The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians/III. Chach-náma

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The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians

Sir H. M. Elliot, Edited by John Dowson, 1867, Volume I

Early Arab Geographers On History Of India


Introduction to Chach-Nama

[p.131]: Chach-Nama (चचनामा) is the name now universally given to the work which details the usurpation of the Brahman Chach and the Arab conquest of Sind; but the history itself gives us no authority for this name, on the contrary it is spoken of in the preface and conclusion merely as Fath-náma, "a despatch announcing victory." It is sometimes styled, as by Elphinstone, Táríkh-i Hind o Sind. It is quoted by Núru-l Hakk in the Zubdatu-t Tawáríkh, and by Nízámu-d dín Ahmad in the Tabakát-i Akbarí, as the Minháju-l Masálik, which the latter tells us is more commonly known as the Chach-náma.

This work was translated from the Arabic by Muhammad 'Alí bin Hámid bin Abú Bakr Kúfí, in the time of Násiru-d dín Kabácha, who is styled, amongst many other titles, Amíru-l Múminín Abú-l Fath Kabáchau-s Salátín, 1 "the tents of whose glory were pitched with the ropes of his authority, and with the mallet of the strictness of his commands." He is said to adorn the throne lately occupied by the blessed martyr Abú-l Muzaffar Muhammad bin Sám Násir Amíru-l Múminín.

The translator informs us that, after having spent much of his life in the enjoyment of great comfort and happiness, he was reduced to distress, and compelled by the vicissitudes of the time to leave his native land and take up his abode in Úch. He says that

[p.132]: in the 58th year of his age, and the 613th of the Hijrí (1216 A.D.), he withdrew his hand from all the concerns which had previously occupied his mind, and made a few delightful books his sole companions. He considered within himself that learned persons of every age had, by the assistance of their masters and patrons, compiled histories and books, and established a reputation for themselves by their literary attainments; that, for instance, the conquests of Khurásán, 'Irák, Persia, Rúm, and Shám had been celebrated at large in poetry and prose by authors of past ages; and that a victory had been achieved, and the country of Hindústán conquered, by Muhammad Kásim and other nobles of Arabia and Syria, and mosques and pulpits had been raised throughout the country, from the sea-shore to the boundaries of Kashmír and Kanauj, and Ráí Dáhir, son of Chach, the king of Alor, had been slain by the great noble, the best man of the State and Religion, Muhammad bin Kásim bin 'Akíl Sakifí, may God's mercy be on him! and the Ráí's territory with all its dependencies had been taken possession of by that conqueror. The translator, therefore, wished to be acquainted with an account of the country and its inhabitants, and also with the history of Dáhir's defeat and death, in order that he might be able to compile a book upon that interesting subject.

In the endeavour to obtain this information, he left the sacred city of Úch, and went to Alor and Bhakar, the Imáms of which places were the descendants of the Arab conquerors. On his arrival there, he met with the Maulána Kází, Isma'íl bin 'Alí bin Muhammad bin Músá bin Táí bin Ya'kúb bin Táí bin Músá bin Muhammad bin Shaibán bin 'Usmán Sakifí. He was a mine of learning and the soul of wisdom, and there was no one equal to him in science, piety, and eloquence. On being consulted on the subject of the Arabian conquest, he informed the trans¬lator that an account of it was written by one of his ancestors, in a book composed in the Arabic language, which had descended from one generation to the other, till it reached his hands by course of inheritance. But as it was dressed in the language of

[p.133]: Hijáz, it had obtained no currency among the people, to whom that language was foreign.

When the translator read the book, he found it adorned with jewels of wisdom and pearls of precepts. It related various feats of chivalry and heroism on the part of the Arabs and Syrians. It treated of the capture of those forts which had never before been taken, and showed the morning of the night of infidelity and barbarism. It recounted what places in those days were honoured by the arrival of the Muhammadans, and having been conquered by them, were adorned by religious edifices, and exalted by being the residence of devotees and saints. Up to this day, the translator continues, the country is improving in Islám faith and knowledge, and at all periods since the conquest the throne of royalty has been occupied by one of the slaves of the house of Muhammad, who removed the rust of Paganism from the face of Islám.

He proceeds to tell us that he dedicates his translation to the minister of Násiru-d dín Kabácha, whom he designates among other titles, the Defender of the State and Religion, the greatest of all Wazírs, the master of the sword and pen, Sadr-i Jahán Dastúr-i Sáhib-Kirán 'Ainu-l Mulk Husain bin Abí Bakr bin Muhammad al Asha'rí.

He states as his reason for the dedication, that not only might he advance his own interests by the minister's favour and influence, but that the selection was peculiarly appropriate in consequence of the minister's ancestors, Abú Músá al Asha'rí, having obtained many victories in Khurásán and 'Ajam. To him therefore might be most fitly dedicated an account of the early conquest of Sind.

At the close of the work, he again says that as the work was written in the Hijází (Arabic) language, and was not clothed in a Pehlví garb, it was little known to the inhabitants of 'Ajam (foreign countries or Persia), and repeats the name of the person to whom it was dedicated, as 'Ainu-l Mulk.

[p.134]: There can, therefore, be little doubt that this is the same minister to whom Muhammad Aufí has dedicated his Lubbu-l Lubáb, respecting whose identity some doubt has been entertained, in consequence of the title 'Ainu-l Mulk not being commonly ascribed to any minister of that period. The repetition of the name by the translator of the Chach-náma leaves no doubt that Husain bin Abí Bakr bin Muhammad al Asha'rí is the person indicated.

As this translation was made at so early a period of the Muhammadan dominion in India, it is greatly to be regretted that the translator did not attempt to identify the many unknown places of which mention is made in the course of the narrative. As he had himself visited Úch, Alor, and Bhakar, and probably other places lower down the Indus, he might have cleared up the many doubts which our ignorance of the localities entails upon us.

It is difficult to fix the precise period of the composition of the original Arabic. It is not said to have been composed by an ancestor of the person from whom the translator obtained it at Bhakar, but merely to have been written in the handwriting (khat) of one of his ancestors. This may be applied either to composition or transcription, but the use of the term renders the precise meaning doubtful-most probably composition is referred to. In either case, we have a guarantee for the authenticity of the narrative, in the fact that the ancestor of Isma'íl, the possessor of the manuscript, was himself a participator in the scenes and the advantages of the conquest; for we find it distinctly mentioned, that the Kází appointed by Muhammad Kásim, after the conquest of Alor, was Músá bin Ya'kúb bin Táí bin Muhammad bin Shaibán bin 'Usmán. Now if we look at the name of the person from whom the translator obtained the Arabic original, we shall find it mentioned as Isma'íl bin 'Alí bin Muhammad bin Músá bin Táí bin Ya'kúb bin Táí bin Músá bin Muhammad bin Shaibán bin 'Usman. In both in-

[p.135]: stances 'Usmán is mentioned as Sakifí, that is, of the same tribe as the conqueror himself. 1 The genealogies do not tally in every respect, and it is evident that in the later one some inter-mediate generations, as is frequently the case, are omitted; but still there is quite sufficient similarity to show descent from the same ancestor. The titles also of ancestor and descendant resemble each other most closely. The first Kází appointed to Alor is called Sadr al Imámia al Ajall al 'Álim Burhánu-l Millat wau-d dín. The contemporary of the translation is called Mauláná Kází al Imám al Ajall al 'Álim al Bári' Kamálu-l Millat wau-d dín. It is very strange that the translator takes no notice of this identity of pedigree, by which the value and authenticity of the work are so much increased; but it is pro-bable that it did not occur to him, or such a circumstance could scarcely have escaped mention.

Notwithstanding that Elphinstone uses the expression "professes to be a translation," which would imply a suspicion of the fact, there is no reason to doubt that the work is a translation of a genuine Arab history, written not very long after the conquest. There appears in it very little modern interpolation, and it is probable that those passages which contain anachronisms were the work of the original writer, and not of the translator. The placing a sentence of the Kurán in Ládí's mouth-the Bismillah at the beginning of the letters of Sindian princes, the praises of Islám ascribed to Hindús, the use of the foreign names of Brahmanábád, which is explained to be a version of the native Bámanwáh, are all evidently the work of the original author.

It is to be regretted that there is no hope of recovering the Arabic work; for although the very meagre accounts of this important conquest by Abú-l Fida, Abú-l Faraj, Ibn Kutaiba, and Almakín lead us to expect little information from Arabic authorities; yet it might possibly contain other interesting matter

[p.136]: respecting the communication between Arabia and Sind, which the translator did not think worthy of special notice.

An air of truth pervades the whole, and though it reads more like a romance than a history, yet this is occasioned more by the intrinsic interest of the subject, than by any fictions proceeding from the imagination of the author. The two stories which appear the most fictitious, are the *accusation of Jaisiya by the sister of Darohar, and

The former is evidently manufactured on the model of Joseph and Potiphar's wife, a story familiar throughout the East; but the latter is novel, and not beyond the bounds of probability, when we consider the blind obedience which at that time was paid to the mandates of the Prophet's successor, of which, at a later period, we have so many instances in the history of the Assassins, all inspired by the same feeling, and executed in the same hope.

The narrative is unambitious, and tropes and figures are rarely indulged in, except in describing the approach of night and morning; [but the construction is often involved, and the language is occasionally ungrammatical. Besides these defects, the events recorded do not always appear to follow in their proper chronological sequence.

The antiquity of the original Arabic work is manifest, not only from the internal evidence of the narrative, but from some omissions which are remarkable, such as the name of Mansúra, which must have been mentioned had it been in existence at that time. Now Mansúra was built in the beginning of the reign of the Khalif Al Mansúr, who succeeded in 136 A.H. (‘’’A.D. 753’’’). It is evident that the work must have been written before that time. Then, again, we have nowhere any mention of Maswáhí, Manjábarí, Annarí, or Al-Baiza, all important towns noticed by Biládurí and Ibn Haukal, and other early writers on Sind, and the work must therefore have been composed before their time. Again, it is plain that the mass of the people were Buddhists, which no author, especially a foreign one, would have

[p.137]: described them as being, had he lived after the extinction of that religion in India. We read of Samanís, monks, and a royal white elephant, which are no longer heard of at the later invasion of Mahmúd of Ghazní. Again, some portions of the history are derived from oral testimony received at second, third, or fourth hand, from those who were participators in the transactions recorded, just in the same way as Tabarí, who wrote in the third century of the Hijrí, probably later than our author, traces all his traditions to eye or ear-witnesses.

Elphinstone's estimate of the work is that, "though loaded with tedious speeches, and letters ascribed to the principal actors, it contains a minute and consistent account of the transactions during Muhammad Kásim's invasion, and some of the preceding Hindú reigns. It is full of names of places, and would throw much light on the geography of that period, if examined by any person capable of ascertaining the ancient Sanskrit names, so as to remove the corruptions of the original Arab writer and the translator, besides the innumerable errors of the copyist." He states that he did not see this work until his narrative of Kásim's military transactions had been completed.

The Chach-náma is the original from which Nizámu-d dín Ahmad, Núru-l Hakk, Firishta, Mír Ma'súm, and others, have drawn their account of the conquest of Sind. They have, how¬ever, left much interesting matter unnoticed, and even the later professed translations by Lieutenant Postans, in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (No. LXXIV., 1838, and No. CXI., 1841) give merely an abridged account of the transactions, which is moreover unfortunately disfigured by many misprints.

The headings of the sections throughout the work have been translated, in order to show the connection of the whole; those only being omitted which are inappropriate or evidently misplaced: and nearly every passage has been translated which can be useful for the illustration of the geography, religion, and manners of the time. The Chach-náma is common in India. There is a copy in the E. I. Library, and the Bibliothèque Impériale has two.


[p.138]: [The MS. referred to as A. is Sir H. M. Elliot's copy. B. is that belonging to the East India Library, which has been referred to in obscure passages and for doubtful names.]

Commencement of the book upon the history of Rai Dáhir, son of Chach, son of Siláíj, and of his death at the hands of Muhammad Kásim Sakifí.

King Síharas

Chroniclers and historians have related that the city of Alor, the capital of Hind and Sind, was a large city adorned with all kinds of palaces and villas, gardens and groves, reservoirs and streams, parterres and flowers. It was situated on the banks of the Síhún, which they call Mihrán. This delightful city had a king, whose name was Síharas, son of Sáhasí Ráí Sháhí. 1 He possessed great wealth and treasures. His justice was diffused over the earth, and his generosity was renowned in the world. The boundaries of his dominions extended on the east to Kashmír, on the west to Makrán, on the south to the shores of the ocean and to Debal, and on the north to the mountains of Kardán 2 and to Kaikánán. 3 He had established four maliks, or governors, in his territories.


He (the king) himself dwelt at the capital, Alor, and kept under his own rule Kardán, 2 and Kaikánán and Banarhás. 3 He enjoined upon every one of his princes the necessity of being prepared for war, by keeping the implements of warfare, arms, and horses ready. He also ordered them to attend to the security of the country, the con¬ciliation of the subjects, and the reparation of the buildings, so that they might keep their districts and dependencies safe. Through¬out his dominions there was no disaffected person who could make any pretensions against the specification of his frontiers. Suddenly, by the decree of God, the army of the king of Nímroz marched from Fárs to Makrán. 4 When Síharas heard this he went forth from the fort of Alor, 5 haughty in mind and careless in heart, with the main part of his army to encounter him. They joined battle, and when many brave men and tried warriors, on both sides, had been slain, the Persian army, placing their whole trust in the Almighty, made an assault, and broke and put to flight the army of Ráí Síharas. He himself stood firm, fighting for his name and honour, until he was killed. The king of Fárs then returned to Nímroz, and Ráí Sáhasí, son of Síharas, sat upon the throne of his father. He established his authority in the country, and the four princes who had been appointed by his father submitted and assented to him, exhibiting every mark of obedience, piacing their wealth at his disposal, and supporting him with honesty and energy. The whole country was thus safely secured in the power of Ráí Sáhasí; and the people lived happily under his just and equitable rule. He had a chamberlain named Rám, son of Abi (?), a man of science and wisdom. 6 This man had full and general authority over all parts of the dominions of Ráí Sáhasí; no person could enter or leave the king's service but through him. The duties of chief secretary were entrusted to him, and Ráí Sáhasí had faith in his eloquent pen, and never doubted his rectitude.

Chach, son of Siláíj, goes to the Chamberlain Rám.
The office of Chamberlain is conferred on Chach, son of Siláíj.
The Rání falls in love with Chach, and Chach refuses compliance.
Sáhasí Ráí dies and goes to hell.
Chach ascends the throne of Malik Sáhasí Ráí.
Chach fights with Mahrat (Chief of Jaipúr1 ) and kills him by stratagem.
Chach marries Rání Súbhan Deo.
Chach sends for his brother Chandar and establishes him in Alor.
Chach issues orders appointing Chandar his deputy.
Chach asks Budhíman, the minister, questions concerning the government.
* * * * *

Budhíman, the minister, bowed his head to the ground, and said, "May Ráí Chach live for ever, and may it be known to him, that this government was under the dominion of a sole king, and his chiefs were always obedient to him. When the country was ruled by Síharas, son of Díwáíj, and when he was conquered by the army of Fárs, Sáhasí succeeded to the empire. He similarly appointed all the four rulers to their territories, expecting them to exert themselves in the collection of the revenue and the protection of the country.

Chach proceeds to visit and mark the boundaries of Alor.

When Chach heard these words from Budhíman, the minister, they made an impression upon him. He was very happy. He praised the minister very much, and took it as a good omen. He sent far¬máns to the authorities in all parts of the kingdom and called (for aid from) the governors of the different divisions. He then prepared an army declaring that he would go to the boundary of Hindústán which adjoined the (kingdom of the) Turk. The astrologers fixed an auspicious time, at which he departed, and after he had gone many marches he reached the fort of Pábiya, on the southern bank of the Biás. The Chief of the place gave battle, but after great fighting

[p.141]: and bloodshed, the king of Pábiya fled and entered the fort. Ráí Chach was victorious, and encamped in the field of battle for a time. When the store of provisions was exhausted, and grass, and wood, and fuel, were all consumed, the enemy being in distress left the fort at the time when the world had covered itself with the blanket of darkness, and the king of the stars concealed himself in the gloom of night. He fled towards the fort of Askalanda and en¬camped in the vicinity of that city. This fort was stronger than the first, and when he reached the fields of this city he sent his spies to obtain information, and when they came back they reported that Chach had entered the fort of Pábiya, and was staying there.

Chach proceeds to the fort of Askalanda. 1

When Chach was informed that the enemy had gone to Askalanda, he placed one of his officers in charge of the fort (of Pábiya) and proceeded to that city. He pitched his tents in its vicinity. There was a great and brave man in the fort of Askalanda, who was in the interest of Chach, and had influence over the people in the fort. All the chief inhabitants always took his advice and never acted contrary to his opinion. Chach sent a man to him and promised to make him governor of that fort. He also ordered a farmán to be prepared, granting him the governorship of the fort, on the condition that he would kill Chatera, 2 the chief (malik) of Pábiya, or take him prisoner. Pábiya was also to be made over to him. He agreed to these terms and conditions. He sent his son to Chach, and by occa-sionally visiting Chatera, gained his confidence, so that he was never prevented from going into his Court either by day or by night. When he found an opportunity, he suddenly killed Chatera and sent his head to Chach. Ráí Chach showed him great favour and honour, granted him a reward in token of his pleasure, and made him the independent chief of that fort. The great and noble men of the city attended on him, and made him presents. He treated them all with honour and respect, and kept them faithful to their

[p.142]: allegiance. Chach gave him some prohibitions and admonitions, so that he continued faithful in obedience and never disobeyed his orders.

Chach marches towards Sikka and Multán.

Having completed the expedition to Askalanda, Chach proceeded towards Sikka and Multán. In Multán there was a chief (malik) whose name was Bajhrá. He was a relation of Sáhasí. When he received the news of the arrival of Chach, he came to the banks of the Ráví. He had large dominions and possessed great abilities. Suhewal, his nephew, governed the fort of Sikka opposite Multán, towards the east, and along with Ajín, the cousin of Bajhrá came with a large force to meet him1 (Chach), and he2 (Chach) encamped at a ford on the Biás3 for three months. When the water decreased, they selected a place at a village a little above the encampment, where the water did not prevent a passage, and he (Chach) crossed over. He came to Sikka, and fought a battle with Suhewal. He besieged the fort for some days, and the enemy was much pressed. Some men were slain on Chach's side, and on the side of the infidels many were despatched to hell. Suhewal then fled, and went to the fort of Multán. They entered the fort, and stood on the banks of the Ráví4 prepared with all the implements of war. Chach then took possession of the fort of Sikka, and killed five thousand soldiers, and made the inhabitants slaves and prisoners of war. Chach placed Amír 'Alíu-d Daula in the fort of Sikka, and himself passed over to Multán. Both armies confronted each other. Malik Bajhrá, with a formidable army, fighting elephants, and men of war, came out and opposed Chach. Sharp encounters ensued, with great slaughter on both sides. Bajhrá took refuge in the fort, and wrote letters to the ruler of Kashmír stating that Chach, son of Siláíj, a Brahman, had become chief of Alor, the capital. He had come with

[p.143]: a numerous army, and had conquered all the strongholds, great and small, and fortified them. That he (Bajhrá) was not able to cope with him, and no chief was victorious over him in battle. He had reached Multán, and it was expedient that the Chief of Kashmír should assist him (Bajhrá) and send reinforcements.

The unsuccessful return of the messenger from Kashmír.

Before the messenger reached Kashmír, the Ráí of that place had died, and his son, who was only a boy, had succeeded him. The ministers, counsellors, attendants, and guards, as well as the nobles and chief men of the state, consulted with each other and answered the letter in a proper manner. They stated that the Ráí of Kashmír had departed to the next world, and his son was a mere boy of tender age. The different divisions of the army had raised their heads in rebellion and revolt. It was necessary that the affairs of these parts should be set straight, and therefore it was not at this time in their power to provide the means of assistance, and that Bajhrá must rely upon his own resources. When the messengers came back and communicated this, Bajhrá, despairing of assistance from the king of Kashmír, sued Ráí Chach for peace, and made promises and assurances. He said he would leave the fort if assured of his safety, in writing, and that nobody should molest him until he reached a place of security with all his followers and dependants. Chach agreed to these terms, and promised him protection. He came out of the fort, and, with his people, went towards the moun¬tains of Kashmír. Chach entered the fort, and the province was brought under his dominion.

Chach leaves his deputy in the fort of Multán and proceeds onward.

When he took the fort of Multán he appointed there a thákur as his deputy. He went into the temple, prostrated himself before the idols, and offered sacrifices. He then prepared to march forward. The rulers of Brahmapúr, Karúr and Ashahár, acknowledged sub-mission to him. From these places he proceeded to the boundaries of Kumba1 and Kashmír. No king offered any resistance.

[p.144: "When the Almighty makes a man great he renders all his enterprises easy and gives him all his desires."

Every place to which he went fell into his possession. At last he reached the fort of Shákalhá, an elevated place which is called Kumba 1 on the borders of Kashmír, and stopped there for one month. He punished some of the chiefs of the surrounding places, and collected an army under his command. Then he made firm treaties with the chiefs and rulers of that part of the country, and securely established his dominion. He sent for two trees, one of which was a maisír, that is white poplar, and the other a deodár, that is a fir. 2 He planted them both on the the boundary of Kashmír, upon the banks of a stream, which is called the five waters, 3 and near the Kashmír hills, from which numerous fountains flow. He stayed there till the branches of each of the trees ran into those of the other. Then he marked them, and said it was the boundary mark between him and the Ráí of Kashmír, and beyond it he would not go.

Return of Chach after fixing his boundary with Kashmír.

The narrator of this conquest has thus said, that when the boundary towards Kashmír was defined, Chach returned to the capital city Alor. He stopped there a year to take rest from the fatigues of the journey; and his chiefs got ready the provisions and materials of war. He then said, "O minister! I have no fear from the east, now I must take care of the west and the south." The minister replied, "Indeed, it is most praiseworthy for kings to be acquainted with the affairs of their countries. It is also to be apprehended that from your absence in the upper provinces the nobles and the governors of the different parts may have presumed

[p.145]: that since Rái Sáhasi there is nobody to demand from them the revenue of the country. Truly mismanagement and disorder have taken place." On this, Chach, in an auspicious hour, marched towards the forts of Budápúr 1 and Siwistán. There was a chief in Siwistán, called Matta, and Chach crossed the Mihrán at a village called Díháyat, which formed the boundary between Samma and Alor. From this place he proceeded to Búdhiya, the chief of which was the son of Kotal bin Bhandargú Bhagú. His capital was Nánáráj, 2 and the inhabitants of the place called it Sawís. Chach attacked and took the fort of Sawís. Kaba, son of Káka, came forth to ask quarter for the prince and his followers. They laid upon themselves a tribute to pay him, and made their submission.

The army marches to Siwistán and fights with Matta

From that place he went to Siwistán, and when he approached it, Matta, its chief, came forth with great alarm and a large retinue to meet him. A battle was fought, Chach was victorious, and Matta, with his army, fled and took refuge in the fort. Chach besieged it, and after a week the garrison was obliged to sue for peace. The terms being agreed to, they came out the fort, and surrendered the keys to the officers of Chach, who gave them protection and showed them much kindness. He gave the chiefship of the place to Matta, and also placed one of his confidential officers there. He stopped there for a few days, during which time the affairs of the territory and the city were put in order.

Chach sends a messenger to Akham Lohána, chief of Brahmanábád

When the invasion of Siwistán was over, Chach sent a letter to Akham Lohána, the governor of Brahmanábád, who was Chief also of Lákha, Samma and Sihta, and called upon him to acknowledge submission. When he was a few days' journey from Makrán, the footmen whom he had placed on the roads, caught a person with letters from Akham, which he had written to Matta, the governor of Siwistán, to the following effect.

"I have always behaved towards you with great cordiality and friendship, and have never

[p.146]:shown you opposition or quarrelled with you. The letter which you sent by way of friendship was received, and I was much exalted by it. Our friendship shall remain confirmed for ever, and no animosity shall arise. I will comply with all your orders. You are a king, and the son of a king. Unity exists between you and me. Circumstances like this have occurred to many persons, and have obliged them to seek protection. You are at liberty to reside at any place you like within the territory of Brahmanábád, that is to say, up to the sea of Debal. If you have resolved to go in any other direction, there is nobody to prevent or molest you. Wherever you like to go I will assist you. I possess such power and influence that I can render you aid."

Matta found it expedient to repair to the country of Hind, to Malik Ramal, who was also called Bhatti.

Chach sends a letter to Akham Lohána

Ráí Chach sent a letter to Akham Lohána, saying, "You from your power, and pomp, and family descent, consider yourself the ruler of the time. Although this kingdom and sovereignty, wealth, riches, dignity, and power have not descended to me by inheritance, yet these distinguished favours and this exalted position have been given to me by God. It was not by my army that I gained them; but God, the single, the incomparable, the creator of the world, in favour to Siláíj, has given me this dominion, and this most glorious position. In all circumstances I obtain assistance from him, and I have no hope of aid from any other. He enables me to accomplish all my undertakings, and assists me in all my acts. He has given me victory in all battles, and over all my enemies. He has bestowed on me the blessings of both worlds. Although you think you have possessed yourself of all this power and circumstance by your courage and audacity, promptitude, and glory, you shall surely lose it, and to take your life is lawful."

Chach arrives at Brahmanábád, and fights with Akham Lohána

Chach then marched against Akham Lohána, who had gone from Brahmanábád into the interior of the country. When he received the intelligence of the arrival of Chach, he came to the capital, and made preparation for war. When Ráí Chach arrived at the city of Brahmanábád, Akham stood ready to oppose him. After a great

[p.147]: slaughter of warriors on both sides, the army of Akham took to flight, and he entered his fort. Chach laid siege to it, and the siege lasted for the period of one year.

In those days the king of Hindustán, that is, Kanauj, was Satbán,1 son of Rásal, and Akham sent letters to him asking for assistance. But Akham died before the answer was returned, and his son sucsucceeded him. Akham had a friend, an infidel Samaní, named Buddh-rakú,2 i.e, "Protected by the idol." He had a temple which was called Budh Nau-vihár,3 and the idol Dilhá (?)4 He was a devotee thereof, and famous for his piety, and all the people of the surrounding places were obedient to him. Akham was his disciple, and he regarded the Samaní as his pole-star. When Akham had taken refuge in the fort, the Samaní assisted him; he did not fight, but he read his books in his chamber of worship. When Akham died, and his son5 succeeded him in the government, the Samaní was disaffected and troubled, for he did not think it right that the kingdoms and the property and estates should depart from his hands. In his perplexity he looked about, and he arrived at the conclusion that the country must fall to Chach, whether he would be friendly to him or not. Then the (late king's) son being sore pressed, his army and his forces gave up fighting, and the fort was surrendered to Chach, who firmly established his power in it. When Chach heard of the Samaní, and knew that he had made a compact with Akham and his son, and that the war had lasted for one year through his enchantments and magical power, he swore that if he ever captured the fort, he would seize him and flay him, and order drums to be covered with his skin, and have his body torn to pieces. This oath was reported to the Samaní, who laughed and said, "Chach will not have the power to kill me." When after a time, the people of the fort, after much fighting

[p.148]:and great slaughter, gave up the contest, and solicited protection, by the intervention of nobles and chiefs, a treaty was made between both parties, and the fort was surrendered. Chach entered it, and told them that if they liked they might go away; there was no one to interfere with them, and if they wished to remain they might. The son and the dependants of Akham seeing him kindly disposed towards them, chose to remain. Chach stayed for a time in that city, and made himself acquainted with their disposition.

Chach takes the wife of Akham to himself, and gives the daughter of his nephew to Akham's son Sarband:

Chach sent a man to the mother of Sarband and requested her hand. The son brought her. Chach gave Dharsiya, the daughter of his nephew to the son, and decked him in apparel of many colours. He stopped there for a year, and appointed officers on his part to collect the revenues. He subjugated the other surrounding chiefs. At last, he enquired where the enchanter Samaní was, that he might see him. He was told that he was a great devotee, and that he would be found with the devotees, and that he was one of the philosophers of Hind. He was the keeper of the temple of Kan-vihár,1 and amongst the other devotees he was the greatest, and had reached to perfection. He was so skilled in magic and enchantments, that he had made a world obedient and submissive to him. He had provided himself with all the requisites by means of his talismans, and for some time he had become friendly to Sarband because he had been friendly with his father. Through his power and protection the army of Brahmanábád had protracted the war for so long time.

Chach visits the Samaní, and enquires about his circumstances

Chach ordered his body guards and soldiers to mount their horses, and went towards the temples of Budh and Kan-vihár1 with the

[p.149]: intention of killing the Samaní. He called his armed men and instructed them that when during the interview he should stand up and look towards them, they should draw their swords and sever the Samaní's head from his body. When he reached the temple, he saw the Samaní sitting on a chair, engaged in worship, and having some clay in his hand1 with which he was making idols, he had something like a stamp with which the figure of the buddh was made on the clay, and when it was finished he placed it on one side.2 Chach stood by him, but received no attention from him. After a short time, when he had finished his idols, he raised his head and said, "Is the son of the monk Síláíj come?" Chach replied, "Yes, O devotee." The Samaní said, "For what purpose have you come?" Chach answered that he wished to see him, and therefore he had come. The devotee bid him to sit down. Chach sat. The devotee spread a fine cloth, and made him sit on it. He asked, "O Chach! what do you want?" Chach replied, "I wish you would become my friend and return to Brahmanábád, that I might turn your thoughts to secular pursuits, and entrust you with great offices. You may live with Sarband, and give him advice and assistance." The devotee said, "I have nothing to do with your country, and have no wish to engage in public business. I do not like worldly concerns." Chach asked him, "Why did you side with the people of the fort of Brahmanábád?" He replied, "When Akham Lohána died, and his son was grieved, I admonished him to cease lamenting for the departure of his father, and prayed the Almighty God to cause peace and friendship between the contending parties. It is better for me to serve Budh, and seek salvation in the next world, than all the offices and greatness of this. But as thou art the king of this country, at thy supreme command I will go with my family to the neighbourhood of the fort, although I fear

[p.150]: that the people of the fort will do despite to the cultivation of Budh. You are to-day a fortunate and a great man." Chach said, "The worship of Budh is most righteous, and ever to hold it in honour is most proper. But if you are in want of anything, tell me, for I shall consider it a privilege and a duty to provide for it." The devotee answered, "I do not want anything of this world from you. May God incline you to the affairs of the next." Chach said, "I also wish that my salvation may be the result. Direct me so that I may see where assistance is required, and I will help you." He exclaimed, "As you seem to be desirous of performing charitable and virtuous deeds, there is an old temple (called) Budh and Nau-vihár (at) Sáwandasí1 which has suffered much injury from the hand of time-it requires repair. You should spend some money in renewing its foundation, and I shall be thus benefited by you." Chach said, "By all means; I thank you, farewell."

Chach returns to Brahmanábád

Chach rode back from that place. The minister asked him, "O king, I have seen a wonder." "What is it?" said Chach. He remarked, "When you started you had resolved that I should order the soldiers to kill the devotee; but when you went before him you showed every wish to please him, and accepted all his prayers." Chach said, "Very true; I saw something which was no magic or charm, for when I looked at him, something came before my vision, and as I sat before him, I beheld a dreadful and horrible phantom standing at his head. Its eyes blazed like fire, and were full of anger, and its lips were long and thick, and its teeth resembled pikes. He had a spear in his hand, which shone like diamonds, and it appeared as if he was going to strike some one with it. When I saw him I was much afraid, and could not utter a word to him which you might hear. I wished to save my own life, so I observed him carefully and departed."

Chach stays at Brahmanâbád, and determines the amount of the revenue.

Chach stopped in the fort of Brahmanábád till all ministerial

[p.151]: affairs were settled, taxes were fixed, and the subjects re-assured. He humiliated the Jats and the Lohánas, and punished their chiefs. He took a hostage from these chiefs, and kept him in the fort of Brahmanábád.

He obliged them to agree to the following terms:

That they should never wear any swords but sham ones:
That they should never wear under-garments of shawl, velvet, or silk, but they might wear their outer-garments of silk, provided they were of a red or black colour:
That they should put no saddles on their horses, and should keep their heads and feet uncovered:
That when they went out they should take their dogs with them:
That they should carry firewood for the kitchen of the chief of Brahmanábád.
They were to furnish guides and spies, and were to be faithful when employed in such offices.
They were to live in amity with Sarband, son of Akham, and if any enemy came to invade the territory, or fight with Sarband, they were to consider it incumbent on them to assist him, and steadily adhere to his cause.

He thus finished his labours, and established his rule. If any person showed rebellion or hostility, he took a hostage and exacted penalties until he should amend his conduct.

Chach marches to Kirmán and defines the boundary of Makrán

When Chach had settled these matters, he made up his mind to determine the boundary of Kirmán, which was adjacent to the possessions of the chiefs of Hind. At this time two years had elapsed since the Hijra of the Prophet of God,-may peace be to him. After the death of Kisra bin Hurmaz bin Fárs, and the disruption of his dominions, the management of the affairs of the kingdom devolved upon a woman. When Chach was informed of this, he determined to go to Kirmán with a considerable force. At an auspicious time, which was fixed by the astrologers, he marched towards Armábél, and when he arrived there the chief of the place came to receive him. He was a Buddhist priest, and had descended from the representatives of Ráí Síharas, king of Hind, whom the Ráí had raised up with great kindness and favour. From change of time he had become refractory, and had revolted from his allegiance. He came forth to meet Chach, when a treaty was made, and cordiality and friendship was established between them. Chach proceeded from thence to Makrán. Every chief that was met offered

[p.152]: his submission. When he had crossed the province of Makrán and the hills, he entered another district. There was an old fort here called Kanarpur.1 He ordered it to be rebuilt; and according to the Hindú custom a naubat of five musical instruments, was ordered to be played every evening and morning in the fort. He collected all the people of the surrounding villages, and completed the building. He marched from this place towards Kirmán; and halted on the banks of a river which runs between that country and Makrán. There he fixed the eastern boundary, that is, the boundary between Makrán and Kirmán, and planted numerous date trees there upon the banks of the stream, and he set up a mark, saying, "this was the boundary of Hind in the time of Chach bin Síláíj bin Basábas."2 Now that boundary has come into our possession.

Chach proceeds to Armábél3 and fixes the revenue

From that place he returned to Armábél, and having passed through the country of Túrán, he came out in the desert. No body arose to fight with him. He arrived in the country of Kandhábél, that is, Kandahr;4 and having traversed that desert also, he advanced to the fort. The people took refuge in it. When he arrived at the banks of the Síní,5 he pitched his tents there. The people of the place being much pressed agreed to pay him an annual tribute of one hundred thousand dirams, and one hundred hill horses. A treaty was made, and Chach returned to his capital Alor, and re¬mained there till he died and went to hell. He reigned forty years.

Chandar son of Síláíj succeeds to the Government of Alor : After the death of Chach, his brother Chandar,6 son of Síláíj, sat upon the the throne of Alor. He patronized the religion of the

[p.153]: násiks (Buddhists) and monks and promulgated their doctrines. He brought many people together with the sword, and made them return to his religion. He received several letters from the Chiefs of Hind.

Journey of Matta, Chief of Siwistán

When Matta, chief of Siwistán, went to the king of Kanauj, the country of Hindustán was in a flourishing condition. Kanauj was under the rule of Síharas, son of Rásal.1 Matta went to him and represented thus: "Chach, son of Síláij, is dead, and his brother Chandar, a monk (ráhib), has succeeded him. He is a devotee (násik), and his whole day is occupied in the study of his faith with other religious persons in the temple. It is easy to wrest the kingdom from him. If you take his territories and place them under my charge, I will pay a tribute, and send it to your treasury."

The answer of Síharas.

Síharas said to Matta, "Chach was a great king, and had an extensive territory under his sway. As he is dead, I will bring his possessions under my own rule, if I take them. They will form a great addition to my kingdom, and I will appoint you over one of their divisions." Síharas then sent his brother Barhás, son of Kasáís. The son of the daughter of the great Chach, who ruled over Kashmír and Ramal, also agreed to join him, and they proceeded with their armies till they reached the banks of the Hásí,2 where they encamped. The agents and offices of Chandar, who were still in the fort of Deo, fled. The invaders took the place, and advanced on their journey till they arrived at Band Káhúya, where they halted for one month, and performed the worship of Budh. They sent a messenger with a letter to Chandar to induce him to come, make his submission, and sue for protection.


Chandar refuses, strengthens himself in the fort, and prepares to fight.
Síharas sends an embassy to Dáhir, son of Chach.

Chandar sits on the throne of Chach

Chandar succeeded to the government, and his subjects enjoyed comfort, and the country was governed firmly during his reign, which lasted for seven years. He died in the eighth year, and Dáhir sat on the throne of Alor. Ráj, son of Chandar, established himself at Brahmanábád, but did not maintain his government for more than one year. After that, Dharsiya, son of Chach, took possession of Brahmanábád and his sister Báí1 was friendly and obedient to him. Dharsiya asked the daughter of Akham in marriage. He remained at Brahmanábád five years, and issued his orders to the neighbouring chiefs, who acknowledged his authority. Dharsiya resided for some time at the fort of Ráwar,2 of which Chach had laid the foundation, but did not live to see completed. When Dharsiya had finished the works, and collected inhabitants for the the town from the places in the neighbourhood, and when it was well populated, he called it Ráwar, and returned to Brahmanábád, and firmly established himself in the Government.

Báí (Máín) is sent to Alor for the purpose of being given in marriage to the king of Bátia.

When Dharsiya was reflecting one day that his sister had arrived at a marriageable age, messengers arrived from Súban,3 king of Bátia, in the country of Ramal, to demand her in marriage. Dharsiya although he* was the elder brother, gave her a princely dowry, and sent her with seven hundred horse and five hundred foot to Dáhir, recommending him by letter to marry her to the king of Bhátia,4 who had stipulated that he should receive a fort as her marriage portion. The messengers went to Alor, and remained there one month.

(Here follows an account of Dáhir marrying his sister because it was prognosticated that her husband would be king of Hind and Sind, and the contests between the brothers in consequence.)

Ráí Dáhir receives information.
Ráí Dáhir goes to an astrologer to ascertain the fate of his sister.
The predictions of the astrologers.
Consultation of Budhíman, the minister, with Ráí Dáhir.
Ingenuity of Budhíman, the minister.
Dáhir sends a letter to Dharsiya.
Dharsiya receives the letter.
Dáhir sends another letter to Dharsiya.
Dharsiya marches to Alor to seize Dáhir.
Endeavours of Dharsiya to take Dáhir prisoner.
Dáhir asks advice from his minister.
Dharsiya enters the fort of Alor on an elephant
Dáhir is informed of the death of Dharsiya.
The burning of Dharsiya's body.

Dáhir goes to Bráhmanábád

Dáhir remained one year in Brahmanábád, in order to reduce the neighbouring chiefs. He sent for the son of Dharsiya, and treated him kindly. He then went to Siwistán, and thence to the fort Ráwar,1 of which his father Chach had laid the foundations, but the works were not completed when he died. He remained there for some time, and ordered that the fort should be finished. He remained there during the four hot months, for it is a pleasant place and has an agreeable climate, and he used to remain during the four cold and dark months at Brahmanábád. He passed his time in this manner for eight years, during which time he became confirmed and generally recognized in his dominions in Sind and Hind. The chiefs of Ramal became aware of his wealth both in treasure and elephants.

The chiefs of Ramal come to fight with Ráí Dáhir

The chiefs advanced with a large and powerful army of horse and foot and war-elephants. They came, by way of Búdhiya, to the town (rostá) of Ráwar, and conquered it, and passed on from thence to Alor.

* * * * *

[p.156]: Muhammad 'Alláfí1 (an Arab mercenary,) goes against the chiefs of Ramal.

Muhammad 'Alláfí, an Arab of the Bani Asámat, who had killed 'Abdu-r Rahmán son of Ash'ab, for having run away from battle, came to join Dáhir with five hundred Arabs.

* * * * *

The 'Alláfí made a night attack on the Ramal troops with his five hundred Arabs and warriors of Hind, and fell upon them on all four sides with a great shout, and killed and captured 80,000 warriors and fifty elephants, besides horses and arms innumerable fell into their hands.

* * * * *

Dáhir then told his good and judicious minister to ask a favour. The minister replied: "I have no son who will carry down my name to posterity. I request, therefore, that orders may be given to have my name stamped on the silver coin of the realm, so that my name being on one face, and the king's on the other, it will not then be forgotten in Hind and Sind." Dáhir ordered that the minister's wish should be complied with.

The history of the four first Khalífas.
Mu'áwia bin Abú Sufián.
Sannán bin Salma bin Ghúru-l Hindí.
Ráshid bin 'Umaru-l Khizrí.
Sannán bin Salma recovers the Government.
Munzir bin Hárúd bin Báshar.
Hakkam bin Munzir.
Abdu-l Malik bin Marwán.
The 'Alláfís, etc.

Mujá'a bin Safar bin Yazíd bin Huzaika. Walíd bin 'Abdu-l Malik bin Marwán Account of the presents sent to the Khalífa from Sarandíp. Hajjáj sends a messenger to Dáhir, the Infidel. Hajjáj obtains permission to leave the Capital. Budail suffers martyrdom.

Imádu-d dín Muhammad Kásim bin Abí 'Akíl Sakifí.
Hajjáj writes letters to the Capital and Syria.
Hajjáj reads the Khutba on Friday.
Departure of Muhammad Kásim.
The army arrives at Shiráz.
Muhammad Kásim arrives at Makrán.
Hárún proceeds with Muhammad Kásim.
The army marches from Armábel.
The orders of Hajjáj reach Muhammad Kásim.
The Arab army makes preparations, and Hajjáj's orders arrive.
The flag-staff of the temple of Debal is knocked down by a mangonel.
Budhíman comes to Muhammad Kásim, and receives a promise of protection.
A fifth portion of the booty in slaves and coins is set aside.
The capture of Debal is reported to Ráí Dáhir.
The letter of Ráí Dahir.
The reply of Muhammad Kásim to Ráí Dáhir.

Muhammad Kásim proceeds to Nírún after the conquest of Debal

Historians have related, upon the authority of Banána bin Han-zala Kalábí, that after the conquest of Debal, where great plunder was taken, Muhammad Kásim ordered the mangonels to be placed on boats, and went towards the fort of Nírún. The boats went up the stream which they call Sindh Ságar;1 but he himself took the road of Sísam, and when he arrived there, he received Hajjáj's answer to the announcement of the victory.

The answer of Hajjáj to Muhammad Kásim.

An account of the inhabitants of Nírún obtaining a passport from Hajjáj.

Historians relate that Abú Láís Tamímí says, on the authority of Ja'úba bin 'Akaba Salamí, who accompanied Muhammad Kásim, that after the capture of Debal, Muhammad Kásim proceeded to the fort of Nírún, the inhabitants of which had provided themselves with an order of security from Hajjáj at the time that the army of the Arabs had been defeated, and Budail had been killed, and they had agreed

[p.158]: to pay a tribute. He arrived at Nírún, which is twenty-five parasangs from Debal, in six days. On the seventh day he encamped on a meadow near Nírún, which is called Balhár,1 and the waters of the Síhún2 Mihrán had not yet reached it. The army was parched with thirst, and Muhammad prayed to heaven for rain, and it fell, and filled all the streams and lakes near the city.

* * * * *
Muhammad Kásim sends confidential messengers to Nírún.
The Samaní, the Governor of Nírún, comes to pay his respects to
Muhammad Kásim, and brings presents.
* * * * *

Muhammad Kásim built at Nírún a mosque on the site of the temple of Budh, and ordered prayers to be proclaimed in the Muhammadan fashion, and appointed an Imám. After remaining there some days, he prepared to go to Siwistán, which is situated on an eminence to the west of the Mihrán. He determined to conquer the whole country, and after the capture of Siwistán, to recross the river, and proceed against Dáhir. God grant that his resolution may be fulfilled!

The expedition to Siwistán

After Muhammad Kásim had settled affairs at Nírún, he equipped his army, and under the guidance of the Samaní took it towards Siwistan. He arrived by regular stages at a place called Bahraj,3 thirty parasangs from Nírún. There also was a Samaní, who was chief of the rest of the inhabitants. In the fort the nephew of Dáhir was governor; his name was Bajhrá, the son of Chandar. All the Samanís assembled and sent a message to Bajhrá, saying, we are násik devotees. Our religion is one of peace and quiet, and fighting and slaying is prohibited, as well as all kinds of shedding of blood. You are secure in a lofty place, while we are open to the

[p.159]: invasions of the enemy, and liable to be slain and plundered as your subjects. We know that Muhammad Kásim holds a farmán from Hajjáj, to grant protection to every one who demands it. We trust, therefore, that you will consider it fit and reasonable that we make terms with him, for the Arabs are faithful, and keep their agreements. Bajhrá refused to listen to them. Muhammad Kásim sent spies to ascertain whether the citizens were unanimous or inimical. They reported that some armed men were outside the fort, and prepared to fight. Muhammad Kásim encamped opposite the gate leading to the sandy desert, because there was no opportunity to attack him there, as the inundation had risen on account of the rains, and the river Sindhu Ráwal1 flowed to the north of the selected ground.

Battle fought at Siwistán : Muhammad Kásim ordered the mangonels to be prepared, and the fight was commenced. The Samanís prevented their chief from fighting, and told him that the Muhammadan army was not to be overcome by him, and he would not be able to oppose it. He would be merely placing his life and property in danger. When he would not listen to the advice of his subjects, the Samanís sent this message to Muhammad Kásim:-

"All the subjects, farmers, and tradesmen, merchants, and the lower classes hate Bajhrá, and do not yield him allegiance. He does not possess any force with which he can oppose you, or give battle."

The Muhammadan army were inspired with great courage on receiving the message, and fought day and night on the side of Muhammad Kásim. About a week after, the besieged stopped fighting, and when Bajhrá knew that the fort was about to fall, he came out from the northern gate, at the time when the world was veiled in darkness, crossed the river, and fled. He continued his flight till he reached the boundary of Búdhiya. In those days the ruler of the Búdhiya territory was Káka son of Kotal, a Samaní. His stronghold was Sísam, on the banks of the Kumbh. The people of Búdhiya and the chiefs of the surrounding places came to receive Bajhrá, and allowed him to encamp under the fort.

Siwistán is taken and Bajhrá flies.

[p.160]: When Bajhrá went away, and the Samanís made submission, Muhammad Kásim entered the fort of Siwistán and gave quarter. He appointed his functionaries to discharge the civil duties of the territory, and brought the neighbouring places under his rule. He took the gold and silver wherever he found it, and appropriated all the silver, jewels, and cash. But he did not take anything from the Samanís, who had made terms with him. He gave the army their due, and having deducted a fifth part of the whole, delivered it to the treasurer of Hajjáj, and wrote a report of the victory to Hajjáj. He appointed Ráwats there. He also sent the plunder and the slaves to him, and he himself stopped at Siwistán. Two or three days after he had separated the fifth part, and distributed to the army their shares, he proceeded to the fort of Sísam, and the people of Búdhiya and the chief of Siwistán rose up to fight. Muhammad Kásim marched with all his force, except the garrison, which was placed under the officer left in Siwistán, and alighted at a place called Nílhán,1 on the banks of the Kumbh. The inhabitants of the vicinity were all infidels, who assembled together as soon as they saw the Muhammadan army, and determined to make a night attack on it, and disperse it.

The interview of the chiefs with Káka.

The chiefs of Budh went to Káka Kotal. The ránas of Búdhiya are descended from Áú. They had originally come from the banks of the Ganges, from a place called Áúndhár.2 They consulted with him, and said that they had determined to make a night attack on the army.

The reply of Káka.

Káka said-"If you can accomplish it, well and good; but the bahlíks

[p.161]: and monks have told me, according to their astrological books, that this country will be conquered by the Muhammadan army." He placed a chief, whose name was Pahan, at their head, and made gifts to the soldiers. There were one thousand brave fighting men under the command of this chief. They were all armed with swords, shields, javelins, spears, and daggers. When the army of the day fled for fear of the black legions of the night, they marched with the intention of making their night attack. As they approached the army of the Arabs, they missed the road, and were wandering about perplexed all the night from evening till daybreak. They were divided into four bodies, the one most advanced did not keep up a communication with that which was in the rear, nor did the left wing come in sight of the right, but they kept roving about in the desert. When they lifted up their heads they found themselves round the fort of Sísam1. When the darkness of night was expelled by the light of the king of the stars, they entered the fort, and told the whole to Káka Kotal, saying that this their treacherous plan had not proved successful. Káka said, "You know full well that I am famous for my determination and courage. I have achieved many enterprises at your head; but in the books of the Budhs it is predicted, upon astrological calculations, that Hindústan shall be taken by the Muhammadans, and I also believe that this will come to pass."

Káka Kotal goes to Muhammad Kásim with Banána, son of Hanzala, and submits to him.

Káka with his followers and friends went to the army of the Arabs. When he had gone a little distance, Banána, son of Hanzala, whom Muhammad Kásim had sent to reconnoitre the enemy, met him and took him to Muhammad Kásim. When he obtained the honour of coming before Muhammad Kásim, this general expressed his satisfaction, and gave him some good counsel. Káka told him all about the Jats coming against him with the intention of making a night attack, and of their treacherous schemes. He also said that the Almighty God misled them in their way, so that they were wandering about the whole night in darkness and chagrin; and that

[p.162]: the astrologers and credible persons of his country had found out by their calculations of the stars that this country would be taken by the Muhammadan army. He had already seen this miracle, and he was sure that it was the will of God, and that no device or fraud would enable them to withstand the Muhammadans. "Be firm under all circumstances," said he, "and set your mind at ease. You will overcome them. I make my submission to you, and I will be your counsellor, and assist you to the extent of my power. I will be your guide in overpowering and subduing your enemies." When Muhammad Kásim had heard all he had to say, he praised the great God, and in giving thanks placed his head upon the earth. He comforted Káka and his dependants and followers, and promised him protection. He then asked him,

"O chief of Hind, what is your mode of bestowing honour?"

