Burak Hajib

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Burak Hajib or Buraq Hajib also spelt Baraq Hajib, Barak Hajib was a Khitan who founded a dynasty in the southern Persian province of Kirman in the early 13th century after the conquest of the sinicised Central Asian Kara-Khitan Khanate - also called the "Western Liao dynasty" - by the Mongols. Buraq Hajib's Kirmani Kara-Khitan Khanate ended in the 14th century. Hammer spells the name Borrak, in the Gemaldesaal.


The Khitan in northern China were known as خطا in Arabic (Khata) and are mentioned by Muslim chroniclers as having fought against Muslims and founded the Kara-Khitan Khanate. After the destruction of the Kara-Khitan realm by the Mongols under Genghis Khan in 1218, the Kara-Khitans became absorbed into the Mongol empire. A small part of the population under Buraq Hajib settled in the Persian province of Kirman, converted to Islam, and established a local dynasty there.[1]

Establishment of the dynasty

Buraq Hajib was a scion of the Kara-Khitan Gurkhan Yelü Zhilugu. Buraq Hajib and his brother Hamīd Pur were detained or captured by the Muhammad of Khwarezm in 1210, and were given important posts in the service of the Khwarazm Shah.

Kara Khitai dynasty was founded in Kirman (1224 A.D.) by the Barak Hajib.[2]

While on his way to India, Buraq was attacked by the local governor of Kirman, but Buraq managed to defeat him and decided to stay on in Kirman as ruler. In 1228 a Khwarazm Ghiyas-ad-Din sought refuge in Kirman after incurring the wrath of his brother, Sultan Jalal ad-Din, but Buraq executed him.[3] Buraq converted to Islam and requested the Abbasid Caliph for investiture, and was granted a title of Qutlugh Sultan.[4]

Buraq later submitted to the Mongol Empire, and he and his successors were conferred the title of Qutlugh Khan, and allowed to ruled as vassal of the Mongols. Throughout its rule the dynasty continued to be known as Kara-Khitai. There were a total of 9 rulers of the Kirmanid dynasty, two of whom were female.[5]

End of the Kirmanid dynasty

The Mongol Ilkhanid ruler Öljeitü (r.1304-1316) ended the Kirman Kara-Khitan dynasty in 1306 after the last of the Qutlugh Khans, Quțb al-Dīn II, neglected to pay his dues to the Mongol treasury. The Qutlugh Khan escaped to Shiraz, and his daughter later became the wife of Mubariz al-Din Muhammad, the founder of the Muzaffarid dynasty.[6]

Sultan Jalalu-d din in Sind

Sir H. M. Elliot Edited by John Dowson[7] writes that Fakhru-d din Salari was governor of Sadusan on the part of Kubacha, and Lachin of Khita, who was in command of the army, went out against Amir Khan, the leader of the Sultan's advance guard. Lachin was slain in the action, and Uzbek Khan

[p.398]: invested the city of Sadusan. When the Sultan himself arrived, Fakhru-d din Salari presented himself before him in an humble posture, with his sword (round his neck), and clothed in a shroud. The Sultan entered the city, and after staying there for one month, he conferred an honorary dress upon Fakhru-d din Salari, and restored to him the governorship of Sadusan.

The Sultan then went towards Dewal and Darbela, and Jaisi ; the ruler of that country, fled away on a ship, and went in the direction of the sea. The Sultan remained near Dewal and Damrila, and sent Khas Khan with an army to pillage Nahrwala, whence he brought back many captives.

The Sultan raised a jami' masjid at Dewal, on the spot where an idol temple stood. While he was engaged in these operations, intelligence was received from 'Irak, that Sultan Ghiyasu-d din had established himself in that province, and that most of the troops who were quartered there were attached to the interests of Sultan Jalalu-d din, and were anxiously expecting his return. It was also represented, that Burak Hajib was in Kirman, and had fortified himself in the city of Bardasir. It was also given out that the Mughal army was still in pursuit of the Sultan. He accordingly departed from Dewal and Damrila, and went by way of Makran, but the climate was so very insalubrious that he lost the greater part of his army.

[p. 399]: When Burak Hajib heard of the approach of the Saltan, he sent him many presents, with the expression of his hearty congratulations, and, on the Sultan's arrival, Burak Hajib solicited that he would accept his daughter in marriage. The Sultan acceded to the request, and the marriage was celebrated. The Kotwal also came forth, and presented the keys of his fort, upon which the Sultan entered it, and remained during the night.

Sir H. M. Elliot writes about Burak Hajib

Sir H. M. Elliot Edited by John Dowson[8] writes that Burak Hajib having had some dispute with Taju-d din Karimu-s shark, marched away with his army towards Hindustan. In the year 619 h., Ghiyasu-d din designed to go to Fars. * * * * When news was received of the arrival of the Mughal army, under Tului 2 Khan, Burak Hajib requested Ghiyasu-d din to allow him to go to Ispahan, but he went with

1 The previous history of this adventurer is given by Rampoldi, Annali Musulmani, Vol. VIII. note 69. See also pp. 267, 298, and 655 of the same volume. Hammer spells the name Borrak, in the Gemaldesaal.

2 Tului signifies in the Mongol language "a mirror, and after his death it was forbidden that any other word should be used in this sense, except the Turki one of gueuzugu.—D' Ohsson's Hist, Mong., Tom. II. p. 60.

[p.402 his tribe (Karakhitai) to Hindustan, by the road of Kirman. 1 When he arrived at Juraft and Daryai, the garrison of the fort of Kawachir urged Shuja'u-d din Abu-1 na'im to follow after him, so Shuja'u-d din plundered his camp, and brought back many Khitai slaves.

1 Hindustan appears to have been a favorite retreat of the Karikhitais of Kirman. A few years subsequent to this event, we find one of the successors of Burak Hajib fleeing to Hindustan. " On attaining to years of discretion, Hijjaj Sultan proceeded to treat his mother with indignity, and in one of his carouses proposing to her to dance before him, the insulted princess justly took offence, and withdrew to the court of Abaka. The Sultan, not a little terrified on his part, fled shortly afterwards into Hindustan. At the expiration of ten years, followed by a considerable army, raised for his assistance by the princes of India, he was returning to recover his inheritance, when he died on the march, in the month of Zi-1 hijja, 670 h." — Price's Mahommedan History, Vol. II., p. 434. D'Ohsson says (IV. 92) that he fled to Dehli, and that Sultan Jalalu-d din Khilji supplied him with an army to recover his possessions.

External links


  1. Tjong Ding Yih. "Qarakhitay (Hsi Liao) Cash Coins Inscribed KANGGUO"
  2. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.99
  3. Ata-Malik Juvayni. The History of The World Conqueror Vol II
  4. Ata-Malik Juvayni. The History of The World Conqueror Vol II
  5. Biran, Michal. (2005). The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History: Between China and the Islamic World. Cambridge University Press. pp. 87–89. ISBN 0-521-84226-3.
  6. Biran, Michal. (2005). The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History: Between China and the Islamic World. Cambridge University Press. pp. 87–89. ISBN 0-521-84226-3.
  7. The history of India : as told by its own historians. Volume II/IX. Jahan Kusha of Juwaini,pp.397-398
  8. The history of India : as told by its own historians. Volume II/IX. Jahan Kusha of Juwaini,pp.397-398