|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)|
- Chitradurga (चित्रदुर्ग)
- Chitaladurga (चीतलदुर्ग) (मैसूर) (AS, p.338)
Chitradurga gets its name from Chitrakaldurga (or Picturesque castle), an umbrella-shaped lofty hill found here. Chitradurga was also known by the names Chitradurg, Chitrakaladurga, Chittaldurg. Chittaldrug (or Chitaldrug) was the official name used during the British rule. Also known as Farkhabad during Tippu sultan rule.
Chitradurga features bold rock hills and picturesque valleys, huge towering boulders in numerous shapes. It is known as the "stone fortress" (Kallina Kote). According to the epic Mahabharatha, it is confirmed about this story that a man-eating Rakshasa named Hidimba and his sister Hidimbi lived on the hill. Hidimba was a source of terror to everyone around while Hidimbi was a peace-loving rakshasa. When the Pandavas came with their mother Kunti in the course of their exile, Bhima had a duel with Hidimba in which Hidimba was killed. Thereafter Bhima married Hidimbi and they had a son named Ghatotkacha who had magical powers. Legend has it the boulders were part of the arsenal used during that duel. In fact, the boulders on which major part of the city rests belong to the oldest rock formation in the country.
Timmana Nayaka, a chieftain under the Vijayanagar Empire, rose to the rank of governor of Chitradurga as a reward from the Vijayanagara ruler, for his excellence in military services,. This was the beginning of the rule of the Nayakas of Chitradurga. His son Obana Nayaka is known by the name Madakari Nayaka (1588 CE). Madakari Nayaka's son Kasturi Rangappa (1602) succeeded him and consolidated the kingdom to rule peacefully. As he had no heirs to succeed him, his adopted son, the apparent heir was enthroned but was killed in few months by the Dalavayis.
Chikkanna Nayaka (1676), the brother of Madakari Nayaka II sat on the throne, and his brother succeeded him with the title Madakari Nayaka III in 1686. The unwillingness of Dalawayis to accept Madakari Nayaka III's rule gave an opportunity to one of their distant relatives, Bharamappa Nayaka to ascend the throne in 1689. He is known as the greatest of the Nayaka rulers. The subjects of Chitradurga did not experience a good reign of the successive rulers as they ruled on the throne for very brief periods. The Hiri Madakari Nayaka IV (1721), Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka II (1748), Madakari Nayaka V (1758) ruled this area but there is not much to mention of their rule.
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...चीतलदुर्ग (AS, p.338) नामक नगर मैसूर, कर्नाटक में छोटी पहाड़ियों की तलहटी में बसा हुआ है। इन पहाड़ियों पर अनेक दुर्ग तथा अन्य प्राचीन इमारतें हैं, जो अधिकांश में हैदर अली और उसके पुत्र टीपू सुल्तान द्वारा 18वीं शती में बनवाईं गईं थीं।
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Chitaldrug" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 247.
- bout Chitradurga". Chitradurga City Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 18 February 2006. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- Suryanath U. Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka, Bangalore, 2001
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.338