Káka said,

"Granting a seat, and investing with a garment of silk, and tying a turban round the head. It is the custom of our ancestors, and of the Jat Samanís."

When Káka had invested him with the dress, all the chiefs and head men of the surrounding places wished to submit to him. He dispelled the fear of the Arab army from the minds of those who offered allegiance, and brought those to submission who were inimically disposed. 'Abdu-l Malik, son of Kaisu-d Dammání,1 was appointed his lieutenant to punish all enemies and revolters. Káka plundered a people who were wealthy, and took much booty in cash, cloths, cattle, slaves, and grain, so that cow's flesh was plentiful in the camp. Muhammad Kásim, having marched from that place, came to the fort of [Sisam|Sísam]]. There he fought for two days, and God granted him victory. The infidels fled, and Bajhrá bin Chandar, uncle of Dáhir,2 and many of the officers and nobles who were under his command, lost their precious lives. Of the rest some ran away far beyond the territory of Búdhiya, and some to the fort of Bahítlúr, between Sálúj and Kandhábel, and from that place solicited a written promise of protection. Those chiefs were enemies of Dáhir, and some of them had been slain-hence they revolted from him, and sent ambassadors, and agreed to pay a tribute of one thousand dirams weight of silver, and also sent hostages to Siwistán.

Orders are received from Hajjáj son of Yúsuf to cross the Mihrán, and a battle is fought with Dáhir.

[p.163]: When Muhammad Kásim had fixed the several tributes of those chiefs, he gave them fresh written agreements for their satisfaction. He appointed there Hamíd, son of Widá'u-n Najdí and 'Abdu-l Kais, of the family of Járúd, and as they were confidential persons he entrusted to them all the business of that place.

When he had settled the affairs of Sísam, he received orders from Hajjáj to proceed to some other place; to return to Nírún, take measures to cross the Mihrán, and fight with Dáhir. He was directed to ask Almighty God for assistance in obtaining success and conquest; and after having obtained the objects of his expedition, he was to strengthen all the forts and places throughout the country, and leave none in an unprovided state. When Muhammad Kásim read the farmán, and understood its contents, he came to Nírún and transmitted his despatches.

Arrival of the Army of the Arabs at Nírún

After travelling over many stages, he halted at a fort which stands on the hill of Nírún. In the vicinity of it there is a reservoir, the water of which is purer than the eyes of lovers, and the meadows of it are more delightful than the gardens of Iram. He alighted there, and wrote a letter to Hajjáj, son of Yúsuf.

Muhammad Kásim's letter to Hajjáj, son of Yúsuf, stating particulars.

In the name of the most merciful God, to the most exalted court of the noblest of the world, the crown of religion, and protector of 'Ajam and Hind, Hajjáj, son of Yúsuf-from the humble servant Muhammad Kásim greeting. After compliments, he represents that this friend, with all his officers, equipage, servants, and divisions of the Musulmán army, is quite well, affairs are going on well, and a continuance of happiness is attained. Be it known to your bright wisdom that, after traversing deserts and making dangerous marches, I arrived in the territory of Sind, on the banks of the Síhún, which is called Mihrán. That part of the territory which is around Búdhiya, and is opposite the fort of Baghrúr (Nírún), on the Mihrán,

p.164]: is taken. This fort is in the country of Alor, which belonged to Dáhir Ráí. Some of the people who resisted have been taken prisoners, and the rest through fear have fled away. As the imperative orders of Amír Hajjáj were received, directing me to return, we have returned to the fort on the hill of Nírún, which is very near to the capital. It is hoped that with the Divine assistance, the royal favour, and the good fortune of the exalted prince, the strongest forts of the infidels will be conquered, the cities taken, and our treasuries replenished. The forts of Siwistán and Sísam have been already taken. The nephew of Dáhir, his warriors, and principal officers have been despatched, and the infidels converted to Islám or destroyed. Instead of idol temples, mosques and other places of worship have been built, pulpits have been erected, the Khutba is read, the call to prayers is raised, so that devotions are performed at the stated hours. The takbír and praise to the Almighty God are offered every morning and evening.

* * * * *
The reply of Hajjáj is received by Muhammad Kásim.
Muhammad Kásim hears that Dáhir Ráí had proceeded to Nírún.
Muhammad Kásim does honour to the Nirún Samaní.
Muhammad Kásim fights on the banks of the Mihrán.
Moka bin Bisáya enters into terms with Muhammad Kásim.
Banána bin Hanzala is sent to Moka bin Bisáya, and seizes him and his attendants.

Then Banána bin Hanzala went with his tribe and an interpreter to the place indicated, and seized Moka bin Bisáya,1 together with his family and twenty well-known Takars.2 When Banána brought him before Muhammad Kásim, he was treated with kindness and respect, and the country of Bait was made over to him, and a grant

[p.165]: was written to that effect, and a hundred thousand dirams were given to him as a reward. A green umbrella surmounted by a peacock, a chair, and a robe of honour were bestowed upon him. All his Takars were favoured with robes and saddled horses. Historians relate that the first umbrella of Ránagí, or chiefship, which he gave, was this to Moka. At Moka's request, he gave the land and all the towns, fields, and dependencies within the borders of Bait, to him and his descendants; and having entered into a firm treaty with him, directed him to collect boats.

Muhammad Kásim sends a Syrian Ambassador and Mauláná Islámí to Dáhir.

The ambassadors reach Dáhir.

When they came to Dáhir, Mauláná Islámí, of Debal, did not bow his head, or make any signs of reverence. Dáhir recognized him, and asked him why he failed in the usual respectful salutation, and enquired if any one had thrown obstacles in his way. The Mauláná of Debal replied, "When I was your subject it was right of me to observe the rules of obedience; but now that I am converted, and am subject to the king of Islám, it cannot be expected that I should bow my head to an infidel." Dáhir said, "If you were not an ambassador, I would punish you with death." The Mauláná replied, "If you kill me it will be no great loss to the Arabs; but they will avenge my death, and exact the penalty from you."

The Syrian declares the object of his mission.
Dáhir consults with Sísákar,1 the minister.
Alláfí offers advice to Dáhir.
The ambassadors return to Muhammad Kásim with the answer of Dáhir Ráí.
Muhammad Kásim receives an order from Hajjáj.
Muhammad Kásim informs his friends of Hajjáj's orders.
Ráí Dáhir arrives at the banks of the Mihrán.
A Syrian is slain.

Mus'ab goes to Siwistán.
Jaisiya son of Dáhir arrives at the fort of Bait.
Ráí Dáhir the infidel sends a message to Muhammad Sakifí.
Tiyár returns to Hajjáj from Muhammad Kásim.
Hajjáj sends two thousand horses to Muhammad Kásim.
Muhammad Kásim reads the orders of Hajjáj.
Hajjáj sends some vinegar to Muhammad Kásim.
The orders of Hajjáj reach Muhammad Kásim on the western bank of the Mihrán.
Ráí Dáhir confers with the Samaní, his minister, on Muhammad Kásim's preparations for crossing the river.

Muhammad Kásim prepares to cross to the eastern bank with his army.

Muhammad Kásim had determined to cross, and was apprehensive lest Ráí Dáhir might come to the banks of the Mihrán with his army, and oppose the transit. He ordered Sulaimán bin Tíhán Kuraishí to advance boldly with his troops against the fort,1 in order that Fúfí2 son of Dáhir, should not be able to join his father. Sulaimán accordingly went with 600 horsemen. He ordered also the son of 'Atiya Tiflí to watch the road with 500 men, by which Akham might be expected to advance, in order to cover Gandáva3 and he ordered the Samaní, who was chief of Nírún, to keep open the road for the supply of food and fodder to the camp. Mus'ab bin 'Abu-r rahmán was ordered to command the advance guard, and keep the roads clear. He placed Namáma4 bin Hanzala Kalábí in the centre with a thousand men; and ordered Zakwán bin 'Ulwán al Bikrí with 1500 men to attend on Moka Bisáya, chief of Bait; and the Bhetí Thakurs and the Jats of Ghazní, who had made submission and entered the Arab service, were told to remain at Ságara and the island of Bait.

* * * * * * *
Muhammad Kásim examines the fords.
Dáhir hears that Moka Bisáya had collected boats.
Dáhir gives the government of Bait to Rásil.
* * * * * * *

When Muhammad Kásim had collected his boats and began to join them together, Rásil with his officers and chiefs came to the opposite bank and prevented the completion of the bridge and the passage of the river. Muhammad Kásim thereupon ordered that the boats should all be brought to the western bank, and be there joined together, to a distance equal to the estimated breadth of the Mihrán. He then placed his warriors fully armed upon the boats and let the head of the bridge, which was full of archers, float down to the eastern bank. The archers drove off the infidels who were posted to guard the passage. So the Arabs passed over to the other side, and driving pegs into the earth, made the bridge fast. The horse and foot then crossed and, giving battle, put the infidels to flight, and pursued them as far as the gates of Jham.

Dáhir awakes and kills his chamberlain for bringing him news of the flight of the infidels and the victory of Islám.

The Arab army advances to fort of Bait

The Arab army marched on till it reached the fort of Bait, and all the horsemen were clad in iron armour. Pickets were posted in all directions, and orders were given to dig an entrenchment round the camp, and to deposit the baggage there. Muhammad Kásim then advanced from the fort of Bait towards Ráwar, till he arrived at a place called Jewar1 (Jaipur). Between Ráwar and Jewar (Jaipúr) there was a lake,2 on which Dáhir had stationed a select body of troops to reconnoitre.

Dáhir makes a request of Muhammad 'Alláfí.1
The answer of 'Alláfí, and his dismissal by Dáhir.
Muhammad Kásim grants 'Alláfí a safe passage.
Dáhir confers with 'Alláfí.
Letters pass between Muhammad Kásim and Hajjáj.
Dáhir sends Jaisiya to reconnoitre.
First fight with the accursed Dáhir.

Treaty of Rásil with Muhammad Kásim.

Rásil, after showing marks of respect and offering promises of fidelity, said, "No one can oppose the will of the Almighty God. As you have bound me by your obligations, I shall after this be at your service, and will never contravene your wishes. I shall obey whatever may be your orders." After a short time Rásil lost his position, and the management of the country devolved upon Moka. Rásil and Moka agreed in opinion, and advised Muhammad Kásim to march. He accordingly set out from that place and reached a village which is called Nárání, Dáhir was at Kájíját.2 They saw that between them and Dáhir's camp there was a large lake, which was very difficult to cross. Rásil said,-"May the most just and religious noble live long. It is necessary to cross this lake." Rásil obtained a boat, and sent three men across at a time, till the whole army crossed over, and took post on a bay. Rásil said, "If you will advance one stage more, you will arrive at Jewar (Jaipúr), on the banks of the Wadháwáh.3 This is a village suitable for your encampment and is the same distance from the camp of Dáhir as it is from here. There you may attack him both in front and rear, and successfully enter into his position and occupy it." Muhammad Kásim approved of the advice, and reached Jewar (Jaipúr) and the Wadháwáh.

Arrival of Muhammad Kásim at Jewar (Jaipúr)

Intelligence was brought to Ráí Dáhir that Muhammad Kásim with the Arab army had reached Jewar (Jaipúr), and when his minister Sísákar4 heard of it, he said, "Alas! we are lost. That

[p.169]: place is called Jaipúr,1 or the town of victory, and as the army has reached that place, it will be successful and victorious." Dáhir Ráí took offence at these words. The fire of indignation blazed out in his mind, and he said with anger, "He has arrived at Hindbári,2 for it is a place where his bones shall lie." Dáhir left the place, and with precipitation went into the fort of Ráwar. He placed his dependants and baggage in the fort, and himself went out to a place which was a parasang's distance from the Arabs. Dáhir then said to an astrologer, "I must fight to-day; tell me in what part of the heavens the planet Venus is, and calculate which of the two armies shall be successful, and what will be the result."

Prediction of the Astrologer.

After the computation, the astrologer replied,-"According to the calculation, the victory shall be to the Arab army, because Venus is behind him and in front of you." Ráí Dáhir was angry on hearing this. The astrologer then said, "Be not angered, but order an image of Venus to be prepared of gold." It was made, and fastened to his saddle-straps, in order that Venus might be behind him, and he be victorious. Muhammad Kásim drew nearer, and the interval between both armies was only half a parasang.

Fight of the second day.
Dáhir fights the third day with the Arab army.
Fight of the fourth day.
Fight of the fifth day.
The array of the army of Islám.
Muhammad Kásim Sakifí reads the Khutba.
Muhammad Kásim exhorts his soldiers.
The Arab army charges the Infidels.
Shujá' Habshí becomes a martyr.
Muhammad Kásim charges in the name of God.

The accursed Dáhir is slain

[p.170]: Historians have related that Dáhir was slain at the fort of Ráwar at sunset, on Thursday, the 10th of Ramazán, in the year 93 (June, 712 A.D.). Abú-l Hasan relates upon the authority Abú-l Lais Híndi, who heard it from his father, that when the army of Islám made the attack, and most of the infidels were slain, a noise arose upon the left, and Dáhir thought it came from his own forces. He cried out, "Come hither; I am here." The women then raised their voices, and said, "O king, we are your women, who have fallen into the hands of the Arabs, and are captives." Dáhir said, "I live as yet, who captured you?"1 So saying, he urged his elephant against the Musul-mán army. Muhammad Kásim told the naphtha throwers that the opportunity was theirs, and a powerful man, in obedience to this direction, shot his naphtha arrow into Dáhir's howda, and set it on fire. Dáhir ordered his elephant driver to turn back, for the elephant was thirsty, and the howda was on fire. The elephant heeded not his driver, but dashed into the water, and in spite of all the efforts of the man, refused to turn back. Dáhir and the driver were carried into the rolling waves. Some of the infidels went into the water with them, and some stood upon the banks; but when the Arab horsemen came up, they fled. After the elephant had drunk water, he wanted to return to the fort. The Muhammadan archers plied their weapons, and a rain of arrows fell around. A skilful bowman aimed an arrow, which struck Dáhir in the breast (bar dil), and he fell down in the howda upon his face. The elephant then came out of the water and charged. Some of the infidels who remained were trampled under foot, and the others were dispersed. Dáhir got off his elephant, and confronted an Arab; but this brave fellow struck him with a sword on the very centre of his head, and cleft it to his neck. The Muhammadans and infidels closed and maintained a deadly fight, until they reached the fort of Ráwar. When the Brahmans who had gone into the water found the place of Dáhir's fall deserted, they came out and hid the body of Dáhir under the bank. The white elephant turned towards the army of the infidels, and no trace was left.

Proclamation issued by Muhammad Kásim.
How Ládí the wife of Dáhir was taken.
Muhammad Kásim writes an account of the death of Dáhir to Hajjáj.
The head of Dáhir is sent to 'Irák.
Hajjáj gives his daughter in marriage to Muhammad Kásim.
Hajjáj reads the Khutba in the Masjid Jámi' of Kúfa.
Hajjáj sends an answer to Muhammad Kásim's account of his victory.
The relatives of Dáhir Ráí who were carried away captives.

Jaisiya enters the fort of Ráwar and prepares to fight

The historians concur in the narration that when Dáhir was killed, his son and Rání Báí1 (who was Dáhir's sister, but whom he had made his wife,) went into the fort of Ráwar with his army, relations, and nobles, and took refuge in it. Jaisiya, who was proud of his courage, power, and dignity, prepared to fight. Muhammad 'Alláfí was also with him. When the news of the death of Dáhir arrived, and that the white elephant was hamstrung, Jaisiya son of Dáhir said that he would go to oppose the enemy, and strike a blow to save his honour and name, for it would be no loss if he were to be slain. Sísákar, the minister, observed that the resolve of the prince was not good, the king had been killed, the army defeated and dispersed, and their hearts were averse to battle through fear of the enemy's sword. How could he go to fight with the Arabs? His dominions still existed, and the strongest forts were garrisoned with brave warriors and subjects. It was, therefore, advisable that they should go to the fort of Brahmanábád, which was the inheritance of his father and ancestors. It was the chief residence of Dáhir. The treasuries and stores were full, and the inhabitants of the place were friends and well wishers of the family of Chach, and would all assist in fighting against the enemy. Then the 'Alláfí was also asked what he considered proper. He replied that he concurred in this opinion. So Jaisiya assented, and with all their dependants and trusty servants, they went to Brahmanábád. --- [p.172]: Báí (Máín), the wife of Dáhir, together with some of the generals, prepared for battle. She reviewed the army in the fort, and fifteen thousand warriors were counted. They had all resolved to die. Next morning, when it was learnt that Dáhir had been killed between the Mihrán and the stream called Wadháwáh,1 all the chiefs (Ráwats) and officers who were attached to the Rání entered the fort. Muhammad Kásim, on receiving the intelligence, marched in that direction, and encamped under the walls. The garrison began to beat drums and sound clarions, and threw down from the ramparts and bastions stones from mangonels and balistas as well as arrows and javelins.

