|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)|
Gagraun is situated about 10 km north of Jhalawar city.
The foundation of Gagron Fort was laid in 7th century and completed by 14th century. It is surrounded on three sides by water of Ahu and Kali Sindh Rivers.
|Inscription of Khichi Chohans 1600 AD|
[p.676]: Mehraj Kheechee's charger, as he sprang upon the Islamite invaders. There are many cenotaphs to the memory of the slain, and several small shrines to Siva and his consort, in one of which I found an inscription not only recording the name of Mehraj, but the curious fact that four generations were present at the consecration of one to Siva. It ran thus:
Gagron fort was established in 1195 A.D. by King Bijaldev of the Parmara Empire. In accordance with the legends, it is believed that this place was also called as “Galkangiri” as the powerful sagacious “Garg Rishi” accomplished immense reparation and meditation in this fort.
In the past, it was believed that King Alaudin Khilji invaded Gagron in 1300 A.D. However, the fort was conquered by King Jaitsi. Later, Raja Prataprao, the successor of King Jaitsi urbanized Gagron as one of the wealthiest areas in Malwar even before cities such as, Bundi, Jaipur and Kota emerged. While he denounced everything and wished to attain nirvana later in his life, Raja Prataprao relinquished the throne as he moved towards religious studies and became celebrated by the name “Saint Pipa”. He attained the merit of being one among the twelve sages of the “Ramanand Sampradaiya”.
In fact, there is a monastery in Dwarka (Gujarat) in his name. The monastery is known as Pipa Math.
Once again, Gagron was invaded by Sultan Hoshanshah of Malwawho. He was the monarch of Mandu region in 14th century. Raja Achaldas Khinchi, the emperor of Gagron exhibited massive courageousness and gallantry ultimately attained martyrdom. They tried hard not to make their region fall under the control of Sultans. They underwent Jauhar when they heard that Sultan has overpowered and stepped inside the Gagron fort.
Even now, the Jauhar Kund is placed within the Fort compound. On noticing the martyrdom of Raja Achaldas, Sultan Hoshangshah was deeply inspired. In order to tribute the valor of Raja Achaldas, Sultan made the personal room of the Raja into a safe haven. Later, Raja Palhandev, a successor of Raja Achaladas Khinchi, conquered Gagron as a symbol of retribution from the Malwa Sultans.
For a second time, the fort was under the Rajput invasion till 1532 A.D until Bhahdurshah, the Sultan of Gujarat invaded it. Consequently, Gagron fort was captured from the influence of Mughal emperors’ hands in 15th century. At last, in 16th century, the fort was conquered by Raja Mukund Singh of Kota. From that point onwards, Gagron was a division of the Kota region until the year 1948. 
It is an example of a hill and water fort.
In 2013, at the 37th session of the World Heritage Committee held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Gagron Fort, along with 5 other forts of Rajasthan, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the group Hill Forts of Rajasthan.
Description by James Tod
Naraynpoor, 13th December, 1821. eleven miles. — Marched at daybreak, and about a coss north of the city ascended the natural boundary of Harouti and Malwa ; at the point of ascent was Gondore, formerly in the appanage of the Ghatti-Rao (lord of the pass), one of the legendary heroes of past days ; and half a coss further was the point of descent into the Antri, or ' valley,' through which our course lay due north. In front, to the north-west, Gagron, on the opposite range, was just visible through the gloom ; while the yet more
[p.674]: ancient Mhow, the first capital of the Kheechees, was pointed out five coss to the eastward. I felt most anxious to visit this city, celebrated in the traditions of Central India, and containing in itself and all around much that was worthy of notice. But time pressed; so we continued our route over the path trodden by the army of Allaudin Khilji when he besieged Achildas in Gagron. The valley was full three miles wide, the soil fertile, and the scenery highly picturesque. The forest on each side echoed with the screams of the peacock, the calls of the partridge, and the note of the jungle-cock, who was crowing his matins as the sun gladdened his retreat It was this antri, or valley, that the Regent selected for his chhaoni, or ' fixed camp,' where he has resided for the last thirty years. It had at length attained the importance of a town, having spacious streets and well-built houses, and the materials for a circumvallation were rapidly accumulating : but there is little chance of his living to see it finished. The site is admirably chosen, upon the banks of the Amjer, and midway between the castle of Gagron and Jhalra-patan.
A snort distance to the west of the Regent's camp, is the Pindari- ka-chhaonni, where the sons of Kureem Khan, the chief leader of those hordes, resided ; for in these days of strife, the old Regent would have allied himself with Satan, if he had led a horse of plunderers. I was greatly amused to see in this camp, also assuming a permanent shape, the commencement of an Idgah, or ' place of prayer;' for the villains, while they robbed and murdered even defenceless woman. prayed five times a day !
We crossed the confluent streams of the Aou and Amjar, which , flowing through the plains of Malwa, have forced their way through the exterior chain into the antri of Gagron, pass under its western face, dividing it from the town, and then join the Kali Sindh.
Until you approach close to Gagron, its town and castle appear united, and present a bold and striking object; and it is only on mounting the ridge that one perceives the strength of this position.
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...गागरोण (AS, 284) राजस्थान के ऐतिहासिक स्थानों में से एक है। भारतीय इतिहास में यह स्थान प्रमुख स्थान रखता था। चौहान नरेशों के बनवाए हुए दुर्ग के लिए यह स्थान प्रसिद्ध है। गागरोण का दुर्ग दक्षिण-पूर्वी राजस्थान का सबसे पुराना और ख़ास दुर्ग है।
गणपति चन्द्र गुप्त ने 'हिंदी साहित्य का वैज्ञानिक इतिहास' में गागरोणगढ का उल्लेख किया है. गाडण शिवदास कृत 'अचल दास खिची री वचनिका' में मांडू के बादशाह होशंग गौरी और गागरोणगढ के राजा अचल दास खिची के युद्ध का वर्णन किया है. यह युद्ध सन 1433 के लगभग हुआ था.
रणकपुर प्रशस्ति 1439 ई. में कुंभा का वर्णन किया है और उसके विरुदों और विजयों का वर्णन किया है. इसमें गागरोण भी सम्मिलित है.
- Rajasthan Tourist Guide & Map, Indian Map Service, Jodhpur,p.48
- History and study of the Jats
- Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, etc. : Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998 p. 235
- James Todd Annals/Personal Narrative, Vol, II, p.676
- Hill Forts of Rajasthan
- Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Personal Narrative, p.673-674
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.284
- Hindi Sahitya Ka Vagayanik Itihas-v-2 By Ganpatichandra Gupt p. 371