Gaina

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Dr C.B. Gaina

Gaina (गैना) Gaina (गैणा)[1] Gainan (गैणां) Gana (गणा) Gainan (गैनां/गैणां) Gena (गेना)[2] Gaindhar (गैन्धर), Gaindhala (गैन्धल) Gaindhu (गैन्धु)/ Gaindha (गैन्धा)/Gandhara (गन्धरा)/Gaindhrawal (गन्धरावाल)[3]is a gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan[4] and Madhya Pradesh.

Origin

A historian is of the view that they have originated from Gandhari (गाँधारी). [5]

Association with present Jat gotras

Ram Sarup Joon[6] writes ... Many names in the Genealogical tables of Yayati are associated with present Jat gotras. Some examples are Ushinar, Shishu Bhadra, Tak or Takshak, Satoti, Krishan or Kushana from the Yadhu branch; Dushyanta, Bharat, Bhardwaja, Hasti, Ajmirh, Kaushik, Gadh and Vishwamitra of Puru branch; Seth, Arh, Gandhi, Gaindhu and Gandhar of the Ardas branch.

History

Ram Swarup Joon[7] writes...Gandhara, son of Arh, founded Gandhar (Kandhar) and it was his capital. Gaindhu, Gaindha, Gaindhals and, Gandhara are gotras found amongst the Muslim Jats in large numbers in the Western Punjab. They all trace their origin from Quandhar. In Aligarh district are found some Hindus belonging to Gaindhar gotra. The ruins of one Gandhara fort were found in Jalalabad in Afghanistan. Gandhari, mother of Duryodhana, belonged to this dynasty. Kshatriyas of this clan have been mentioned in the Mahabharat. In Nowshera there is a barren area called Gandhara Mound. Among the Sikh Jats there are some that are called Gaindhrawal or Gaindhar


They have been mentioned in Shalya Parva, Mahabharata/Book IX Chapter 44. It mentions names of combatants armed with diverse weapons and clad in diverse kinds of robes and ornaments, who came to the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo. Gaina is mentioned in shloka 62 along with Banas. [8]

Gaina Rulers in Rajasthan

Gaina Jats are found in Marwar region of Rajasthan. According to Thakur Deshraj they were rulers of some republics in Didwana area in Nagaur. Probably a group of Johiya Jats was known as Gaina.

Bardu stone image inscriptions of Gaina Jats 1077, 1757 AD

There is a village called Bardu (बड़दू) in Didwana area in which a marble stone image inscription bears a portrait of Jat chieftain named Kisna Ram Gaina, who has been shown carrying weapons and side by side statue of his wife Sati Rani Rama. This inscription bears date as chait badi 6 samvat 1814 (1757 AD). They ruled here for many centuries. There is also a statue of a Gaina girl that bears date jeth badi samvat 1134 (1077 AD). She died here after his only son died in a war fighting bravely with muslim enemy from Sindh. For some reasons she stayed with in his father's house. [9]

राजस्थान में ११वीं शदी के लोकदेवता तेजाजी जब अपनी पत्नी को लाने ससुराल जाते हैं तो रास्ते में गैना तालाब पर पानी पीने का लेख आता है. तेजाजी नें रास और पुराणी फैंकदी और ससुराल जाने की कसम खा बैठे-

ऐ सम्हाळो थारी रास पुराणी भाभी म्हारा ओ
अब म्हे तो प्रभात जास्यां सासरॅ
हरिया-हरिया थे घास चरल्यो बैलां म्हारा ओ
पाणिड़ो पीवो नॅ थे गैण तळाव रो।

Villages founded by Gaina clan

Gaina in Afghanistan

Afghanistan was part of Bharat Varsh during Mahabharata period. The wife of Dhritrashtra, Gandhari, was from this area. Sometimes there were Indian rulers and sometimes there were Iranian rulers in Afghanistan. During Chandra Gupta’s period Saubhagsen was king in Afghanistan. Jat rulers till the invasion by Mughals ruled Kandahar. After the Mughal invasion some Jats moved to India and others were converted to Muslims. Jats from Afghanistan moved to India during the rule of Shalivahan. According to Henry Eliot, author of the book “Distribution of the races of north western provinces of India”, The Jats settled on the banks of Chenab River in Punjab, call there area as Herat because they believe that they had come from Herat of Iran. According to Thakur Deshraj the present Sistan was ruled by Jats and that area was known as Shivistan (place of Shivi gotra Jats). Cunningham states that Jats mixed with Rajputs and Afghans. Later these people were called Bloch.

According to Jat historian Ram Swarup Joon, "Afghanistan was called Upguanstan, Baluchijostan both of that are Sanskrit words. Both these countries were part of India till, as late as the Mogul period. King Seth of the Ardas branch of Yayati dynasty had a son called Arh, whose son Gandhara founded the town of Gandhar, now known as Kandhar. Gandhari, mother of Duryodhana was from this town. Jats have gotras of this dynasty named Gaina, Gaindhar, Gaindhala and Gaindhu.