The fort is taken and Báí (Máín), the sister of Dáhir, burns herself.

Muhammad Kásim disposed his army, and ordered the miners to dig and undermine the walls. He divided his army into two divisions; one was to fight during the day with mangonels, arrows, and javelins, and the other to throw naphtha, fardáj (?), and stones during the night. Thus the bastions were thrown down. Báí (Máín), the sister of Dáhir, assembled all her women, and said, "Jaisiya is separated from us, and Muhammad Kásim is come. God forbid that we should owe our liberty to these outcast cow-eaters! Our honour would be lost! Our respite is at an end,2 and there is nowhere any hope of escape; let us collect wood, cotton, and oil, for I think that we should burn ourselves and go to meet our husbands. If any wish to save herself she may." So they went into a house, set it on fire, and burnt themselves. Muhammad took the fort, and stayed there for two or three days. He put six thousand fighting men, who were in the fort, to the sword, and shot some with arrows. The other dependants and servants were taken prisoners, with their wives and children.

Detail of the slaves, cash, and stuffs, which were taken.

It is said that when the fort was captured, all the treasures, property, and arms, except those which were taken away by Jaisiya, fell into the hands of the victors, and they were all brought before Muhammad Kásim. When the number of the prisoners was calculated,

[p.173]: it was found to amount to thirty thousand persons, amongst whom thirty were the daughters of chiefs, and one of them was Ráí Dáhir's sister's daughter, whose name was Jaisiya.1 They were sent to Hajjáj. The head of Dáhir and the fifth part of the prisoners were forwarded in charge of K'ab, son of Mahárak. When the head of Dáhir, the women, and the property all reached Hajjáj, he prostrated himself before God, offered thanksgivings and praises, for, he said, he had in reality obtained all the wealth and treasures and dominions of the world.

Hajjáj sends the head of Dáhir, and some of his standards, to the Capital.

Hajjáj then forwarded the head, the umbrellas, and wealth, and the prisoners to Walíd the Khalífa. When the Khalífa of the time had read the letter, he praised Almighty God. He sold some of those daughters of the chiefs, and some he granted as rewards. When he saw the daughter of Ráí Dáhir's sister, he was much struck with her beauty and charms, and began to bite his finger with astonishment. 'Abdu-lláh bin 'Abbás desired to take her, but the Khalífa said, "O my nephew! I exceedingly admire this girl, and am so enamoured of her, that I wish to keep her for myself.

Nevertheless, it is better that you should take her to be the mother of your children." By his permission, therefore, 'Abdu-lláh took her. She lived a long time with him, but no child was born from her. Afterwards, another letter was received about the capture of the fort of Ráwar. It is said that after the conquest was effected, and the affairs of the country were settled and the report of the conquest had reached Hajjáj, he sent a reply to the following effect. "O my cousin; I received your life-inspiring letter. I was much pleased and overjoyed when it reached me. The events were recounted in an excellent and beautiful style, and I learnt that the ways and rules you follow are conformable to the Law. Except that you give protection to all, great and small alike, and make no difference between enemy and friend. God says,-Give no quarter to Infidels, but cut their throats." "Then know that this is the command of the great God. You should not be too ready to grant protection, because it

[p.174]:will prolong your work. After this, give no quarter to any enemy except to those who are of rank. This is a worthy resolve, and want of dignity will not be imputed to you.1 Peace be with you!"- Written at Náfa', A.H. 73.

Jaisiya sends letters from Brahmanábád to Alor,2 Bátiya, and other places.

Some historians from amongst the religious Brahmans have narrated respecting the death of Dáhir and adventures of Muhammad Kásim, that when the accursed Ráí Dáhir went to hell, Jaisiya took refuge in the fort of Brahmanábád, and Ráwar was taken, Jaisiya made preparations for war and sent letters in all directions; viz.: One to his brother Fúfí,3 son of Dáhir, who was in the fort of the capital of Aror; the other to his nephew Chach, son of Dharsiya, in the fort of Bátiya; and the third to his cousin, Dhawal, son of Chandar, who was in the direction of Budhiya and Kaikánán. He informed them of Dáhir's death and consoled them. He himself was in Brahmanábád with his warriors ready to fight.

Battle of Bahrúr and Dhalíla

Muhammad Kásim now determined to march to Brahmanábád. Between Ráwar and that city there were two fortresses called Bahrúr4 and Dhalila which contained about sixteen thousand fighting men. When Muhammad Kásim reached Bahrúr he besieged it for two months. After the war had been protracted so long, Muhammad Kásim ordered that part of his army should fight by day and part by night. They threw naphtha and plied their mangonels so that all the warriors of the adverse party were slain, and the walls of the fort thrown down. Many slaves and great plunder were taken. They put the fifth part of it into the public treasury. When the news of the capture of Ráwar and Bahrúr reached Dhalíla, the inhabitants knew that Muhammad Kásim possessed great perseverance, and that they should be on their guard against him. The merchants fled to

[p.175]: Hind, and the men of war prepared to defend their country. At last, Muhammad Kásim came to Dhalíla, and encamped there for two months, more or less. When the besieged were much distressed, and they knew that from no quarter could they receive reinforcements, they put on the garments of death, and anointed themselves with perfumes. They sent out their families into the fort which faces the bridge, and they crossed over the stream of the Naljak,1 without the Musulmáns being aware of it.

The flight of the chief of Dhalíla.

When the day dawned through the veil of darkness Muhammad Kásim learnt that they had fled, so he sent some men of his army after them, who overtook part of them as they were passing over the river and put them to the edge of the sword. Those who had crossed previously fled to Hindustán through the country of Ramal and the sandy desert to the country (bilád) of Sír, the chief of which country was named Deoráj. He was the son of the uncle of Dáhir Ráí.

Dhalíla conquered, and a fifth part of its booty sent to the capital of the Khalífa.

When Muhammad Kásim had fought the battle of Dhalíla and conquered, the fifth part of the plunder was deposited in the treasury to be sent to the capital, and he sent a report of the conquest of Bahrúr and Dhalíla to Hajjáj, with all the particulars.

Arrival of Sísákar, the minister, to seek protection.

Muhammad Kásim sent letters to the chiefs of the different parts of Hind, and invited them to make submission, and embrace Islám. When Sísákar, minister of Dáhir, heard of this, he sent some confidential servants, and sued for protection. He brought the Muhammadan women who were in his possession, and said that they were those women who cried out for help to Hajjáj.2

Sísákar appointed Minister.

Muhammad Kásim showed him much respect, and sent his chief officers to receive him. He paid him great honour, and treated him

[p.176]: with much kindness, and conferred upon him the office of Wazir. Sísákar now became the counsellor of the Muhammadans. Muhammad Kásim told him all his secrets, always took his advice, and consulted him on all the civil affairs of the government, his political measures, and the means of prolonging his success. He used to say to Muhammad Kásim that the regulations and ordinances which the just Amír had introduced would confirm his authority in all the countries of Hind. They would enable him to punish and overcome all his enemies; for he comforts all the subjects and málguzárs, takes the revenue according to the old laws and regulations, never burdens any one with new and additional exactions, and instructs all his functionaries and officers.

The government of Dhalíla conferred on Núba, son of Dháran son of Dhalíla.1

It is said by some people that when Dhalíla was conquered, Muhammad Kásim called Núba, son of Dháran, and having made a compact with him, invested him with honours, and conferred on him the entire governorship of the fort, and its dependencies from the eastern to the western boundaries. From that place to Brahmanábád there was distance of one parasang. Jaisiya, son of Dáhir, received intelligence that the Muhammadan army was coming.

The Arab army arrives at the banks of the lake of Jalwálí, and an ambassador is sent to invite the people to embrace Islám.

Muhammad Kásim marched from Dhalíla, and encamped on the banks of the stream of the Jalwálí2 to the east of Brahmanábád. He sent some confidential messengers to Brahmanábád to invite its people to submission and to the Muhammadan faith, to preach to them Islám, to demand the Jizya, or poll-tax, and also to inform them that if they would not submit, they must prepare to fight. Jaisiya, son of Dáhir, before the arrival of the messengers, had gone to Chanír.3 He had chosen sixteen men from among the chiefs of that city, and had placed four of these men as wardens at each

[p.177]: of the four gates of the city, with a part of his army. One of these gates was called Jawetarí, and four men were stationed at it. One of them was Bhárand, the other Sátiyá, the third Máliya,* and the fourth Sálha.

Muhammad Kásim arrives there in the beginning of the month of Rajab.

When Muhammad Kásim reached there, he ordered entrenchments to be dug. The battle commenced on Saturday, the first of Rajab. The infidels came out every day, and engaged and beat their drums. There were about forty thousand fighting men. From the dawn of day till sunset the battle was fought with great fury on both sides. When the king of the stars disappeared they also returned. The Muhammadans entered their entrenchments, and the infidels went into their fort. Six months passed in this manner. Kásim despaired of taking the fort, and became very pensive. On Sunday, in the end of the Zi-l Hijja, A.H. 93 (October, 712 A.D.), Jaisiya, who had fled to the country of Ramal, which is called Bátiya, came back from that place, infested the roads, and distressed the Muhammadan army.

A messenger sent to Moka.

Muhammad Kásim despatched one of his confidential servants to Moka Bisáya, and informed him that he was perpetually harassed by Jaisiya, who prevented the supply of fodder, and put him to great trouble. He enquired the remedy. Moka said that as Jaisiya was very near, there was no alternative but that he should be made to depart. So he sent from his own force a large body of trusty men to drive him off.

Jaisiya goes to Jaipúr.2

Banána, son of Hanzala Kalábí, 'Atíyá Sa'lbí, Sáram son of Abú Saram Hamadání, and 'Abdu-l Malik Madanní, with their horsemen, and Moka Bisáya at their head, and also Jazím, son of 'Umar Wáladíhí were sent with an army and supplies of provisions.

[p.178]: Jaisiya was informed of the march of the Arab army. He therefore left his place with all his property and family, and went by way of the sandy desert to the places called Jankan, 'Awará, and Káyá, in the territory of Jaipúr. The 'Alláfí deserted him. He thence proceeded to the territory of Tákiya, and went away and deter¬mined to do homage to the king of Kashmír, which is towards Rostá on the boundary of Royam. This territory is all waste and desert. From that place he wrote to the Ráí, whose capital lay amidst the hills. He stated that of his own free will, and with a sincere heart, he had come to wait upon him.

Jaisiya son of Dáhir goes to the Ráná.

The letter was read before the Ráí of Kashmír, who issued orders that, from among the dependencies of Kashmír, a place called Shá-kalhá1 should be assigned to Jaisiya.

The Ráí of Kashmír gives presents to Jaisiya son of Dáhir.

The day on which they met, the Ráí of Kashmír gave fifty horses with saddles, and two hundred valuable suits of apparel to his officers. Hamím, son of Sáma the Syrian, was sent to the fief of Shákalhá. When he went a second time to see the Ráí of Kashmír, he was again received with great respect and honour, and an umbrella, a chair, and other presents were given to him. These are honours which are bestowed upon great kings. With great respect and ostentation he was re-conducted to his tenure in the plains. After staying there some time he expired in Shákalhá, and was succeeded by Hamím, son of Sáma, whose descendants remain there to this day. He founded masjids there, and obtained great honour and regard. He was much respected by the king of Kashmír. When Jaisiya2 went to Jaipúr, and stayed there, he wrote letters to Fúfí, son of Dáhir, at Alor. He informed him of the cause of his

[p.179]: leaving the country, and advised him to hold out in that part. Fúfí, son of Dáhir, received much encouragement on reading the letter, and on learning that he had gone away to Jaipúr.

When Muhammad Kásim had fought for six months at Brahmanábád, and war was protracted for a long time, and the news of Jaisiya was received from Chanesar,1 four of the chief merchants of the city consulted together at the gate of the fort, which is called Jawetarí.2 They said the Arabs have conquered the whole territory, Dáhir has been killed, Jaisiya is king, and the fort has been besieged for a space of six months; we have neither power nor wealth to enable us to fight with the enemy, nor can we make peace with him. If he stay a few days more, he will at last be victorious, and we have no ground on which to ask protection from him. We are not able to stand any more before that army; we should, therefore, now join together, and sallying out attack Kásim, or be slain in the attempt; for if peace be made, all those found in arms will be slain, but all the rest of the people, the merchants, the handicraftsmen, and the cultivators, will find protection. And if they could get any assurance, it was better, they said, to make terms and surrender the fort to him. He would take them under his protection, and they would find him their supporter if they would follow rules of allegiance. To this opinion they all agreed. They sent their messengers, and craved for themselves and their families exemption from death and captivity.

Protection granted to them on their faithful promises of allegiance.

Muhammad Kásim granted them protection on their faithful promises, but put the soldiers to death, and took all their followers and dependants prisoners. All the captives, up to about thirty years of age, who were able to work, he made slaves, and put a price upon them.3 Muhammad Kásim called all the chief officers of Hajjáj together, and related the message to them, saying that

[p.180]: ambassadors had come from Brahmanábád, and it should be heard what they had to say, and a proper answer should be carefully prepared and given to them.

Opinion of Moka Bisáya.

Moka Bisáya said, "O noble man! this fort is the chief of all the cities of Hind. It is the seat of the sovereign. If this be taken, the whole of Sind will come into your possession. The strongest forts will fall, and the dread of our power will increase. The people will sever themselves from the descendants of Dáhir, some will run away, and others submit to your rule."

Muhammad Kásim's communication to Hajjáj.

Muhammad Kásim informed Hajjáj of all the circumstances, and furnished those people with his written orders. He fixed the time with them, and they said that on the day named he should come to the Jawetarí1 gate, from which they would sally out to fight; but when they should come near him, and the Arab army should attack them, they would fly away in the midst of the battle, go into the fort, and leave the gate open. After an answer was received from Hajjáj, to the effect that Kásim should give them protection, and faithfully execute the compact made with them, the people of the fort fought for a short time, and when the Arabs attacked them, and engaged, they fled and entered the fort, leaving the gate open.2 The Arabs thus got possession of it, and the whole army followed and mounted the walls. The Muhammadans then loudly shouted "Alláh Akbar," and the people of the fort, seeing the Musulmans victorious, opened the eastern gate, and fled with precipitation. The Muhammadans thus gained the victory, but Muhammad Kásim ordered them to kill none but those who showed fight. They seized all who had arms, and brought them prisoners before Muhammad Kásim, with all their arms and property, dependants, and families. Everyone who bowed down his head and sued for protection was released, and allowed to occupy his own house.

Resistance made by Jaisiya1 and the wife of Dáhir.

[p.181]: It is said, on the authority of the old men of Brahmanábád, that when the fort of Brahmanábád was taken, Ládí, the wife of Dáhir Ráí, who since Dáhir's death had staid in the fort with his son,2 rose up and said, "How can I leave this strong fort and my family. It is necessary that we should stop here, overcome the enemy, and preserve our homes and dwellings. If the army of the Arabs should be successful, I must pursue some other course. She then brought out all her wealth and treasures, and distributing them among the warriors of the army, she thus encouraged her brave soldiers while the fight was carried on at one of the gates. She had determined that if the fort should be lost, she would burn herself alive with all her relations and children. Suddenly the fort was taken, and the nobles came to the gate of Dáhir's palace and brought out his dependants. Ládí was taken prisoner.

Ládí, the wife of Dáhir is taken, with his two maiden daughters

When the plunder and the prisoners of war were brought before Kásim, and enquiries were made about every captive, it was found that Ládí, the wife of Dáhir, was in the fort with two daughters of his by his other wives. Veils were put on their faces, and they were delivered to a servant to keep them apart. One-fifth of all the prisoners were chosen and set aside; they were counted as amounting to twenty thousand in number, and the rest were given to the soldiers.

Protection is given to the artificers.

Protection was given to the artificers, the merchants, and the common people, and those who had been seized from those classes were all liberated. But he (Kásim) sat on the seat of cruelty, and put all those who had fought to the sword. It is said that about six thousand fighting men were slain, but, according to some, sixteen thousand were killed, and the rest were pardoned.

The relations of Dáhir are betrayed by the Brahmans.

It is related that when none of the relations of Dáhir were found

[p.182]: among the prisoners, the inhabitants of the city were questioned respecting them, but no one gave any information or hint about them. But the next day nearly one thousand Brahmans, with shaven heads and beards, were brought before Kásim.

The Brahmans come to Muhammad Kásim

When Muhammad Kásim saw them, he asked to what army they belonged, and why they had come in that manner. They replied, "O faithful noble! our king was a Brahman. You have killed him, and have taken his country; but some of us have faithfully adhered to his cause, and have laid down our lives for him; and the rest, mourning for him, have dressed themselves in yellow clothes, and have shaved their heads and beards. As now the Almighty God has given this country into your possession, we have come submissively to you, just Lord, to know what may be your orders for us." Muhammad Kásim began to think, and said, "By my soul and head, they are good, faithful people. I give them protection, but on this condition, that they bring hither the dependents of Dáhir, wherever they may be." Thereupon they brought out Ládí.

