Czech Republic

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Map of Czech Republic

Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Prague, the capital, is the largest city. The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Moravia, and Czech Silesia.

Location

It is bordered by Germany to the northwest and west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

Origin of name

  • The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii".
  • The current name comes from the endonym Čech, borrowed through Polish and spelt accordingly.[1][2] The name comes from the Slavic tribe (Czechs, Czech: Čechové) and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain. The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people; kinsman", thus making it cognate to the Czech word člověk (a person).

History

The Czech state, known in English as Bohemia until the early 20th century, was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslids.

In 1004, the duchy was formally recognized as a part of the Holy Roman Empire,[3][4] became the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1212 which reached its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. In the Hussite wars of the 15th century, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five crusades from the Catholic Church.

References

  1. "Oxford English Dictionary". Askoxford.com.
  2. Czech. CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition.
  3. Mlsna, Petr; Šlehofer, F.; Urban, D. (2010). "The Path of Czech Constitutionality". 1st edition (in : (Bilingual) – Czech, English). Praha: Úřad Vlády České Republiky (The Office of the Government of the Czech Republic). pp. 10–11.
  4. Čumlivski, Denko (2012). "800 let Zlaté buly sicilské" (in Czech). National Archives of the Czech Republic (Národní Archiv České Republiky).