|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)|
Shymkent was founded in the 12th century as a caravanserai to protect the Silk Road town of Sayram, 10 km to the east. Shymkent grew as a market center for trade between Turkic nomads and the settled Sogdians. It was destroyed several times: by Genghis Khan, soldiers from the southern Khanates, and by nomad attacks. Once part of the Khanate of Kokand, it became part of the Emirate of Bukhara.
- Peoples of central Asia. By Lawrence Krader. Published by Indiana University, 1971
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