Muhammad Kásim fixed a tax upon all the subjects, according to the laws of the Prophet. Those who embraced the Muhammadan faith were exempted from slavery, the tribute, and the poll-tax;1 and from those who did not change their creed a tax was exacted according to three grades. The first grade was of great men, and each of these was to pay silver, equal to forty-eight dirams in weight, the second grade twenty-four dirams, and the lowest grade twelve dirams. It was ordered that all who should become Musulmans at once should be exempted from the payment, but those who were desirous of adhering to their old persuasion must pay the tribute and poll-tax. Some showed an inclination to abide by their creed, and some having resolved upon paying tribute, held by the faith of their forefathers,2 but their lands and property were not taken from them.

Brahmanábád is given into the charge of the prefects of the country.

[p.183]: Muhammad Kásim then allotted to each of the prefects an amount of revenue suited to his ability and claims. He stationed a force at each of the four gates of the fort, and gave the charge of them (to the prefects). He also gave them as tokens of his satisfaction saddled horses, and ornaments for their hands and feet, according to the custom of the kings of Hind. And he assigned to each of them a seat in the great public assemblies.

Division of the people into three classes

Division of the people into three classes-artizans, merchants, and agriculturists.

All people, the merchants, artists, and agriculturists were divided separately into their respective classes, and ten thousand men, high and low, were counted. Muhammad Kásim then ordered twelve diram's weight of silver to be assigned to each man, because all their property had been plundered. He appointed people from among the villagers and the chief citizens to collect the fixed taxes from the cities and villages, that there might be a feeling of strength and protection. When the Brahmans saw this, they represented their case, and the nobles and principal inhabitants of the city gave evidence as to the superiority of the Brahmans. Muhammad Kásim maintained their dignity, and passed orders confirming their pre-eminence. They were protected against opposition and violence. Each of them was entrusted with an office, for Kásim was confident that they would not be inclined to dishonesty. Like Ráí Chach, he also appointed each one to a duty. He ordered all the Brahmans to be brought before him, and reminded them that they had held great offices in the time of Dáhir, and that they must be well acquainted with the city and the suburbs. If they knew any excellent character worthy of his consideration and kindness they should bring him to notice, that favours and rewards might be bestowed on him. As he had entire confidence in their honesty and virtue, he had entrusted them with these offices, and all the affairs of the country would be placed under their charge. These offices were granted to them and their descendants, and would never be resumed or transferred.

The Brahmans go with great confidence into the villages.

[p.184]: Then the Brahmans and the government officers went into the districts, and said, "Oh chiefs and leaders of the people, you know for certain that Dáhir is slain, and that the power of infidels is at an end. In all parts of Sind and Hind the rule of the Arabs is firmly established, and all the people of this country, great and small, have become as equals, both in town and country. The great Sultán has shown favour to us humble individuals, and ye must know that he has sent us to you, to hold out great inducements. If we do not obey the Arabs we shall neither have property nor means of living. But we have made our submission in hope that the favour and kindness of our masters may be increased to us. At present we are not driven from our homes; but if you cannot endure this tribute which is fixed on you, nor submit to the heavy burden, then let us retire at a suitable opportunity to some other place of Hind or Sind, with all your families and children, where you may find your lives secure. Life is the greatest of all blessings. But if we can escape from this dreadful whirlpool, and can save our lives from the power of this army, our property and children will be safe.

Taxes are fixed upon the inhabitants of the city.

Then all the inhabitants of the city attended and agreed to pay the taxes. They ascertained the amount from Muhammad Kásim. And in respect of the Brahmans whom he had appointed revenue managers over them, he said, "Deal honestly between the people and the Sultán, and if distribution is required make it with equity, and fix the revenue according to the ability to pay. Be in concord among yourselves, and oppose not each other, so that the country may not be distressed."

Muhammad Kásim admonishes the people.

Muhammad Kásim admonished every man separately, and said, "Be happy in every respect, and have no anxiety, for you will not be blamed for anything. I do not take any agreement or bond from you. Whatever sum is fixed and we have settled you must pay. Moreover, care and leniency shall be shown you. And whatever may be your requests, they should be represented to me so that they may be heard, a proper reply be given, and the wishes of each man be satisfied."

Muhammad Kásim gives an order in favour of the people of Brahmanábád.

The Brahmans did not receive the alms which were given to them according to the old custom, by the merchants, the infidels, and thákurs, who took delight in worshipping the idols. The attendants of the temples were likewise in distress. For fear of the army, the alms and bread were not regularly given to them, and therefore they were reduced to poverty. They came to the gate of his palace, and lifted up their hands in prayer. They said, "May you live long, oh just lord! We people obtain our livelihood and maintenance by keeping the temple of Budh. You showed mercy upon the merchants and the infidels, confirmed them in their property, and made them zimmís (tolerated subjects). Hence we, your slaves, relying upon your bounty, hope permission may be given for them to worship their gods, and repair the temple of Budh." Muhammad Kásim replied, "The seat of government is Alor, and all these other places are dependencies of it." The Hindús said, "The edifice (temple) of this city is under the Brahmans. They are our sages and physicians, and our nuptial and funeral ceremonies are performed by them. We have agreed to pay the taxes in the expectation that every one would be left to follow his own persuasion. This our temple of Budh is ruined, and we cannot worship our idols. If our just lord will permit us, we will repair it, and worship our gods. Our Brahmans will then receive the means of living from us."

Muhammad Kásim writes to Hajjáj, and receives an answer

Muhammad Kásim wrote to Hajjáj, and after some days received a reply to the following effect. The letter of my dear nephew Muhammad Kásim has been received, and the facts understood. It appears that the chief inhabitants of Brahmanábád had petitioned to be allowed to repair the temple of Budh and pursue their religion. As they have made submission, and have agreed to pay taxes to the Khalífa, nothing more can be properly required from them. They

[p.186]: have been taken under our protection, and we cannot in any way stretch out our hands upon their lives or property. Permission is given them to worship their gods. Nobody must be forbidden or prevented from following his own religion. They may live in their houses in whatever manner they like.1

Arrival of Hajjáj's orders.

When the orders of Hajjáj reached Muhammad Kásim, he had left the city, and had gone a march. He directed the nobles, the principal inhabitants, and the Brahmans to build their temple, traffic with the Muhammadans, live without any fear, and strive to better themselves. He also enjoined them to maintain the indigent Brahmans with kindness and consideration, observe the rites and customs of their ancestors, and give oblations and alms to the Brahmans, according to former practice. They were to allot three dirams out of every hundred dirams capital, and to give them as much of this as should be necessary-the remainder was to be paid into the treasury and accounted for; it would be safe in the keeping of Government.2 They were also to settle allowances upon the officers and the nobles. They all fully agreed to these conditions before Tamím bin Zaidu-l Kaisí and Hukm bin 'Awána Kalbí.

It was ordained that the Brahmans should, like beggars, take a copper basin in their hands, go to the doors of the houses, and take whatever grain or other thing that might be offered to them, so that they might not remain unprovided for. This practice has got a peculiar name among the infidels.

Muhammad Kásim grants the request of the people of Brahmanábád.

Muhammad Kásim granted the request which the people of Brahmanábád had made to him, and permitted them to retain their position like the Jews, the Christians,3 and fire worshippers of 'Irák

[p.187]: and Shám. He then dismissed them, and gave to their head men the appellation of Ráná.1

Muhammad Kásim calls for Sísákar, the minister.

He then called the minister Sísákar and Moka Bisáya, and asked them what was the position of the Jats of Lohána2 in the time of Chach and Dáhir, and how were they dealt with?

Sísákar, the minister, replied in the presence of Moka Bisáya that in the reign of Ráí Chach, the Lohánas, viz. Lákha and Samma, were not allowed to wear soft clothes, or cover their heads with velvet; but they used to wear a black blanket beneath, and throw a sheet of coarse cloth over their shoulders. They kept their heads and feet naked. Whenever they put on soft clothes they were fined. They used to take their dogs with them when they went out of doors, so that they might by this means be recognized. No chief was permitted to ride on a horse. Wherever guides were required by the kings they had to perform the duty, and it was their business to supply escorts and conduct parties from one tribe to another. If any of their chiefs or ránas rode upon a horse, he had no saddle or bridle, but threw a blanket on its back, and then mounted. If an injury befel a person on the road, these tribes had to answer for it; and if any person of their tribe committed a theft, it was the duty of their head men to burn him and his family and children. The caravans used to travel day and night under their guidance. There is no distinction among them of great and small. They have the disposition of savages, and always rebelled against their sovereign. They plunder on the roads, and within the territory of Debal all join with them in their highway robberies. It is their duty to send fire-wood for the kitchen of the kings, and to serve them as menials and guards."

On hearing this, Muhammad Kásim said, "What disgusting people they are. They are just like the savages of Persia and the mountains."3

Muhammad Kásim maintained the same rules regarding them. As the Commander of the faithful, 'Umar, son of Khitáb, had ordered respecting the people of Shám,

[p.188]: so did Muhammad Kásim also make a rule that every guest should be entertained for one day and night, but if he fell sick then for three days and nights.

Muhammad Kásim sends a letter to Hajjáj bin Yúsuf.

When Muhammad Kásim had settled the affairs of Brahmanábád and the Lohána territory, and had fixed the tribute of the Jats, he sent a report of all these particulars to Hajjáj. It was written at a place on the river Jalwálí,1 above Brahmanábád. The account of taking the territory of Sind was communicated and stated in full detail.

Reply of Hajjáj.

Hajjáj wrote in reply, "My nephew Muhammad Kásim, you deserve praise and commendation for your military conduct, and for the pains you have taken in protecting the people, ameliorating their condition, and managing the affairs of the Government. The fixing of the revenue upon each village, and the encouragement you have given to all classes of people to observe the laws, and their agreements, have brought much vigour to the Government, and have tended to the good administration of the country. Now you should not stay any longer in this city. The pillars of the countries of Hind and Sind are Alor and Multán. They are the capitals and royal residences. There must be great riches and treasures of kings hidden in these two places. If you stop anywhere, you should choose the most delightful place, so that your authority may be confirmed in the whole country of Hind and Sind. If any one refuses to submit to Muhammadan power slay him. May you be victorious under the decree of the Almighty God, so that you may subdue the country of Hind to the boundary of China. Amir Kutaiba, son of Muslimu-l Kuraishí is sent; you should make over all the hostages to him, and an army is also placed under him. You should act in such a manner, O son of your uncle, and son of the mother of Jaisiya,2 that the name of Kásim may become celebrated through you, and your enemies be humbled and confounded. May it please God."

The arrival of the letter of Hajjáj. [p.189]: When the letter of Hajjáj reached Muhammad Kásim, he read it. It was also written in it, "You, O Muhammad, consult me in your letters, for it is prudent. The excessive distance is an obstacle. But show kindness that your enemies may desire to be submissive; comfort them."

How the whole territory of Jats kept under subjection

Appointment of four of the chief men of the city as officers for the management of the country.

Muhammad Kásim then called Widá', son of Hamídu-n Najdí, for the management of the city of Brahmanábád, that is, Báín-wáh,1 and appointed overseers and assistants. He entrusted four persons from among the merchants of the city with all matters concerning property. He strictly ordered that they should inform him fully and particularly of all matters, and that nothing should be decided without consulting him. He placed Núba, son of Dáras, in the fort of Ráwar, and directed him to hold the place fast, and keep the boats ready. If any boat coming up or down the stream was loaded with men or arms of war, he was to take them and bring them to the fort of Ráwar. He placed the boats on the upper part of the river under the charge of the son of Ziyádu-l 'Abdí, and appointed Handíl, son of Sulaimánu-l Azdi, to the districts which belonged to the territory of Kíraj,2 Hanzala, son of Akhí Banáná Kalbí, was made governor of Dahlíla, and they were all ordered to inquire into and investigate the affairs of the surrounding places, and report to him thereon every month. He also directed them to assist each other so that they might be secure from attacks of the enemy's forces, and from the opposition of rebellious subjects, and they were to punish disturbers of the peace. He stationed two thousand foot soldiers with Kais bin 'Abdu-l Malik bin Kaisu-d Damani and Khálid Ansári in Siwistán, and sent Mas'úd Tamímí son of Shítaba Jadídí, Firásatí 'Atkí, Sábir Lashkarí, and 'Abdu-l Malik son of 'Abdulláh, Al Khazá'í, Mahram son of 'Akká,

[p.190]: and Alúfá son of 'Abdu-r Rahmán, to Debal and Nírún, in order to maintain possession of those places. Amongst the companions of his exploits there was a man named Malíkh, who was a Maulá; him he appointed ruler of Karwáíl. 'Alwán Bakkarí and Kais, son of S'alibá, with three hundred men, also remained in that place, and there they had their wives and families. Thus the whole territory of the Jats was kept under subjection.

Muhammad Kásim proceeds to Sáwandí Samma.

It is related that when Muhammad Kásim had attended to the affairs of the district of Brahmanábád, and of the eastern and western parts of the territory, he marched from that place on Thursday, the third of Muharram A.H. 94 (9 Oct., 712 A.D.) He stopped at a village called Manhal,1 in the vincinity of Sáwandí.2 There was a beautiful lake and a delightful meadow there, which were called Danda and Karbahá. He pitched his tents on the banks of the Danda. The inhabitants of the country were Samanís. The chiefs and merchants all came and made submission to Muhammad Kásim, and he gave them protection, according to the orders of Hajjáj. He said that they might live in their country with comfort and content, and pay the revenue at the proper season. He fixed revenue upon them and appointed a person from each tribe as the head of his tribe. One was a Samaní, whose name was Bawádu, and the other, Budehí Bamman Dhawal.

The agriculturists in this part of the country were Jats, and they made their submission and were granted protection. When all these circumstances were communicated to Hajjáj, he sent an emphatic answer, ordering that those who showed fight should be destroyed, or that their sons and daughters should be taken as hostages and kept. Those who chose to submit, and in whose throats the water of sincerity flowed, were to be treated with mercy, and their property secured to them. The artizans and merchants were not to be heavily taxed. Whosoever took great pains in his work or cultivation was to be encouraged and supported. From those who espoused the dignity of Islám, only a tenth part of their wealth and the produce of the land was to be required; but those who followed their own religion were to pay from the produce of their

[p.191]: manual industry, or from the land, the usual sums, according to the established custom of the country, and bring it to the Government collectors. Muhammad Kásim then marched from that place and arrived at Bahráwar. There he called Sulaiman son of Pathán and Abá Fazzatu-l Kasha'rí and made them swear by the Omnipotent, He gave them strict orders, and sent them with a body of men belonging to Haidar son of 'Amrú and Baní Tamím towards the territory of the people of Bahraj.1 They took up their residence there; and 'Umar son of Hajjázu-l Akbari Hanafí was appointed their chief, and a body of famous warriors were placed under him.

The Sammas come to receive him.

Muhammad Kásim then moved towards the tribes of the Samma. When he came near, they advanced to receive him, ringing bells, and beating drums and dancing. Muhammad Kásim said, "What noise is this?" The people told him that it was with them a customary ceremony, that when a new king comes among them they rejoice and receive him with frolics and merriment. Then Kharím, son of 'Umar, came to Muhammad Kásim and said, "It is proper for us to adore and praise the Almighty God, because He has made these people submissive and obedient to us, and our injunctions and inhibitions are obeyed in this country. Kharím was an intelligent and ingenious man, faithful and honest. Muhammad Kásim laughed at his words, and said, "You shall be made their chief," and he ordered them to dance and play before him. Kharím rewarded them with twenty dínárs of African gold, and said-It is a regal privilege that joyful demonstrations should be made by them on the arrival of their prince, and gratitude thus be shown to the Almighty-may this blessing be long preserved to them.

Muhammad Kásim marches towards Lohána and Sihta

The historians say, upon the authority of 'Alí bin Muhammad bin

[p.192]: Abdu-r Rahmán bin 'Abdu-lláh us Salíti, that when Muhammad Kásim had settled the affairs of Lohána, he came to Sihta. The chiefs and peasants advanced bare-headed and bare-footed to receive him, and sued for mercy. He granted them all protection, fixed the revenue they were to pay, and took hostages. He asked them to guide him through the various stages to Alor. Their guides were sent forward to Alor, which was the capital of Hind and the greatest city in all Sind. The inhabitants were chiefly merchants, artisans, and agriculturists. The governor of its fort was Fúfí, son of Ráí Dáhir, and before him nobody dared say that Dáhir was slain. He maintained that Ráí Dáhir was yet alive, and had gone to bring an army from Hind, that with its support and assistance he might fight with the Arabs. Muhammad Kásim encamped for one month before the fort, at the distance of one mile. He built there a mosque, in which he read the Khutba every Friday.

Battle with the people of Alor

War was then waged with the people of Alor, who believed that Dáhir was bringing men to their aid. They cried aloud from the ramparts to the besiegers, "You must abandon all hope of life, for Dáhir, with a formidable army of numberless elephants, horse and foot, is advancing in your rear, and we shall sally out from the fort and defeat your army. Abandon your wealth and baggage, take care of your lives, and run away, that you may not be killed. Hear this advice."

Muhammad Kásim purchases Ládí, the wife of Dáhir, from a woman.1

When Muhammad Kásim saw their resolution and perseverance in maintaining hostilities, and found that they persisted in denying that Dáhir was slain, he put Ládí, the wife of Dáhir, whom he had purchased from a woman and made his wife, on the black camel on which the wife of Dáhir used to ride, and sent her with trusty persons to the fort. She cried out, "O people of the fort, I have some matters of importance to tell you; come near that I may speak." A body of the principal men ascended the ramparts. Ládí

[p.193]: then uncovered her face, and said, "I am Ládí, the wife of Dáhir. Our king is killed, and his head has been sent to 'Irák; the royal flags and umbrella have also been forwarded to the capital of the Khalífa. Do not you destroy yourselves. God says (in the Kurán) 'Seek not destruction by your own hands,'" She then shrieked out, wept bitterly, and sang a funeral song. They replied from the fort,1 "You are false; you have joined these Chandáls and Cow-eaters, and have become one of them. Our king is alive, and is coming with a mighty army and war elephants to repel the enemy. Thou hast polluted thyself with these Arabs, and prefer their government to our kings." Thus and still more did they abuse her. When Muhammad Kásim heard this, he called Ládí back, and said, "Fortune has turned away her face from the family of Síláíj."

A sorceress tries to ascertain the death of Dáhir.

It is related by the historians that in the fort of Alor there was a sorceress, which in Hindí is called Joginí. Fúfí, son of Dáhir, and the nobles of the city, went to her and said, "It is expected that you will tell us by your science where Dáhir is." She replied that she would give them information, after making experiments, if they would allow her one day for the purpose. She then went to her house, and after three watches of the day she brought a branch of the pepper and the nutmeg tree from Sarandíp (Ceylon), with their blossoms and berries all green and perfect in her hand, and said, "I have traversed the whole world from Káf to Káf, but have found no trace of him anywhere in Hind or Sind, nor have I heard anything of him. Now settle your plans, for if he were alive he could not remain hidden and concealed from me. To verify my words, I have brought these green branches from Sarandíp that you may have no delusions. I am sure that your king is not alive on the face of the earth."

Capitulation of the fort of Alor.

When this became known, the people of the city, great and small, said they had heard of the honesty, prudence, justice, equity, and

[p.194]: generosity of Muhammad Kásim, and his faithful observance of his words and promises, and they had witnessed the same. They would send him a message by some trustworthy person, pray for mercy, and surrender the fort. When Fúfí was assured of Dáhir's death, and of the wavering of the people, he came out of the fort with all his relations and dependants, at the time when the king of the stars had passed behind the black curtain of night, and went towards Chitor ([[Jaipúr).1 (Jatrur) His brother Jaisiya and other sons of Dáhir were there, and had taken up their residence at a village called Nuzúl-Sandal.2 There was a man of the tribe of 'Alláfí in Alor, who had made friendship with Fúfí; he wrote information of Fúfí's retirement and flight, and having fastened the paper to an arrow shot it (into the camp, informing the Arabs) that Fúfí, son of Dáhir had abdicated the chiefship of Alor, and had departed. Muhammad Kásim then sent his brave warriors to fight, and they ascended the ram¬parts of the fort and made the assault.

The citizens crave protection

All the merchants, artizans, and tradesmen, sent a message saying, "We have cast off our allegiance to the Brahmans. We have lost Ráí Dáhir, our chief, and his son Fúfí has deserted us. We were not satisfied until to-day; but as it was destined by God that all this should happen, no creature can oppose His will and power, nor can anything be done against him by force or fraud. The dominion of this world is no one's property. When the army of God's destiny comes forth from behind the veil of secrecy, it deprives some kings of their thrones and crowns, and drives others to despair and flight, by change of circumstances and the occurrence of calamities. No dependance can be placed upon either old sovereignty or new authority, which are fleeting possessions. We now come submissively to you, confiding in your just equity, we put ourselves under your yoke. We surrender the fort to the officers of the just Amír. Grant us protection and remove the fear

[p.195]: of your army from our minds. This ancient dominion and extensive territory were entrusted to us by Ráí Dáhir, and as long as he was alive we observed our allegiance to him. But as he is slain, and his son Fúfí has run away, it is now better for us to obey you." Muhammad Kásim replied, "I sent you no message, nor ambassador; of your own accord you sue for peace, and make promises and engagements. If you are truly inclined to obey me, stop fighting, and with sincerity and confidence come down; if not, I will hear no excuses after this, nor make any promises. I will not spare you, nor can you be saved from my army."

The Garrison capitulates.

Then they came down from the ramparts and agreed with each other that on these terms they would open the gate and stand at it till Muhammad Kásim should come. They said that if he would act according to his promise, and would treat them generously, they would submit to him and serve him, without any excuse. Then they took the keys of the fort in their hands and stood before the gate, and the officers of Hajjáj, who had been selected, came forward; the garrison opened the gate and made their submission.

Muhammad Kásim enters the fort.

Muhammad Kásim then entered the gate. All the citizens had come to the temple of Nau-vihár,1 and were prostrating themselves and worshipping the idol. Muhammad Kásim asked what house it was, that all the great men and the nobles were kneeling before it, and making prostrations. He was told that it was a temple called Nau-vihár. Muhammad Kásim ordered the door of the temple to be opened, and he saw an image mounted on a horse. He went in with his officers, and found that it was made of hard stone, and that golden bracelets, ornamented with rubies and other precious stones, were on its hands. Muhammad Kásim stretched out his hand and took off one of the bracelets. He then called the keeper of the temple of Budh Nau-vihár, and said, "Is that your idol?" He replied, "Yes; but it had two bracelets, and now it has only one."

[p.196]: Muhammad Kásim said, "Does not your god know who has got his bracelet?" The keeper hung down his head. Muhammad Kásim laughed, and gave back the bracelet to him, and they replaced it on the hand of the idol.

Muhammad Kásim orders the soldiers to be killed.1

Muhammad Kásim ordered that if the military bowed their heads in submission they should not be killed. Ládí said "the people of this country are chiefly workmen, but some are merchants. The city is inhabited and its land cultivated by them, and the amount of the taxes will be realized from their earnings and tillage if the tribute is fixed on each person." Muhammad Kásim said, "Rání Ládí has ordered this," and he gave protection to all.

A person comes forward and craves mercy.

It is related by the historians, that from amongst the people who were given up to the executioners to be put to death, a person came forward and said, "I have a wonderful thing to show." The executioner said, "Let me see it." He said, "No, I will not show it to you, but to the commander." This was reported to Muhammad Kásim, and he ordered him to be brought before him. When he came, he asked him what wonder he had to show. The man said it was a thing which nobody had yet seen. Muhammad Kásim said, "Bring it." The Brahman replied, "If you grant my life, and that of all and every of my relations, family, and children." Muhammad Kásim said, "I grant it." He then asked him for a written and express promise under his gracious signature. Muhammad Kásim thought that he would produce some precious gem or ornament. When a strict promise was made, and the written order was in his hand, he pulled his beard and whiskers, and spread out the hairs; then he placed his toes at the back of his head and began to dance, repeating this saying, "Nobody has seen this wonder of mine. The hairs of my beard serve me for curls." Muhammad Kásim was surprised at this. The people who were present said, "What wonder is this for which he wishes to be

[p.197]: pardoned? He has deceived us." Muhammad Kásim replied, "'A word is a word, and a promise is a promise.' 'To belie oneself is not the act of a great man.' 'Know that he who retracts is a treacherous man.' 'See how a (true) man observes his promise.' 'If a person fulfil his words, he is more exalted than you can conceive.' We must not kill him, but we will send him to prison, and report the case to Hajjáj for his decision." Accordingly the execution of that man and of twenty-two of his relations and de-pendants was postponed, and a report of the case was written to Hajjáj, who asked the learned men of Kúfa and Basra to pronounce their opinions. A report was also sent to 'Abdu-l Malik, the Khalífa of the time. The answer which came from the Khalífa and the learned men was, that such a case had already occurred among the friends of the Prophet-may peace be to him. God says, "He is a true man who fulfils his promise in God's name." When the answer to this effect came, the man was liberated with all his dependants and relations.

Jaisiya goes to Kúraj

It is related by the great and principal men, that when Jaisiya, with seven hundred men, foot and horse, reached the fort of Kúraj,1 the chief of that place came forth to receive him. He showed him much attention, and inspired his hopes by great promises. He told him that he would assist him against the Muhammadans. It was customary with Darohar2 Ráí to take one day's holiday in every six months, drink wine with women, hear songs, and see dancing. No stranger was admitted to be one of the company. It happened that on the day Jaisiya arrived Darohar Ráí was celebrating this festival. He sent a person to Jaisiya to say that on that day he was in privacy, and no stranger could come to his chamber; but as he (Jaisiya) was a very dear guest, and was regarded by him as his son, he might attend. Jaisiya bent down his head, and drawing lines on the earth did not look at the women. Darohar told him that they might be regarded as his (Jaisiya's) mother and sisters; he might lift up his head and look. Jaisiya said, "I am originally a monk, and I do not look at any woman who is

[p.198]: a stranger. Darohar then excused him from looking, and praised his self-restraint and modesty. It is narrated, that when the women came round him, there was among them the sister of Darohar, whose name was Jankí, that is, beautiful, and she was lovely. She was a woman of royal descent, and possessed of great charms. She was elegant in stature as the juniper tree, generous in disposition, her words were like a string of pearls, her eyes handsome, and her cheeks like tulips or rubies. When she saw him, love for Jaisiya took hold of her heart. She looked at him every moment, and made love to him by her gestures. When Jaisiya went away, Jankí, the sister of Darohar, arose and went to her house. She had a litter prepared, in which she seated herself, and ordering her maid-servants to carry it, she proceeded to Jaisiya's dwelling. There she alighted from the litter and went in. Jaisiya had gone to sleep, but when the smell of wine, which proceeded from Jankí, penetrated his brain, he awoke, and saw Jankí sitting beside him. He rose up and said, "Princess, what has brought you here? What time is this for you to come here?" She replied, "Foolish fellow; there is no necessity to ask me about this. Would a young and beautiful woman come in the very dark of the night to visit a prince like you; would she rouse him from sweet slumber, and wish to sleep with him, but for one purpose; particularly a beauty like me, who has seduced a world with her blandishments and coquetry, and made princes mad with desire? You must know well and fully my object, for how can it remain concealed from you? Take advantage of this success till morning." Jaisiya said, "Princess, I cannot consort with any other woman than my own lawful and wedded wife; nor ought such a thing to be done by me, because I am a Brahman, a monk, and a continent person, and this act is not worthy of great, learned, and pious men. Beware lest you defile me with so great a crime." Although she importuned him much, he would not accede to her wishes, and struck the hand of denial on the tablet of her breast.

Jankí is disappointed by Jaisiya.

When Jankí was disappointed, she said, "Jaisiya, you have deprived me of the delights and raptures I anticipated. Now have I determined to destroy you, and to make myself the food of fire." She then retired to her house, and covered herself with her clothes. Having closed the door, she tossed about on her bed till day-break, and was uttering these couplets:-"Your love and your charms have burnt my heart." "The light of your beauty has illumined my soul." "Give me justice or I will weep." "I will burn myself, you, and the city together." The next day, although the king of the stars had raised his head from the bastions of the heavens, and tore up the coverlid of darkness, Jankí was still asleep. The fumes of wine and the effects of separation mingled together, and she remained lying till late, with her head covered with her bedclothes. King Darohar would take no breakfast, and drink no wine, till his sister Jankí showed her face. He always paid her much honour and respect. So he rose and went to his sister's apartments, and found her overwhelmed with care and melancholy. He said, "O, sister! O princess, what has come over thee, that thy tulip-coloured face is changed and turned pale?" Jankí replied, "Prince, what stronger reason can there be than this-That fool of Sind surely saw me in the gay assembly. Last night he came to my house, and called me to him. He wanted to stain the skirt of my continence and purity, which has never been polluted with the dirt of vice, and to contaminate my pious mind and pure person with the foulness of his debauchery, and so bring my virgin modesty to shame, The king must exact justice for me from him, so that no reckless fellow may hereafter attempt such perfidy and violence." The fire of anger blazed out in Darohar, but he told his sister that Jaisiya was their guest, and moreover a monk and a Brahman, who was connected with them. He had come to ask assistance; and was accompanied by one thousand warriors. He could not be killed. He was not to be destroyed by force; "but," said he, "I will contrive some plot to slay him. Arise and take your morning meal. As no crime has been committed no open threats can be made."

Darohar contemplates treacherous measures against Jaisiya.

Darohar came to his palace, called two armed blacks, one of whom was named Kabír Bhadr,1 and the other Bhaiú, and thus

[p.200]: addressed them, "I will invite Jaisiya to-day after breakfast, and entertain him; after taking dinner, I will drink wine in a private apartment, and play chess with him. You must both be ready with your arms. When I say shah mát (check-mate), do you draw your swords and kill him." A man of Sind, who had been one of the servants of Dáhir and was on terms of friendship with an attendant of Darohar, became acquainted with this scheme, and informed Jaisiya of it. When at the time of dinner, an officer of Darohar came to call Jaisiya, he said to his thákurs who were in command of his soldiers, "Oh Gúrsia1 and Súrsia, I am going to dine with King Darohar. So you prepare your arms and go in with me. When I am playing chess with Darohar do you stand close behind him, and be careful that no evil eye may fall on me, or any treacherous act be done or contrived.

Jaisiya comes with his two armed men.

Accordingly they went to the court, and as Darohar had omitted to order that no other person except Jaisiya should be allowed to come in, both the attendants went in and stood behind Darohar without his observing them. When they had finished the game of chess, Darohar raised his head, in order to make the signal to his men, but he saw that two armed men were standing ready near him. He was disappointed, and said, "It is not checkmate, that sheep must not be slain." Jaisiya knew that this was the signal, so he arose and went to his house and ordered his horses to be prepared. He bathed, put on his arms, got his troops ready, and ordered them to mount. Darohar sent an officer to see what Jaisiya was doing. He returned, and said, "May God's blessing be upon that man. His nature is adorned with the ornaments of temperance. He is of noble extraction, and his works are not evil. He always strives to preserve his purity and holiness in the fear of God." It is narrated that when Jaisiya had bathed, taken food, and put on his arms, he loaded the baggage on camels, and passing under the palace of Darohar, left him without paying him a visit and saying farewell; but he sent to inform him of his departure, and marched away with all his relations and dependants. He

[p.201]: travelled till he reached the land of Kassa,1 on the borders of Jalandhar. The Chief of it was named Balhará, and the women of the country called him Ástán Sháh.1 He remained there till the succession of the Khiláfat devolved upon 'Umar 'Abdu-l Azíz, when 'Amrú, son of Musallam, by the orders of the government, went to that country and subjugated it.

An account of the courage of Jaisiya, and the reason why he was so called.

It was related by some Brahmans of Alor that Jaisiya, son of Dáhir, was unequalled in bravery and wisdom. The story of his birth runs, that one day Dáhir Ráí went hunting with all the animals and all the equipments of the chase. When the dogs and leopards and lynxes were set free to chase the deer, and the falcons and hawks were flying in the air, a roaring lion (sher) came forth, and terror and alarm broke out among the people and the hunters. Dáhir alighted from his horse, and went on foot to oppose the lion, which also prepared for fight. Dáhir wrapped a sheet round his hand which he put into the beast's mouth, then raised his sword, and cut off two of his legs. He then drew out his hand and thrust his sword into the belly and ripped up the animal so that it fell down. Those men who had fled for fear came home, and told the Rání that Dáhir Ráí was fighting with a lion. The wife of Dáhir was big with child when she heard this news, and from the great love she bore her husband she fell and swooned away. Before Dáhir had returned, the soul of his wife had departed from her body through fright. Dáhir came and found her dead, but the child was moving in the womb, so he ordered her to be cut open, and the child was taken out alive, and given over to the charge of a nurse. The child was therefore called Jaisiya, that is, "al muzaffar bi-l asad," or in Persian, sher-firoz, "lion-conqueror."3

Appointment of Rawáh, son of Asad, who was the issue of the daughter of Ahnak, son of Kais.