Gaina in Goths

There is an article on Wikipedia that mentions about Saint Nilus, who was an officer at the Court of Constantinople, and is said to have been one of the Praetorian Prefects, who, according to Diocletian and Constantine's arrangement, were the chief functionaries and heads of all other governors for the four main divisions of the empire. Their authority, however, had already begun to decline by the end of the 4th century. He was known as a theologian, Biblical scholar and ascetic writer, so people of all kinds, from the emperor down, wrote to consult him. He kept up a correspondence with Gaina, a leader of the Goths, endeavouring to convert him from Arianism (Book I of his letters, nos. 70, 79, 114, 115, 116, 205, 206, 286); he denounced vigorously the persecution of St. John Chrysostom both to the Emperor Arcadius (ib., II, 265; III, 279) and to his courtiers (I, 309; III, 199).

गैना गोत्र का इतिहास

गैना (1077- 1747 ई.): इस वंश के जाट सरदार मारवाड़ में हैं। डीडवाने के परगने में इनका राज रहा था। संभवतया जोहिया जाटों का एक दल गैना नाम से मशहूर हुआ। गांव बडदू (परगना डीडवाना) में एक कुआं के चबूतरे पर मकराना पत्थर पर सरदार किशानारामजी गैना की एक तस्वीर है, उसमें वे सशस्त्र हैं। साथ ही उनकी सती रानी रामा की भी मूर्ति है। शिलालेख में संवत् 1814 (1747 ई.) चैत बदी 6 खुदा हुआ है। इनका यह राज कई शताब्दी पहले से चला आता था क्योंकि ऊपर नाम के गांव में संवत् 1134 (1077 ई.) जेठ बदी का एक शिलालेख व एक गैना गोत्रोत्पन्न लड़की की मूर्ति है। वह किन्हीं कारणों से अपने मायके में ही रहती थी। शत्रुओं से लड़ते हुए अपने इकलौते बेटे के मारे जाने के पश्चात् उसके शोक में मर गई थी। उसके लड़के ने बड़ी वीरता के साथ अपने देश की रक्षा उन शत्रुओं से की थी जो कि सिन्ध की ओर शासक करते थे और जाति के मुसलमान थे। (जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृ.608-9)

Distribution in Rajasthan

Locations in Jaipur city

Vaishali Nagar,

Villages in Jaipur district

Gaina (गैणा) Jats live in villages: Devkishanpura (1), Udaypuriya (3),

Gana (गणा) Jats live in villages: Ganeshpura (2), Udaypuriya (12),

Gena Jats live in villages: Udaypuriya (1),

Villages in Tonk district

Gaina Jats live in villages: Pasrotya (1),

Gana Jats live in villages: Banthali , Ganoli , Nayagaon Mukranya (1), Nimola (1), Pasrotya (4),

Villages in Ajmer district

Rampura Gaina,

Villages in Churu district

Bhagiwad, Chhapar Churu (3), Mundra (40), Sujangarh (6),

Villages in Barmer district

Genaniyon Ka Tala, Sahar,

Villages in Dausa district

Mariyada ,

Villages in Pali district

Ber Kalan, Kharadi,

Distribution in Madhya Pradesh

Villages in Ratlam district

Villages in Ratlam district with population of Gaina (गैणा) gotra are:

Banjali 1, Barbodana 4, Bardiya goyal 2, Bhansa dabar 1, Bodina 1, Chikliya 11, Dantodiya 4, Dodiana 2, Hanumanpalia 1, Jharsandala 1, Kachlana 1, Kalmoda 8, Kunwajhagar 3, Raoti 1,

Villages in Ratlam district with population of Gena (गेणा) gotra are:

Barbodana 16, Dantodiya 4, Ghatwas 1, Negarda 3,

Villages in Harda district

Gaina Dhana,

Villages in Dhar district

Gulwa,

Distribution in Haryana

Villages in Sirsa district

Ali Mohammad,

Notable persons

  • Dr C.B. Gaina - Professor and Ex. V.C. Bikaner University, Date of Birth : 1-June-1947, Address : 5,Chandra Nagar, Beawer Road, Ajmer, Rajasthan, Phone: 0145-2441033, Mob: 9414281357, Email: cbgena@gmail.com
  • Dr. Narendra Choudhary - He is pursuing M.D. from Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi. He belongs to Alwar district in Rajasthan.
  • Sajjan Singh Gainan (Sep) - From....?, Rajasthan, Rashtriya Rifles, Op Rakshak (J&K) Martyr on 31-12-1998.
  • Dilip Gena - Lecturer (Botany) College Education, Date of Birth : 5-September-1973, Address : 5, Chandra Nagar, Beawar road, Ajmer,PIN- 305003, Phone: 0145-2441033,Mob : 9414003233, Email: dilipgenaajmer@gmail.com
  • Mukesh kumar jat(gaina) Jat Mohalla Banthali Teh. Dooni Distt. Tonk, Ph.D. Research scholar (Agriculture) at MPUAT Udaipur Mo. 9660271919, Email: mukeshbanthali@yahoo.com

Reference

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. ग-62
  2. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.299
  3. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V,p. 83-84
  4. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter IX,p.695
  5. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Adhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 236
  6. History of the Jats/Chapter II,p. 28
  7. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V,p. 83-84
  8. गायनॊ हसनश चैव बाणः खड्गश च वीर्यवान । वैताली चातिताली च तदा कतिक वातिकौ Mahabharata (9.44.62)
  9. Thakur Deshraj Jat Itihas, pp. 608-609

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