Hyderabad (Hindi: हैदराबाद, Sindhi: حيدرآباد, Urdu: حيدرآباد ) is city in Pakistan's Sindh province. It was founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro upon the ruins of a Mauryan (Nehras) fishing village along the bank of the Indus River known as Neroon Kot (Sindhi: نيرُون ڪوٽ).
Located 110 kms from important archaeological digs investigating the pre-Harappan settlement of Amri, the region holds extreme importance for archaeologists the world over. Amri, an archaeological site dating back to 3600 BC, 110 kms from the city, is the remains of a pre-Harrapan fortified town.
Formerly the capital of Sindh, it serves as the headquarters of the district of Hyderabad. The last Battle of Amir Talpor and the British took place in the city in 1843.
In AD 711, Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and the Indus Valley, bringing South Asian societies into contact with Islam. Raja Dahir was a Hindu king who ruled over a Buddhist majority and that Chach of Alor and his kin were regarded as usurpers of the earlier Buddhist Rai Dynasty. This view is questioned by those who note the diffuse and blurred nature of Hindu and Buddhist practices in the region, especially that of royalty to be patrons of both and those who believe that Chach himself may have been a Buddhist.
Hyderabad is a city built on three hillocks cascading over each other. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty founded the city in 1768 over the ruins of Neroon Kot (Nerun or Nerun Kot meaning the place of Neroon), a small fishing village on the banks of Indus River named after its ruler Neroon. A formal concept for the city was laid out by his son, Sarfraz Khan in 1782. When the foundations were laid, the city obtained the nickname Heart of the Mehran as the ruler Mian Ghulam Shah himself was said to have fallen in love with the city. In 1768 he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The fort was built using fire-baked bricks, on account of which it was named Pacco Qillo (Sindhi: پڪو قلعو) meaning the strong fort. After the death of the last Kalhoro, the Talpur dynasty ruled the region. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his capital Khudabad, the Land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. He made the Pacco Qillo his residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers were responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their rule. The four were called char yar, Sindhi for the four friends.
- Nicholas F. Gier, FROM MONGOLS TO MUGHALS: RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDIA 9TH-18TH CENTURIES, Presented at the Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting American Academy of Religion, Gonzaga University, May 2006
- Naik, C.D. (2010). Buddhism and Dalits: Social Philosophy and Traditions. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. p. 32. ISBN 978-81-7835-792-8.
- P. 151 Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World By André Wink
- P. 164 Notes on the religious, moral, and political state of India before the Mahomedan invasion, chiefly founded on the travels of the Chinese Buddhist priest Fai Han in India, A.D. 399, and on the commentaries of Messrs. Remusat, Klaproth, Burnouf, and Landresse, Lieutenant-Colonel W.H. Sykes by Sykes, Colonel;
- P. 505, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians by Henry Miers Elliot, John Dowson
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