[p.202]: The dressers of this bride, and the embellishers of this garden have thus heard from 'Alí bin Muhammad bin Salmá bin Muhárib and 'Abdu-r Rahmán, son of 'Abdariu-s Salítí, that when Muhammad Kásim had subjugated the proud people of Alor, the seat of government, and all the people had submitted to him and obeyed his rule, he appointed Rawáh, son of Asad, who on his mother's side was one of the grandsons of Ahnak, son of Kais, to the chiefship of Alor and entrusted the matters connected with the law and religion to Sadru-l Imám al Ajall al 'Alim Burhánu-l Millat wau-d Dín Saifu-s Sunnat wa Najmu-sh Sharí'at, that is, to Músá bin Ya'kúb bin Táí bin Muhammad bin Shaibán bin 'Usmán Sakifí. He ordered them to comfort the subjects, and leave not the words "Inculcate good works and prohibit bad ones," to become a dead letter. He gave them both advice as to their treatment of the people, and leaving them entire power, he then marched from that place and journeyed till he arrived at the fort of Yábíba,1 on the south bank of the Bíás. It was an old fort, and the chief of it was Kaksa.

Kaksa is vanquished and comes to Muhammad Kásim.1

Kaksa, son of Chandar, son of Siláíj, was cousin of Dáhir, son of Chach, and was present in the battle which Dáhir fought; but having fled he had come to this fort in wretched plight, and had taken up his abode in it. When the Muhammadan army arrived, a contribution and hostages were sent, and the chiefs and nobles went forth and made submission. Muhammad Kásim showed them kindness, and granted them suitable rich khil'ats, and asked them whether Kaksa belonged to the family (ahl) of Alor, "for they are all wise, learned, trustworthy, and honest. They are famous for their integrity and honesty." He added, "Protection is given him, so that he may come with hearty confidence and hopes of future favour: for he shall be made counsellor

[p.203]: in all affairs, and I will entrust him with the duties of the Wazárat." The minister Kaksa was a learned man and a philosopher of Hind. When he came to transact business, Muhammad Kásim used to make him sit before the throne and then consulted him, and Kaksa took precedence in the army before all the nobles and commanders. He collected the revenue of the country, and the treasure was placed under his seal. He assisted Muhammad Kásim in all his undertakings, and was called by the title of Mubárak Mushír, "prosperous counsellor."

Conquest of Sikka Multán1 by Muhammad Kasim

When he had settled affairs with Kaksa, he left the fort, crossed the Bíás, and reached the stronghold of Askalanda,2 the people of which, being informed of the arrival of the Arab army, came out to fight. Ráwa,3 son of 'Amíratu-t Táfí, and Kaksa headed the advanced army and commenced battle. Very obstinate engagements ensued, so that on both sides streams of blood flowed. The Arabs at the time of their prayers repeated "Glorious God" with a loud voice, and renewed the attack. The idolaters were defeated, and threw themselves into the fort. They began to shoot arrows and fling stones from the mangonels on the walls. The battle continued for seven days, and the nephew of the chief of Multán, who was in the fort of that city, made such attacks that the army began to be distressed for provisions; but at last the chief of Askalanda4 came out in the night time, and threw himself into the fort of Sikka, which is a large fort on the south bank of the Ráví. When their chief had gone away, all the people, the artizans, and merchants sent a message to say that they were subjects, and now that their chief had fled, they solicited protection from Muhammad Kásim. He granted this request of the merchants, artizans, and agriculturists; but he went into the fort, killed four thousand fighting men with his bloody sword, and sent their families into slavery,

[p.204]: He appointed as governor of the fort 'Atbá son of Salma Tamímí and himself with the army proceeded towards Sikka Multán. It was a fort on the south bank of the Ráví, and Bajhrá Tákí, grandson of Bajhrá (daughter's son), was in it.1 When he received the intelligence he commenced operations. Every day, when the army of the Arabs advanced towards the fort, the enemy came out and fought, and for seventeen days they maintained a fierce conflict. From among the most distinguished officers (of Muhammad Kásim) twenty-five were killed, and two hundred and fifteen other warriors of Islám were slain. Bajhrá passed over the Ráví and went into Multán. In consequence of the death of his friends, Muhammad Kásim had sworn to destroy the fort, so he ordered his men to pillage2 the whole city. He then crossed over towards Multán, at the ferry below the city,3 and Bajhrá came out to take the field.

Muhammad Kásim fights with the ferry-men.

That day the battle raged from morning till sun-set, and when the world, like a day labourer, covered itself with the blanket of darkness, and the king of the heavenly host covered himself with the veil of concealment, all retired to their tents. The next day, when the morning dawned from the horizon, and the earth was illumined, fighting again commenced, and many men were slain on both sides; but the victory remained still undecided. For a space of two months mangonels and ghazraks4 were used, and stones and arrows were thrown from the walls of the fort. At last provisions became exceedingly scarce in the camp, and the price even of an ass's head was raised to five hundred dirams. When the chief Gúrsiya, son of Chandar, nephew of Dáhir, saw that the Arabs were noway disheartened, but on the contrary were confident, and that he had no prospect of relief, he went to wait on the king of Kashmír. The next day, when the Arabs reached the fort, and the fight commenced,

[p.205]: no place was found suitable for digging a mine until a person came out of the fort, and sued for mercy. Muhammad Kásim gave him protection, and he pointed out a place towards the north on the banks of a river.1 A mine was dug, and in two or three days the walls fell down, and the fort was taken. Six thousand warriors were put to death, and all their relations and dependants were taken as slaves. Protection was given to the merchants, artizans, and the agriculturists. Muhammad Kásim said the booty ought to be sent to the treasury of the Khalífa; but as the soldiers have taken so much pains, have suffered so many hardships, have hazarded their lives, and have been so long a time employed in digging the mine and carrying on the war, and as the fort is now taken, it is proper that the booty should be divided, and their dues given to the soldiers.

Division of Plunder

Then all the great and principal inhabitants of the city assembled together, and silver to the weight of sixty thousand dirams was distributed, and every horseman got a share of four hundred dirams weight. After this, Muhammad Kásim said that some plan should be devised for realizing the money to be sent to the Khalífa. He was pondering upon this, and was discoursing on the subject, when suddenly a Brahman came and said, "Heathenism is now at an end, the temples are thrown down, the world has received the light of Islám, and mosques are built instead of idol temples. I have heard from the elders of Multán that in ancient times there was a chief in this city whose name was Jíbawín,2 and who was a descendant of the Ráí of Kashmír. He was a Brahman and a monk, he strictly followed his religion, and always occupied his time in worshipping idols. When his treasure exceeded all limit and computation, he made a reservoir on the eastern side of Multán, which was a hundred yards square. In the middle of it he built a temple fifty yards square, and he made there a chamber in which he concealed forty copper jars each of

[p.206]: which was filled with African gold dust. A treasure of three hundred and thirty mans of gold was buried there. Over it there is a temple in which there is an idol made of red gold, and trees are planted round the reservoir." It is related by historians, on the authority of 'Alí bin Muhammad who had heard it from Abú Muhammad Hindúí that Muhammad Kásim arose and with his counsellors, guards and attendants, went to the temple. He saw there an idol made of gold, and its two eyes were bright red rubies.

Reflection of Muhammad Kásim.

Muhammad Kásim thought it might perhaps be a man, so he drew his sword to strike it; but the Brahman said, "O just commander, this is the image which was made by Jíbawín,1 king of Multán, who concealed the treasure here and departed. Muhammad Kásim ordered the idol to be taken up. Two hundred and thirty mans of gold were obtained, and forty jars filled with gold dust. They were weighed and the sum of thirteen thousand and two hundred mans weight of gold was taken out. This gold and the image were brought to the treasury together with the gems and pearls and treasure which were obtained from the plunder of the city of Multán.

It is said by Abú-l Hasan Hamadání, who had heard it from Kharím son of 'Umar, that the same day on which the temple was dug up and the treasure taken out, a letter came from Hajjáj Yúsuf to this effect:-"My nephew, I had agreed and pledged myself, at the time you marched with the army, to repay the whole expense incurred by the public treasury in fitting out the expedition, to the Khalífa Walíd bin 'Abdu-l Malik bin Marwán, and it is incumbent on me to do so. Now the accounts of the money due have been examined and checked, and it is found that sixty thousand dirams in pure silver have been expended for Muhammad Kásim, and up to this date there has been received in cash, goods, and stuffs, altogether one hundred and twenty thousand dirams weight.2 Wherever there is an ancient

[p.207]: place or famous town or city, mosques and pulpits should be erected there; and the khutba should be read, and the coin struck in the name of this government. And as you have accomplished so much with this army by your good fortune, and by seizing fitting opportunities, so be assured that to whatever place of the infidels you proceed it shall be conquered."

Muhammad Kásim makes terms with the people of Multán.

When Muhammad Kásim had settled terms with the principal inhabitants of the city of Multán he erected a Jama' masjid and minarets, and he appointed Amír Dáúd Nasr son of Walíd 'Ummání its governor. He left Kharím son of 'Abdu-l Malik Tamím in the fort of Bramhapúr, on the banks of the Jhailam, which was called Sobúr (Shore?).1 Akrama, son of Ríhán Shámí was appointed governor of the territory around Multán, and Ahmad son of Haríma son of 'Atba Madaní was appointed governor of the forts of Ajtahád and Karúr.2 He despatched the treasure in boats to be carried to Debál3 and paid into the treasury of the capital. He himself stayed in Multán, and about fifty thousand horsemen, with munitions of war, were under his command.

Abu Hakím is sent at the head of ten thousand horse towards Kanauj.

He then sent Abú Hakím Shaibání at the head of ten thousand horse towards Kanauj, to convey a letter from the Khalífa, and with instructions to invite the Chief to embrace Muhammadanism, to send tribute, and make his submission. He himself went with the army to the boundary of Kashmír, which was called the five rivers,4 where Chach, son of Siláíj, the father of Dáhir, had planted the fir and the poplar trees, and had marked the boundary. When he arrived there he renewed the mark of the boundary.

The army and Abú Hakím arrive at Údháfar.1

[p.208]: At this time the chief of Kanauj was the son of Jahtal Ráí. When the army reached as far as Údháfar, Abú Hakím Shaibání ordered Zaid, son of 'Amrú Kallábí, to be brought before him. He said, "Zaid, you must go on a mission to Ráí Har Chandar, son of Jahtal, and deliver the mandate for his submission to Islám, and say that from the ocean to the boundary of Kashmír all kings and chiefs have acknowledged the power and authority of the Muhammadans, and have made their submission to Amír 'Imádu-d Dín, general of the Arab army, and persecutor of the infidels. That some have embraced Islám, and others have agreed to send tribute to the treasury of the Khalífa."

Answer of Ráí Har Chandar of Kanauj :

Ráí Har Chandar replied, "This country for about one thousand six hundred years has been under our rule and governance. During our sovereignty no enemy has ever dared to encroach upon our boundary, nor has any one ventured to oppose us, or to lay hands upon our territory. What fear have I of you that you should revolve such propositions and absurdities in your mind. It is not proper to send an envoy to prison, otherwise, for this speech and for this impossible claim you would deserve such treatment. Other enemies and princes may listen to you, but not I.2 Now go back to your master, and tell him that we must fight against each other in order that our strength and might may be tried, and that either I may conquer or be conquered by you. When the superiority of one side or the other in warfare and courage shall be seen, then peace or war shall be determined on." When the message and letter of Ráí Har Chandar was delivered to Muhammad Kásim, he took the advice of all the chiefs, nobles, commanders, and warriors, and said, "Up to this time, by the favour of God, and the assistance of the heavens, the Ráís of Hind have been defeated and frustrated, and victory has declared in favour of Islám. To day we have come to encounter this cursed infidel who is puffed up with his army and elephants

[p.209]: With the power and assistance of God, it behoves you to exert yourselves that we may subdue him, and be victorious and successful over him." All were ready to fight against Ráí Har Chandar,1 and united together, and urged Muhammad Kásim to declare war.

Orders from the Capital to Muhammad Kásim and his death

The next day, when the king of the heavenly host showed his face to the world from behind the veil of night, a dromedary rider with orders from the seat of government arrived. Muhammad, son of 'Alí Abú-l Hasan Hamadání says, that when Ráí Dáhir was killed, his two virgin daughters were seized in his palace, and Muhammad Kásim had sent them to Baghdád under the care of his negro slaves. The Khalífa of the time sent them into his harem to be taken care of for a few days till they were fit to be presented to him. After some time, the remembrance of them recurred to the noble mind of the Khalífa, and he ordered them both to be brought before him at night. Walíd 'Abdu-l Malik told the interpreter to inquire from them which of them was the eldest, that he might retain her by him, and call the other sister at another time. The interpreter first asked their names. The eldest said, "My name is Suryádeo," and the youngest replied, "my name is Parmaldeo." He called the eldest to him, and the youngest he sent back to be taken care of. When he had made the former sit down, and she uncovered her face, the Khalífa of the time looked at her, and was enamoured of her surpassing beauty and charms. Her powerful glances robbed his heart of patience. He laid his hand upon Suryádeo and drew her towards him. But Suryádeo stood up, and said, "Long live the king! I am not worthy the king's bed, because the just Commander 'Imádu-d-Dín Muhammad Kásim kept us three days near himself before he sent us to the royal residence. Perhaps it is a custom among you; but such ignominy should not be suffered by kings." The Khalífa was overwhelmed with love, and the reins of patience had fallen from his hand. Through indignation he could not stop to scrutinize the matter. He asked for ink and paper, and commenced to write a letter with his own hand, commanding that at whatever place Muhammad Kásim had arrived, he should suffer himself to be sewed up in a hide and sent to the capital.

Muhammad Kásim reaches Údháfar, and receives the order from the Khalífa's capital.

[p.210]: When Muhammad Kásim received the letter at Údháfar, he gave the order to his people and they sewed him up in a hide, put him in a chest, and sent him back. Muhammad Kásim thus delivered his soul to God. The officers who were appointed to the different places remained at their stations, while he was taken in the chest to the Khalífa of the time. The private chamberlain reported to Walíd 'Abdu-l-Malik, son of Marwán, that Muhammad Kásim Sakifí had been brought to the capital. The Khalífa asked whether he was alive or dead. It was replied, "May the Khalífa's life, prosperity, and honour be prolonged to eternity. When the royal mandates were received in the city of Údhápúr,1 Muhammad Kásim immediately, according to the orders, had himself sewed up in a raw hide, and after two days delivered his soul to God and went to the eternal world. The authorities whom he had placed at different stations maintain the country in their possession, the Khutba continues to be read in the name of the Khalífa, and they use their best endeavours to establish their supremacy."

The Khalífa opens the chest:

The Khalífa then opened the chest and called the girls into his presence. He had a green bunch of myrtle in his hand, and pointing with it towards the face of the corpse, said, "See, my daughters, how my commands which are sent to my agents are observed and obeyed by all. When these my orders reached Kanauj, he sacrificed his precious life at my command."

The address of Jankí,2 daughter of Dáhir, to Khalífa 'Abdu-l Malik, son of Marwán.

Then the virtuous Jankí put off the veil from her face, placed her head on the ground, and said, "May the king live long, may his prosperity and glory increase for many years; and may he be

[p.211]: adorned with perfect wisdom. It is proper that a king should test with the touchstone of reason and weigh in his mind whatever he hears from friend or foe, and when it is found to be true and indubitable, then orders compatible with justice should be given. By so doing he will not fall under the wrath of God, nor be contemned by the tongue of man. Your orders have been obeyed, but your gracious mind is wanting in reason and judgment. Muhammad Kásim respected our honour, and behaved like a brother or son to us, and he never touched us, your slaves, with a licentious hand. But he had killed the king of Hind and Sind, he had destroyed the dominion of our forefathers, and he had degraded us from the dignity of royalty to a state of slavery, therefore, to retaliate and to revenge these injuries, we uttered a falsehood before the Khalífa, and our object has been fulfilled. Through this fabrication and deceit have we taken our revenge. Had the Khalífa not passed such peremptory orders; had he not lost his reason through the violence of his passion, and had he considered it proper to investigate the matter, he would not have subjected himself to this repentance and reproach; and had Muhammad Kásim, assisted by his wisdom, come to within one day's journey from this place, and then have put himself into a hide, he would have been liberated after inquiry, and not have died." The Khalífa was very sorry at this explanation, and from excess of regret he bit the back of his hand.

Jankí again addresses the Khalífa.

Jankí again opened her lips and looked at the Khalífa. She perceived that his anger was much excited, and she said, "The king has committed a very grievous mistake, for he ought not, on account of two slave girls, to have destroyed a person who had taken captive a hundred thousand modest women like us, who had brought down seventy chiefs who ruled over Hind and Sind from their thrones to their coffins; and who instead of temples had erected mosques, pulpits, and minarets. If Muhammad Kásim had been guilty of any little neglect or impropriety, he ought not to have been destroyed on the mere word of a designing person." The Khalífa ordered both the sisters to be enclosed between walls. From that time to this day the flags of Islám have been more and more exalted every day, and are still advancing.

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