Bharuch

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

District Map of Bharuch

Bharuch (Hindi: भड़ूच),Gujarati: ભરૂચ) (Baroch) is a district in Gujarat in India.

Variants

It was known to history by various names such as

Location

Tahsils in Bharuch district

Mention by Panini

Bhrigukachchha (भृगुकच्छ) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [2]

History

V. S. Agrawala[3] writes that no examples of kachchha ending names found in Sutras and Patanjali, but there was a well known sea-port called Bhrigukachchha called Broach.


Excavations near the banks of the river Narmada in Bharuch have revealed many archeological and architectural wonders, mostly temples. Later Bharuch was part of the Mauryan Empire (322–185 BC), the Western Satraps, the Guptas and the Gurjars. According to historical accounts, the kingdom with capital at Bhinmal (or Srimal) was established by the Gurjars (or Gujjars). The kingdom of Bharuch was the offshoot of this Kingdom.


Bharuch is the oldest city of Gujarat. It is also the second-oldest city of India having continuous inhabitations, first being Kashi (Varanasi). Bharuch has a known history for about 8000 years. Bharuch was ruled over by too many emperors in the princely states era. Chandragupta Vikramaditya and other kings of the Gupta dynasty ruled over here up to 5th century and later it was ruled over by the kings of Gurjara tribe till 7th century. Solanki ancestry's great emperor Sidhdhraj Jaisinh had built up Kot (fortification) and darvaja (doors) around the whole Bharuch which was known as 'Malbari Darvaja'. These are renamed as 'Katopor Darvaja'and 'Zadeshwari darvaja' later. In the first half of 16th century, Bharuch was ruled over by Changez Khan. Then, Mughal king Humayu ruled over in 1534 AD.

BC era: Certainly by the 6th century BC, the city was known everywhere, and was readily accessible via land-sea routes reaching the Levant to the Arab and Ethiopian traders feeding goods westwards to the Egyptians, Greeks, Persians, Western Romans, Carthaginians, and eventually, the Eastern Roman Empires, and the Republic of Venice. It is likely even the Phoenicians knew of it and so it has acted since antiquity as a link port to the luxury goods trade from the Far East and the interior of the Indian sub-continent to the civilisations of South-west Asia, the Middle-East, the Mediterranean basin including Northern Africa and Europe.

During the Prarga–Maurya period in Gujarat, King Pradyot Mahaveer of the Pradyota dynasty of Ujjain ruled over Bhragukutchh in 550 BCE. He was a contemporary of Gautama Buddha. The Theragatha, part of the Pali Canon written down in Sri Lanka in the 1st century BC, mentions Vaddha Thera and Malitavamba Thera of Bharukaccha, as contemporaries of the Buddha, while the Therigatha of the same canon mentions Vaddhamta Theri of Bharukaccha. The ancient Sri Lankan chronicle, the Dipavamsa, mentions that the legendary king Vijaya stopped at Bharukaccha for three months c. 500 BC.[4]

Excavations near the banks of the river Narmada in Bharuch have revealed many archaeological and architectural wonders, mostly temples. Later Bharuch was part of the Mauryan Empire (322–185 BC), the Western Satraps, the Guptas and the Gurjara-Pratiharas.[5]

The Maurya period was between 322 and 185 BC. The post-Maurya period is mentioned between 185 BC and 23 AD. Princess of Sinhala, Sudarshana had built the Shakunika Vihara in the Bhragukutchh during the rule of Sampati (229–220 BC), and a Bharuch trader became responsible for the memories of the princess. This depicts trade relations between Laat and Ceylon.

It was known to the Greeks and Romans as Barygaza, and probably had a settlement of Greek traders. As one southern terminus of the Kamboja-Dvaravati Route, it is mentioned extensively as a major trading partner of the Roman world, in the 1st century Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. One of the Periploi describes numerous Greek buildings and fortifications in the area, although mistakenly attributing them to Alexander the Great who never reached this far south, as well as the circulation of Indo-Greek coinage in the region:

"The metropolis of this country is Minnagara, from which much cotton cloth is brought down to Barygaza. In these places there remain even to the present time signs of the expedition of Alexander, such as ancient shrines, walls of forts and great wells." Periplus, Chap. 41
"To the present day ancient Drachmae are current in Barygaza, coming from this country, bearing inscriptions in Greek letters, and the devices of those who reigned after Alexander the Great, Apollodotus and Menander." Periplus Chap. 47[10]

Kshatraya era (c. 23–400 AD): In the 1st century AD, kings of Shaka community established their rule in Gujarat. Nabhovaahan (Nahapana), the king of Bharukutchh was very prosperous. During the Kshatraya era Bharuch port was very prosperous. It was a gateway of trading through land and waters both routes. Like other ancient ports, trading of slaves also took place at the Bharuch port.

During the decade of 70–80 AD, coins of Greek writing were used in Bharuch. The activity region of Jain priest Arya Khapoot (1st century AD) was in the Aatapata region of Bharuch. He had released the Ashvaavabodh pilgrims in Bharuch out of the control of the Bauddhas.

King Nahapana (119 AD – 124 AD) of Kshatraya era: Seven caves have been discovered from Kadiyadungar near Jhajhapore, near Ankleshwar, of the Bharuch district. These caves seem as the Bauddha Vihaaras. It seems that they were sculpted in 1st or 2nd century.

Gupta era (c. 415–470 AD): During this time kings of Trekootaka dynasty ruled the north of the Konkan and south of the Laata. Trekootaka ruled over the Surat district but the border of their state could not be decided. In the lines of Daspur of the weavers of Laata (South Gujarat) it has been mentioned that Sun-Temple was built in 437.

Maitrak era (c. 470–788 AD): According to historical accounts, the kingdom with capital at Bhinmal (or Srimal) was established by the Gurjaras . The kingdom of Bharuch was the offshoot of this Kingdom.[6]

It is known that in 540 AD which dynasty ruled over the Bharuch state in 540, a Mahasamant named Sangramsinh ruled over Bharukutchh, But nothing is known about the king. Chinese traveller Xuanzang crossed Narmada river in 640 AD and recorded that Bhrugukutch (Po Lu Ka Che Po) had around 10 Buddhist monasteries with around 300 monks.[7] During this period Hakem Usmanbhai Hakem had attacked over Bharuch. In 648 AD, King Dhansen – four of Vallabhi had put winning camp in Bharukutchh. A Muslim traveller Al – Biladuri had written in his notes that in 713 – 714 AD.

Governor of Sindh, Hasam Bin Amru Tughlakhi came to Gandhar port by boat. He destroyed the idols and the temples and built Mosques in place of them in the time of 760 AD Arab Hakem Hisham of Sindh had attacked the Gandhar port near Bharuch. In the post Maitrak era during 788 – 942 AD Rashtrakuta kings of south Laata ruled over Bharuch.

Chaulukya era (942–1304 AD): In 942, Mularaja established the rule of Chaulukya (Solanki) dynasty in Anahilvaad Patan. Till this time the importance of Bharuch as the trade centre was continued. It was the capital of Laata region at the starting of the 11th century. It was the centre for the ships coming from China and Sindh in the 12th century minister Vastupala had established a library in Bharuch.

The Chakradhar Swami of Bharuch was during the era of Bhimdev 2nd. He established the Mahanubhava community which was spread in Maharashtra. One Madresa was built during the Solanki era in Bharuch.

Middle Ages era (1293–1872 AD): The middle era history of Bharuch district can be divided in three main parts, out of which, we can say that Sultanate era (1297–1572), Mughal era (1572–1736). Broach was a center of a prosperous merchant community, and was one of the chief ports of Gujarat from ancient times to the first half of the 16th century; the Portuguese had little contact with the port, until 1547 when Jorge de Menezes sacked Bharuch 1547, from which the city fell into insignificance. In the 17th century the Dutch and British made it a center of their cotton purchases in Gujarat,[12] and commercial warehouses were established in 1616 and 1618 by the British and Dutch (Valanda) respectively. After that, in 1675 and 1686, it was sacked by the Marathas. During this time period, Bharuch was handed over to Kutubuluddin. Mughal king Aurangzeb demolished the fortification and the fort in 1660 by attacking. Later on, he had built it again in 1686. In 1772, the Britishers again attacked on Bharuch with the help of 'Diwan Lallubhai' and they got succeed to take the power from 'Nawab Mojubb Khan'. Maratha era (1783–1802) were the eras of struggle. Bharuch was ruled by Delhi Sultanate for 94 years, Gujarat’s independent Sultanate for 181 years, Mughal Sultanate for 164 years, independent emirs for 36 years and Maratha rule for 19 years.

