|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)|
Variants of name
- Gambhira (गम्भीर) - a place name mentioned by Panini (4.2.75)
- Gambhira - Name of Shiva
- Gambhīra Yaksha - Buddhist King
- Gambhir River
- Gambhira River
- Gambhiriya - village in tahsil Kurwai of district Vidisha in Madhya Pradesh.
Mention by Panini
Restoration of Buddhism: K. Buddha Yaksha: After (Gomi-shanda the Wicked) the king according to the pious tradition (shruta) will be Buddha-paksha (read Yaksha ). He, a Maha-Yaksha, very charitable, will be undoubtedly fond of Buddhism (Buddhānām śāsane ratah), in that 'low age (538-539). The king, extremely fond of Buddha's teaching will build in many places monasteries, gardens, chaityas, Buddha's images, stepped wells, wells, etc. He will die full of age (gatā-yusha, 541). T. 542 a.
Gambhīra Yaksha: His son will be king, possessed of a big army and great power the famous Gambhira Yaksha over the whole land (544). He will be self possessed. That king, the Mahādyuti, (bhupatih sa mahadyutih) , will build in many places monasteries, rest-houses, chaityas, stepped wells (545-546). He practised mantra of Manjughosha of 16 syllables and became very prosperous (546).
Who were the Yaksha dynasty of Buddhapaksha and Gambhira yaksha, father and son, who restored Buddhism in India after the Sunga period? The answer is given by the known chronology and history. After the Sunga age it was under the Early Kushans the Kadphises that Buddhism was re-established. The AMMK itself gives us data for this identification. It describes Gambhira as an emperor (pri-thivimakhiloditam, 544, p. 621 ) . It describes him by a significant term mahadyuti (bhupatih sa mahadyutih) . 'He the Mahadyuti king' and his father are called Yaksha and Mahayaksha, by which the Mongolian type is intended. See AMMK, XXII (p. 2M) - Yakshaṇāṃtu tathā vāchā uttarāṃdiśi ye narā. Taranatha says that the first of these kings had
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enlisted the sympathy of the emperor of China on his side. This was true of Kadphises I. The name Gambhira is either a translation of some title of Kadphises II or an attempt to Sanskritize an early edition of the Indian rendering of his name, for instance, Gabhi from Kaphi. Buddha-pakha (if the reading is not Buddha yakha) would mean 'the king who took up the cause of the Buddha.'
These two kings are supposed to be kings or rather emperors of Madhyadesa, as they have been given in that imperial list as the last dynasty. Their time is again indicated by (s-54) where Buddha-paksha is the patron of Asvaghosha. It is significant that Kanishka is denoted in the AMMK as Turushka (s-14) and a ruler of the North, rather Central Asia and Kashmir. Asvaghosha is given as arising a generation or so before him.
- Gambhira River - mentioned in Ch.28 in Sri Lanka
- Gambhira River - mentioned in Book VIII (i) p.128 in Kashmira near Avantipur.
- Gambhir River - The main tributaries of Shipra are Khan and Gambhir.
- Gambhir River (Karauli,Bharatpur,Chittorgarh, Dholpur, Karauli, Sawai Madhopur: Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh)