Jat people in Mahabharata period

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Jat People find a mention in most ancient Indian literature like Mahabharata and Rig Veda. Over sixty clans are named in the Rig Veda.[1] In the Mahabharata as they are mentioned ‘Jartas’ in ‘Karna Parva’. The famous Sanskrit scholar Panini (traditionally dated 520-460 BCE, with estimates ranging from the 7th to 4th centuries BCE) has mentioned in his Sanskrit grammar known as Aṣṭādhyāyī in the form of shloka as जट झट संघाते or “Jat Jhat Sanghate”.[2] This means that the terms 'Jat' and 'democratic federation' are synonymous. He has mentioned many Jat clans as settled in Punjab and North west areas. They are mentioned in the grammar treatise of Chandra of the fifth century in the phrase sentence अजय जर्टो हुणान or “Ajay Jarto Huṇān”, which refers to the defeat of Huns by the Jartos under the leadership of Yasodharman. The inscriptions of Mandsaur and Bijayagadh theorise on phonetic grounds that Yasodharman, the ruler of Malwa, may have been a Jat of the Virk gotra ( clan).[3][4] -[5]

Mahabharata Shalya Parva section 45 says, "Listen now to the names of those other combatants armed with diverse weapons and clad in diverse kinds of robes and ornaments, that Skanda procured: ....Akshasantarjana, Kunadika, Tamobhrakrit, Ekaksha, Dwadasaksha, Eka Jata ... Beholding the installation of Kartikeya, These and many other mighty companions, O king, came to the high-souled and illustrious Kartikeya".[6]This has been illustrated in following shlokas in the online edition of Mahabharata in Sanskrit along with Devanagari as under:

अक्षसंतर्जनॊ राजन कुनथीकस तमॊ ऽभरकृत akṣasaṃtarjano rājan kunadīkas tamo 'bhrakṛt[7]
एकाक्षॊ थवाथशाक्षश च तदैवैक जटः परभुः ekākṣo dvādaśākṣaś ca tathaivaika jaṭaḥ prabhuