . . . . (Saying to himself that) an image of some kind or other [should be made], he, the very celebrated one, made this image of that (famous) (god) Shârngin, [to endure as long as the moon and stars may last]. And, having here installed this (god), he, whose commands are well-established, has allotted this village (to the idol), in order to increase the religious merit of (his) father.
  • (L. 19.)-Accordingly, this image of the Divine One, and (this village) which has been here agreed to, -both of these, he, the pious-minded one, has assigned for (the increase of ) the religious merit of (his) father.
  • From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 54-56.

Text (Fleet) in Sanskrit

  • 1 [Siddham] [||*] [Sar]vva-rāj[î]chchh[å]ttuõ pðthivyām=a-pratirathasya chatur-udadhi-salil-[ā]svādita-yaųasî Dhanada-Varuí-Åndr-[Ā]ntaka-sa[masya]
  • 2 Kðtānta-paraųîõ nyāy-āgat-[ā]nåka-gî-hiraíya-k[î]ōi-pradasya chir-î[t]sann-āųvamådh-āharttur=mahārāja-ųrč-Gupta-prapautra[sya]
  • 3 mahārāja-ųrč-Ghaōîtkacha-pauttrasya mahārājādhirāja-ųrč-Chandragupta-putrasya Lichchhivi-dauhitrasya mahādåvyāė Kum[ā]rad[å]vyā-
  • 4 m=utpannasya mahārājādhirāja-ųrč-Samudraguptasya putras=tat-parigðhčtî mahādåvyān=Dattadåvyām=utpannaõ svayam=a-pratirathaõ
  • 5 paramabhāgavatî mahārājādhirāja-ųrč-Chandraguptas=tasya putras=tat-pād-ānuddhyātî mahādåvyāė Dhruvadåvyām=utpannaõ parama-
  • 6 bhāgavatî mahārājādhir[ā]ja-ųrč-Kumāraguptas=Tasya [|*] Prathita-pðthu-mati-svabhāva-ųaktåõ pðthu-yaųasaõ pðthivčpatåõ pðthu-ųrčõ
  • 7 pi[tð]-pa[r]igata-pādapadma-varttč prathita-yaųāõ pðthivčpatiõ sutî=yam [||*] Jagati bhu[ja]-bal-āäyî(ähyî) Gupta-vaęų-aika-včraõ prathita-vipula-
  • 8 dhāmā nāmataõ Skandaguptaõ sucharita-charitānāė yåna vðttåna vðttaė na vihatam=amal-ātmā tāna-dhčdā(?)-vinčtaõ [||*] Vinaya-
  • 9 bala-sunčtair=vvikkramåía kkramåía pratidinam=abhiyîgād=čpsitaė yåna la[b]dhvā svabhimata-vijigčøā-prîdyatānāė paråøāė praíi-
  • 10 hita iva lå[bhå sa]ėvidhān-îpadåųaõ [||*] Vichalita-kula-lakømč-stambhanāy= îdyatåna køititala-ųayančyå yåna nčtā triyāmā samu-
  • 11 dita-ba[la]-kîųān=Puøyamitrāėų=cha [j]itvā køitipa-charaía-pčōhå sthāpitî vāma-pādaõ [||*] Prasabham-anupam[ai]r=vvidhvasta-ųastra-pratāpai[r]=vina[ĸ ĸ]mu-
  • 12 [ĸ - -]køānti-ųaury[ai]r=nniróäham charitam=amala-kčrttår=ggčyatå yasya ųubhraė diųi-diųi parituøōair=ā-kumāraė manuøyaiõ [||*] Pitari divam=upå[tå]
  • 13 viplutāė vaęųa-lakømčė bhuja-bala-vijit-ārir=yyaõ pratiøōhāpya bhóyaõ jitam=iti paritîøān=mātaraė sāsra-nåttrāė hata-ripur=iva Kðøíî Dåvakčm=abhyupå-
  • 14 [ta]õ [||*] Sv[ai]r=ddaíä[aiõ] [ĸ ĸ] ra(?)tyu[-]t-prachalitaė vaęųaė pratiøōhāpya yî bāhubhyām=avaniė vijitya hi jitåøv=ārttåøu kðtvā ayāmn=îtsiktî [na] cha vismitaõ pratidinaė
  • 15 saėvarddhamāna-dyutiõ gčtaių=cha stutibhių=cha vandaka-ja(?)nî(?) yaė prā(?)payaty=āryyatām [||*] Hóíair=yyasya samāgatasya samarå dîrbhyāė dharā kaėpitā bhčm-āvartta-karasya
  • 16 ųatruøu ųarā[- - ĸ - - ĸ - ĸ - - - ĸ ĸ - ĸ -] vira(?)chi(?)taė prakhyāpitî [-]č[ĸ]i[-] na dyî(?)ti[ĸ]nabhč(?)øu lakøyata iva ųrîtråøu Gāęga-dhvaniõ [||*]
  • 17 S[v]a-pituõ kčrtti[ - - - - - - - ĸ - ĸ - - - - - ĸ - - - - - - - ĸ - ĸ -] [||*] [Karttavyā] pratimā kāchit=pratimāė tasya Ųāręgiíaõ
  • 18 s[u]-pratčtaų=chakār=åmāė y[āvad=ā-chandra-tārakam] [||] Iha ch=ainaė pratiøōhāpya su-pratiøōhita-ųāsanaõ grāmam=ånaė sa vidadh[å] pituõ pu[í]y-ābhivðddhayå [||*]
  • 19 Atî bhagavatî mórttir=iyaė yaų=ch=ātra saėsthi(?)ta(?)õ ubhayaė nirddidåų=āsau pituõ puíyāya puíya-dhčr=iti [||*]

From the original column.

  • L. 1. There are some faint marks above the sarvva, which seem to be remnants of this word; but it is not quite certain.
  • L. 6. Metre, Puøpitāgrā.
  • L. 7. Metre, Mālinč; and in the next four verses.
  • L. 14. Metre, Ųārdulavikrčäita; and in the next verse.
  • L. 17. Metre, Ųlîka (Anuøōubh); and in the following three verses.

Bhitari Inscribed Copper-Silver Seal of Kumaragupta III

Ref - Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta. LVIII, p. 89

References


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