During these times, revenue was collected from Bharuch and hundreds of people, especially the rich people, were killed. Same way in the cities on the banks of river Kavi in Jambusar taluka there were many big and rich Muslim communities. They were mainly formed by the foreign traders.

As part of the Sultanate of Gujarat, it was subsequently annexed by the Mughals, and finally by the British. It is also situated near a small City called Halderva where two Islamic priests were found performing miracles.

On taking a bird’s eye view of the financial structure of the whole era of Gujarat’s sultanate, it can be seen that the area was cheaper and prosperous also when Akbar had won over Bharuch during Mughal era it had 12 Paraganas. The annual growth of all 559 City of the Bharuch, Hansot, Olpad, Mandvi, Galaa, Jambusar, Dahej, Koral, Ankleshwar and Tadakeshwar paraganas was Rs. 7.5 million. As given in the Tabakka – E – Akbari there is a description of severe draught and spread of contentious epidemic in Gujarat.

भरुकच्छ

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[8] ने लेख किया है ...भरुकच्छ = भृगुकच्छ (AS, p.661) भड़ौंच का रूपांतरण है. महाभारत सभापर्व 51,10 में भरुकच्छ निवासियों का युधिष्ठिर की राजसभा में गांधार देश के बहुत से घोड़ों को भेंट में लेकर आने का वर्णन है--बलिं च कृत्सनमादाय भरुकच्छनिवासिन, उपनिन्युर्महाराज हयानमाघारदेशजान्' इसके आगे सभापर्व (51,10) समुद्रनिष्कुट प्रदेश के निवासियों का उल्लेख है. समुद्रनिष्कुट कच्छ का प्राचीन अभिधान था. इससे भरुकच्छ का भडौंच से अभिज्ञान पुष्ट हो जाता है. शूर्पारक जातक में भरुकच्छ को भरुराष्ट्र का मुख्य स्थान माना गया है. इस जातक में भरुकच्छ के समुद्र-व्यापारियों की साहसिक यात्राओं का वर्णन है. भरुकच्छ का उल्लेख (एक पाठ के अनुसार) रुद्रदामन् के गिरनार अभिलेख में है--'सुराष्ट्र श्वभ्रभरुकच्छ सिंधु सौवीर कुकुरापरान्त निषादादीनां...।'

भरुकच्छ - भृगुकच्छ

भड़ौंच नगर का प्राचीन नाम है। यहीं महर्षि भृगु का आश्रम था।[9] भरूच प्राचीन काल में 'भरुकच्छ' या 'भृगुकच्छ' के नाम से प्रसिद्ध था। भरुकच्छ एक संस्कृत शब्द है, जिसका तात्पर्य ऊँचा तट प्रदेश है। भड़ौच प्राक् मौर्य काल का एक महत्त्वपूर्ण बन्दरगाह था। इसके बाद के कई सौ वर्षों तक इसका महत्त्व बना रहा और आज भी है। यूनानी भूगोलवेत्ता 'पेरिप्लस ऑफ द इरिथ्रियन सी' के लेखक टॉल्मी ने भरुकच्छ को बैरीगोजा कहा है। उसके अनुसार समुद्र से 3 मील दूर पर नर्मदा नदी के उत्तर की ओर स्थित बैरीगोजा एक बड़ा पुर था।

संदर्भ: भारतकोश-भृगुकच्छ

भरूच

भरूच गुजरात राज्य में स्थित एक ऐतिहासिक नगर है। भरूच प्राचीन काल में भरुकच्छ या भृगुकच्छ के नाम से प्रसिद्ध था। भरुकच्छ एक संस्कृत शब्द है, जिसका तात्पर्य ऊँचा तट प्रदेश है। भड़ौच प्राक् मौर्य काल का एक महत्त्वपूर्ण बन्दरगाह था, इसके बाद के कई सौ वर्षों तक महत्त्व बना रहा और आज भी है। यूनानी भूगोलवेत्ता पेरिप्लस ऑफ द इरिथ्रियन सी के लेखक टॉलमी ने भरुकच्छ को बैरीगोजा कहा है। उसके अनुसार समुद्र से 3 मील दूर पर नर्मदा नदी के उत्तर की ओर स्थित बैरीगोजा एक बड़ा पुर था।

