Hagamasha

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Hagamasha was an Indo-Scythian Satrap, who ruled in the area of Mathura in northern India.

List of Indo-Scythian rulers of Mathura area (c. 20 BC – 20 AD)

History

In central India, the Indo-Scythians conquered the area of Mathura over Indian kings around 60 BCE. Some of their satraps were Hagamasha and Hagana, who were in turn followed by Rajuvula.

Rajuvula is thought to have invaded the last of the Indo-Greek territories in the eastern Punjab, and killed the last of the Indo-Greek kings, Strato II and his son.

The Mathura lion capital, an Indo-Scythian sandstone capital from Mathura in Central India, and dated to the 1st century CE, describes in kharoshthi the gift of a stupa with a relic of the Buddha, by queen Nadasi Kasa, "the wife of Rajuvula" and "daughter of Aiyasi Kamuia",[1] which was an older view supported by Bühler, Rapson, Lüders and others. But according to later view propounded by Sten Konow,[2] and accepted by later scholars,[3] the principal donor making endowments was princess Aiyasi Kamuia, "chief queen of Rajuvula" and "daughter of Yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuio".[4][5] Nadasi Kasa (or Nada Diaka) was daughter of Ayasia Kamuia.

According to an older view, Yuvarja Kharaosta Kamuio was thought to be son of Ayasi Kamuia who in turn was thought to be widow of Arta whom Rajuvula later married.[6] Konow refuted this view, and concluded that Ayasia Kamuia, chief queen of Rajuvula, was daughter and not the mother of Kharaosta Kamuio. The fact that the last name 'Kamuia' has been used both by Yuvaraja Kharaosta as well as princess Aiyasi clearly proves that Aiyasi Kamuia was the daughter and not mother of Yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuio, since such family-names or designations are naturally inherited from the father's side and not from the mother's.[7][8] Hence, Dr Konow's interpretation appears more convincing.

The capital also mentions the genealogy of several Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura.

The presence of the Buddhist symbol triratana at the center of the capital suggests that Rajuvula was, at least nominally, following the Buddhist faith.

Sodasa, son of Rajuvula, succeeded him and also made Mathura his capital.

Jat clans

Jat History

Ram Swarup Joon[11] writes about Hanga Chaudhary: Hangamas was a General of the Kushan, Yuechi or Tushar kings. Hanga is very well known in history. He belonged to Tushar or Kasvan dynasty and was appointed as the Governor of Mathura. His descendants came to be called Hanga. They have about 80 villages in district of Mathura.


According to Thakur Deshraj the Shivi gotra Jats of Shivaliks and lower reaches of Lake Manasarowar left this area after the Battle of Mahabharata and migrated to Uttar Kuru. Some of them settled in Punjab in the area known as "Yadu ki Dung", some settled in Kashmir and the rest moved far north upto Siberia.

The Krishna vamshi people in Sanskrit were called "Karshney" and "Karshniya". Karshniya or Kasaniya is a gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan. These Krishna vanshi people in China were known as Kushan or Yuezhi.

Bhim Singh Dahiya has established that Kushan or Yuezhi were Jats. There were two branches of Yuezhi people. One of the branches was called "Ta-Yuezhi" which means "The great Jat Sangh". The other branch was "Siu-Yuezhi" which means "General Jat Sangh". The Greek historian Herodotus has written Massagetae for Ta-Yuezhi and Thysagetae for Siu-Yuezhi. The Yuezhi people inhabited the Outer Mongolia and Gansu province of China.

Satyaketu Vidyalankar has mentioned that Rishika Jats were inhabitants of western China region near Lop Nur Lake. Tocharian people were settled in between the areas of Sakas and Rishikas (Yuezhi) in the north of Tarim River and Tian Shan mountain. Huns inhabited areas to the north of those occupied by Sakas, Rishikas and Tocharians. Rishikas and Tocharians were friends. They attacked the kingdom of Sakas and captured Bactria (Balkh). Following the settlement of the Yuezhi (described in the West as "Tocharians"), the general area of Bactria came to be called Tokharistan. From the 1st century CE to the 3rd century CE, Tokharistan was under the rule of the Kushans. After that they occupied Camboj situated in northwest Afghanistan.

Rishikas and Tocharians who were earlier defeated by Huns became powerful now. They jointly defeated the Huns and forced them to move towards Mongolia.

Rishikas and Tocharians along with Ta-Yuezhi Jats became Muslims in this region. Later when the pressure of Muslim religion increased these people moved down to Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

Ta-Yuezhi branch included Rishikas, Tocharians, Kushans, Chahars, Jadons, Sinsinwars, Kuntals, Sogadia gotra Jats. Tocharians and Rishikas were great warriors and they became strong followers of Buddhism. They also helped in spreading the Buddhism religion to far off places.

