Burhanpur (बुरहानपुर) is a city and district in Madhya Pradesh, India. Burhanpur District was created on August 15, 2003, from the southern portion of Khandwa District. The pass through the Satpuras that connects Burhanpur and Khandwa is one of the main routes connecting northern and southern India, and the Asirgarh fortress, which commands the pass, is known as the "Key to the Deccan".
Tahsils in Burhanpur District
Burhanpur was an important city under Rashtrakuta Dynasty during 753–982. During excavations in Tapti River & Asirgarh Fort many coins, goddess idols and temples discovered which belongs to prehistoric era. But, Burhanpur got its name and fame during medieval time.
In 1388, Malik Nasir Khan, the Faruqi dynasty Sultan of Khandesh discovered Burhanpur, at the behest of Shaikh Zainuddin and renamed it after a well known medieval sufi saint, Burhan-ud-Din. Burhanpur became the capital of the Khandesh sultanate. Later, Miran Adil Khan II (reigned 1457–1501), another sultan of this dynasty built a citadel and a number of palaces in Burhanpur. During his long reign, Burhanpur was transformed to a major centre for trade and textile production. In 1601, Mughal emperor Akbar annexed the Khandesh sultanate and Burhanpur became the capital of Khandesh Subah of the Mughal empire.In 1609 Jahangir appointed his second son Parvez to the governorship of the Mughal provinces of the Deccan, and the prince chose Burhanpur as his headquarters.
Shah Jahan spent a considerable time in this city, and helped add to the Shahi Qila. The Shahi Qila is one majestic palace in Burhanpur, located to the east of the Tapti River. Diwan-i-Aam and Diwan-i-Khas were built on the terrace of the Qila. Little of it remains today as the Qila is mostly in ruins now. However, the parts of the Palace that still stands displays amazing works of sculpture and exquisite carvings. The main attraction at the palace is the haram or the royal bath. It was specifically built for Shah Jahan's wife, Begum Mumtaz Mahal, so that she could enjoy a luxurious bath. It is said that she died here giving birth to her fourteenth child. Even today, the ceiling has many intricate paintings. One of these paintings depicts a monument which is said to have been the inspiration for the Taj Mahal.
Mughal wealth plundered by Marathas under Sambhaji, Sambhaji, after becoming King of Marathas he gave first blow to Mughal Empire. In this campaign he was Joined by his genral Hambirrao Mohite.
Later Santaji Ghorpade attacked Burhanpur and Khandesh subha to force Aurangzeb to deploy more forces in Khandesh. This act by Santaji relived some pressure of Mughal armies from Karnataka and Maratha swarajya.
Maratha army under Sadashivrao Bhau who defeated the Nizam of Hyderabad and took control of the town.
In 1761 the Marath army marched for Third Battle of Panipat from the city.
After down fall of Maratha Empire city went to Holkar, Scindia, and then British.