रुद्रदामन के गिरनार अभिलेख (150 ई.) में भरुकच्छ का वर्णन है। जातक कथाओं में भरुकच्छ के समुद्र व्यापारियों की साहसिक यात्राओं का विशद् वर्णन है। दिव्यावदान के अनुसार भरुकच्छ घना बसा हुआ एक सम्पन्न नगर था। यह नगर समुद्री व्यापार एवं वाणिज्य का ईसा पूर्व से ही महत्त्वपूर्ण केन्द्र रहा। टॉलमी के अनुसार यह पश्चिमी भारत में व्यापार का सबसे बड़ा केन्द्र था। पाश्चात्य देशों वाले यहाँ से विलासिता के सामान ले जाते थे, जिनमें गंगा के निचले भागों की बनी सुन्दर मलमल भी थी। युवानच्वांग, जो सातवीं शताब्दी में यहाँ आया था, इसकी परिधि 2,400 या 2,500 ली बताई। यहाँ की भूमि लवणयुक्त थी। समुद्री जल को गरम करके नमक बनाया जाता था और लोगों की जीविका का आधार समुद्र था। उसने लिखा है कि यहाँ दस बौद्ध विहार थे, जिनमें महायान स्थविर सम्प्रदाय के 300 भिक्षु रहते थे।

पेरिप्लस में वर्णित है कि बन्दरगाह पर राजा के रनिवास के लिए सुन्दर स्त्रियाँ विदेशों से लायी जाती थीं। उम्मान और अपोलोगस से सोना और चांदी भड़ौंच लाई जाती थी। टिन, तांबा और सीसा भी विदेशों से भड़ौंच लाया जाता था। शीशे के बर्तन विदेशों से भड़ौंच ही लाए जाते थे। इसी ग्रंथ में यह उल्लेख है कि भृगुकच्छ के पास के समुद्र में ज्वार-भाटे के कारण कई नाविकों को भारी कठिनाइयों का सामना करना पड़ता था। यहाँ चीन और सिंध दोनों ओर से व्यापारिक जहाज़ आते थे।

यहाँ पर लगभग दस देव मन्दिर थे, जिनमें विविध सम्प्रदायों के मतावलम्बी रहते थे। मध्यकाल में भी भड़ौंच एक प्रमुख बन्दरगाह था।

संदर्भ: भारतकोश-भरूच

भरुराष्ट्र

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[10] ने लेख किया है ...भरुराष्ट्र (AS, p.661) भृगुकच्छ या भड़ौन्च जनपद का नाम है. शूर्पारक-जातक में भरुरट्ठ (=भरुराष्ट्र) का नमोल्लेख इस प्रकार है-- 'अतीते भरुरट्ठे भरुराजा नाम रज्ज कारेसी, भरुकच्छ नाम पट्टनगामो अहोसी'-- अर्थात भरुराष्ट्र में भरुराजा राज करता था जिसकी राजधानी भरुकच्छ में थी. इस प्रदेश के समुद्रवणिकों की साहस यात्राओं का रोमांचकारी वृतांत शूर्पारक जातक में वर्णित है. (देखें भृगुकच्छ)

अग्निमाली

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[11] ने लेख किया है ...अग्निमाली (AS, p.10) शूर्पारक-जातक में वर्णित एक सागर-'यथा अग्गीव सुरियो व समुद्दोपति दिस्सति, सुप्पारकं तं पुच्छाम समुद्दो कतमो अयंति। भरुकच्छापयातानं वणि-जानं धनेसिनं, नावाय विप्पनट्ठाय अग्गिमालीति वुच्चतीति।'