A branch of Tocharians was Hunga who came to Brij area in India and settled on the fertile banks of Yamuna River. Hunga Jats are believed to get their name from Hungamas satrap who came from the region of "Huang He" river and "hingu" hills in China. The Hunga over a period became "Aga". Aga in Sanskrit became "Agre" meaning advance, since these were the people first to come to Brij area. Kanishka had made the Hunga people the rulers of Mathura. Another branch of Tocharians moved to Afghanistan and upto Iran. Kanishka made these people the rulers of Ghazni.

According to Dharampal Singh Dudee, Agi gotra is different from Aga, Haga or Agre. Agi gotra started from a Jat named Aksha (अक्ष),; they are also considered as descendants of rishi Agastya. [12]

Bhim Singh Dahiya[13] writes that Finally we come to the conclusion that the Chinese name Hiung-nu is correct, after all. These Hiung-nu were a clan dominant at that time. It was this clan which produced emperors like Touman, Maodun, Giya in the first three centuries prior to the Christian era. These Hiung-nu are still existing as a Jat clan in India and are called Heng or Henga. We must remember that the Kang Jat were named by the Chinese as Kang-nu; similarly the Heng were called Heng-nu or Hiung-nu. These were the 'Huna Mandal' rulers who fought with almost all the Indian powers, right up to 10th century A.D.

They have now 360 villages in Mathura district of U.P. The late Har Prasad Singh, Commissioner of Income Tax, was a Henga Jat.

References

  1. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 1894, p 533, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; See also: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 1907, p 1025, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Ancient India: From the Earliest Times to the First Century AD, 1964, p 158, Dr E. J. Rapson.
  2. Corpus Inscrioptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, pp xxxvi, 36, 47, Dr S Konow.
  3. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1990, p 141, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 394, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; Kunst aus Indien: Von der Industalkultur im 3. Jahrtausend V. Chr. Bis zum 19. Jahrhundert n ..., 1960, p 9, Künstlerhaus Wien, Museum für Völkerkunde (Vienna, Austria); History of Civilizations of Central Asia, 1999, 201/ 207, Ahmad Hasan Dani, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, János Harmatta, Boris Abramovich Litvinovskiĭ, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Unesco; Aspects of Ancient Indian Administration, 2003, 58, D.K. Ganguly; District Gazetteers, 1959, p 33, Uttar Pradesh (India); Five Phases of Indian Art, 1991, p 17, K. D. Bajpai; History of Indian Administration, 1968, p 107, B. N. Puri; The Śakas in India, 1981, p 119, Satya Shrava; Ṛtam, p 46,by Akhila Bharatiya Sanskrit Parishad, Lucknow; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī; Indian Linguistics, 1964, p 549, Linguistic Society of India; A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana, 1998, p 230, Akira Hirakawa; Cf: An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the Time of King Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1996), pp. 439, Richard Salomon, University of Washington. The author Richard Salomon accepts Dr Konow's views as probably correct.
  4. Mahaksha[tra]vasa Rajulasa agra-maheshi Ayasia Kamuia dhida Kharaostasa yuvarana mada Nada-diakasa [taye] sadha matra Abuhola[e]......Kharaosto yuvaraya Kamuio..
  5. See also the Links: [1] and [2]
  6. See quote in: Aspects of Ancient Indian Administration, 2003, p 58, D.K. Ganguly.
  7. See: Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol II, part I, p 36 & xxxvi, Dr Stein Konow; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1990, p 141, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, p 227/228, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī), The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 168, Kirpal Singh.
  8. Dr S. Konow convincingly argues that Yuvaraja Kharaosta is respectfully dmentioned twice (II A.1 and E.1) and in prominent positions in the Capital record, and this would befit only a senior relative of the family of the queen making the endowments, and not a junior member like a son or grand son. Moreover, the Aiyasi Kamuia expressly states a close relationship with Kharaosta and also claims that latter's concurrence for making the endowments has been obtained (See: Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum II, I, pp xxxv-vi, 36; An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the Time of King Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1996), pp. 440, Richard Salomon, University of Washington; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, pp 227/228, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 168, Kirpal Singh.
  9. Dharmchandra Vidyalankar: Jat Samaj:11/2013, pp 19-20
  10. Dharmchandra Vidyalankar: Jat Samaj:11/2013, pp 19-20
  11. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V,p. 87
  12. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas,
  13. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats, p.46