अर्थात् जिस तरह अग्नि या सूर्य दिखाई देता है वैसा ही यह समुद्र है; शूर्पारक, हम तुमसे पूछते हैं कि यह कौन-सा समुद्र है? भरुकच्छ से जहाज़ पर निकले हुए धनार्थी वणिकों को विदित हो कि यह अग्निमाली नामक समुद्र है।

इस प्रसंग के वर्णन से यह भी सूचित होता है कि उस समय के नाविकों के विचार में इस समुद्र से स्वर्ण की उत्पत्ति होती थी। अग्निमाली समुद्र कौन-सा था, यह कहना कठिन है। डॉ. मोतीचंद के अनुसार यह लालसागर या रेड सी का ही नाम है किंतु वास्तव में शूर्पारक-जातक का यह प्रसंग जिसमें क्षुरमाली, नलमाली, दधिमाली आदि अन्य समुद्रों के इसी प्रकार के वर्णन हैं, बहुत कुछ काल्पनिक तथा पूर्व-बुद्धकाल में देश-देशांतर घूमने वाले नाविकों की रोमांस-कथाओं पर आधारित प्रतीत होता है। भरुकच्छ या भडौंच से चल कर नाविक लोग चार मास तक समुद्र पर घूमने के पश्चात् इन समुद्रों तक पहुंचे थे। (दे. क्षुरमाली, बड़वामुख, दधिमाली, नलमाली, कुशमाल)

In Mahabharata

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 28 mentions Sahadeva's march towards south, kings and tribes defeated. Bharukachchha (भरुकच्छ) is mentioned in Mahabharata (2.28.50). [12].... the virtuous and intelligent 'son of Madri' (Sahadeva) having arrived at the sea-shore, then despatched with great assurance messengers unto the illustrious Vibhishana, the grandson of Pulastya....

Mention by Periplus

A map showing the ancient western trade routes serviced by this ancient and historical port. The gateway city of Bharakuccha is named on the map as Barigaza on the Gulf of Khambhat. The inhospitable mountains and deserts to the north of the Erythraean Sea suggests its importance in trade with ancient Axum, Egypt, Arabia and the sea-land trade routes via the Tigris-Euphrates valley and Ancient Rome.

Bharuch was called by the name of Barygaza by Greeks/Romans. North India also traded with western and southern nations via Ujjain and Bharuch. Trade with the Indian harbour of Barygaza is described extensively in the Periplus. Nahapana, ruler of the Indo-Scythian Western Satraps is mentioned under the name Nambanus,[13]as ruler of the area around Barigaza:

41. "Beyond the gulf of Baraca is that of Barygaza and the coast of the country of Ariaca, which is the beginning of the Kingdom of Nambanus and of all India. That part of it lying inland and adjoining Scythia is called Abiria, but the coast is called Syrastrene. It is a fertile country, yielding wheat and rice and sesame oil and clarified butter, cotton and the Indian cloths made therefrom, of the coarser sorts. Very many cattle are pastured there, and the men are of great stature and black in color. The metropolis of this country is Minnagara, from which much cotton cloth is brought down to Barygaza."
—Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chap. 41[10]

Broach dynasty of the Chauhans

Chauhans of Bharuch
Reference - This sectionis mainly from "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, pp. 15-19

To the Chauhans of Broach belongs the earliest of the Chauhan inscriptions discovered so far, viz., the Hansot Plates of V. 813=756 A.D. which refer themselves to the reign of the illustrious Nagavaloka and record the gift of a village in the Akruresvaravishaya (modern Ankalesvar taluka) by Bhartrivaddha II, the Chauhan chief of Bhrigukachchha.

The donor's genealogy has been given as follows:-

In the Chauhan family:-

Rajan Maheshvaradama (राजन महेश्वरदाम)
Bhimadama (भीमदाम)
Bhartrivaddha (I) (भर्तृवड़्ढा I)
Paramamaheshvara Haradama (परममहेश्वर हरदाम)
Dhru bhatadeva (ध्रुभटदेव)
Paramamaheshvara-samadhigatapanchamahashabda-mahasamantadhipati
Bhartrivaddha ( II) (भर्तृवड़्ढा II)

It is obvious from the donor's titles that he was a feudatory of Nagavaloka (Nagabhata I of the Imperial Prathihara dynasty) to whose reign the grant has been referred. That the termination avaloka was not confined to the Rashtrakutas is shown by Nagabhata II of the Imperial Pratihara dynasty being called Nagavaloka in the Pratihari inscription of Parabala (EI, IX. pp. 252ff) and the Harsha inscription of Vigraharaja II of Shakambhari and in the Prabhavakacharita (p.109 of Nirnayasagar Edition, Bombay). The five members of Bhartrvaddha II's family, who preceded him, have been given a good deal of conventional praise. But as the first of them bears merely the colourless title rajan and the others do not enjoy even this distinction, they probably were no more than petty chieftain. Broach, at least, could not have been under them, for we find the Gurjara ruler Jayabhata III ruling there up to 736 A.D. Bhartrivaddha II was, probably, the first Chauhan ruler of Lata, and his rise to power was, in all likelihood, due to the incursions of Junaid, the Governor of Sind under Caliph Hisham (724-743 A.D.), whose armies are known to have raided Broach, and advanced even further to the south towards Nausari where their further progress was barred by strong Chalukya forces led by Avanijanasraya Pulakeshin of Lata. The Arabs retired from there. But we hear no more after this of the Gurjara kingdom of Broach. Its place was taken, perhaps, immediately, or shortly after, by the principality founded by the Chauhan chief Bhartrivaddha II who is believed to have been related in some way or other to the rulers of Valabhi and was, one might reasonably feel sure, helped in rising to this new dignity by his overlord Nagabhata I, the Gwalior inscription of whose descendant Mihira Bhoja [EI XVIII, pp. 107ff.] describes him (Nagabhata I) as a defeater of the big army of the lord of Mlechchhas.[Ibid., Verse-4] The destruction of the Gurjara kingdom of Broach took place somewhere between 736 A.D., the last date known for Jayaabhata III, and 738 A.D., the year of Pulakeshin's Nausari grant mentioned above. Bhartrivaddha II's principality must, therefore, have come into existence between this slightly uncertain date and 756 A.D., the year of the Hansot Plates. Tammim, the successor of Junaid, is known to have been a weak Governor during whose time the Arabs had to retire from many places that they had previously occupied. Broach was obviously one of the places they had to be evacuated. We have no information about the successors of Bhartrivaddha II. Probably the dynasty ended with him, because within one year of his Hansot Plates we find the Rashtrakuta Governor Kakka II granting lands to a brahmana from Jambusar which is not more than 25 miles or so from Bhrigukachchha. The Ellora Dashavatara inscription ascribes some victories in Lata to Dantidurga, the founder of the Rashtrakuta line of the Deccan. As he was a contemporary of Bhartrivaddha II, both the establishment of the governorship of Kakka Rashtrakuta in Gujarat and the disappearance of the Lata kingdom of the Chauhans within the short period intervening between the Hansot and Antroli-Chharoli grants may be ascribed to the brilliant military achievements of Dantidurga.

Later Chauhans of Bhrigukachha.

Nearly four centuries later, we once more come across a Chauhan dynasty ruling in this tract with its headquarters at Broach. A little before V. 1279, the important port of Cambay also had belonged to it. It had been in the bhukti of the Sindhuraja, the younger brother of Simha, the Chauhan ruler of Broach, and had been captured by Lavanyaprasada Vaghela of Dholka as the result of a battle in which the Chauhan forces had been decisively beaten. And then closely in the wake of this event had followed another defeat. Simhana, the Yadava ruler of Devagiri, slew Sindhuraja on the banks of the Narmada and put his son Sankha into captivity. But for the help of their erstwhile enemy Lavanyaprasada who not liking any increase in the power of his rival Simhana came to the Chauhans' rescue while their professed ally Devapala of Malwa hung back for sheer fear, Bhrgukachchha and its adjoining territories would have passed into the hands of the Yadavas. This act of political generosity turned Simha, the Chauhan ruler of Broach, into a friend of Lavanyaprasada. But Simha does not appear to have lived long after this event. About V. 1280, he was succeeded by his nephew Sankha who had been released from Yadava captivity with a view, perhaps, to fomenting trouble against Chalukyas.

Jayatsimha Sankha probably lost Broach soon after his second fight for we find it being ruled in V. 1298-1241 A.D. by Vastupala's nephew Lavanyasimha. The Broach dynasty of the Chauhans thus most probably ended with Sankha. Sankha was a well-known warrior and obviously a good diplomat. His attacks on the Vaghelas were well-timed, though they miscarried, because he had insufficient resources at his command and could not, with his position as a mahamandelaleshvara, direct the policy of stronger and more influential rulers like Devapala. His was not, at least, an inglorious failure.

The relationship between the family of Sankha and Bhartrivaddha II is unknown. But it is not unlikely, as surmised by Dr. H.C. Ray, that they might have been related, for both are known to have belonged to Broach.

Visit by Xuanzang in 640 AD

Alexander Cunningham[14] writes that In the seventh century the district of Po-lu-kie-che-po, or Barukachwa, was from 2400 to 2500 li, or from 400 to 417 miles, in circuit; and its chief city was on the bank of the Nai-mo-tho, or Narmmada river, and close to the sea. With these data it is easy to identify


[p.327]: the capital with the well-known seaport town of Bharoch, under its Sanskrit name of Bhrigu-Kachha as written by the Brahmans, or Bharukachha as found in the old inscriptions. The latter was no doubt the more usual form, as it is almost literally preserved in the ΒαρύΎαξα of Ptolomy, and the 'Periplus'. From Hwen Thsang's measurement of its circuit, the limits of the district may be determined approximately as extending from the Mahi[15] river on the north, to Daman on the south, and from the Gulf of Khambay on the west to the Sahyadari mountains on the east.

According to the text of Hwen Thsang, Bharoch and Balabhi were in Southern India, and Surashtra in "Western India ; but as he places Malwa in Southern India, and Ujain in Central India, I look upon these assignments as so many additional proofs of the confusion which I have already noticed in the narrative of his travels in Western India. I would therefore assign both Balabhi and Bharoch to Western India, as they formed part of the great province of Surashtra. The correctness of this assignment is confirmed by the author of the 'Periplus,' who notes that below Barygaza the coast turns to the south, whence that region is named Dakhinabades, as the natives call the south Dakhanos.[16]

Notable persons

External links

References

  1. Encyclopaedia of Jainism, Volume-1 By Indo-European Jain Research Foundation p.5510
  2. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.65
  3. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.65
  4. Herman Odenberg, The Dipavamsa, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 2001. (first printed Berlin 1879)
  5. Malabari, Behramji Merwanji; Krishnalal M. Jhaveri (1998). Gujarat and the Gujaratis: Pictures of Men and Manners Taken from Life. Asian Educational Services. p. 2. ISBN 81-206-0651-5.
  6. Malabari, Behramji Merwanji; Krishnalal M. Jhaveri (1998). Gujarat and the Gujaratis: Pictures of Men and Manners Taken from Life. Asian Educational Services. p. 2. ISBN 81-206-0651-5.
  7. [https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ahmedabad/Hiuen-Tsangs-Gujarat-travel-Valabhi-was-at-par-with-Nalanda/articleshow/42471893.cms?from=mdr "Hiuen Tsang's Gujarat travel: 'Valabhi was at par with Nalanda' - TOI 14.9.2014".
  8. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.661
  9. पौराणिक कोश |लेखक: राणा प्रसाद शर्मा |प्रकाशक: ज्ञानमण्डल लिमिटेड, वाराणसी |संकलन: भारत डिस्कवरी पुस्तकालय |पृष्ठ संख्या: 557, परिशिष्ट 'क' |
  10. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.661
  11. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.10
  12. भरु कच्छं गतॊ धीमान, दूतान माद्रवतीसुतः, परेषयाम आस राजेन्थ्र पौलस्त्याय महात्मने, विभीषणाय धर्मात्मा परीतिपूर्वम अरिंदमः Mahabharata (II.28.50)
  13. Anjali Desai, India Guide Gujarat, India Guide Publications, 2007, page 160, ISBN 978-0-9789517-0-2
  14. The Ancient Geography of India/Gurjjara, p.326-327
  15. The Mais river of Ptolemy.
  16. Peripl. Mar. Erythr., in Hudson's Geogr, Vet., i. 20i

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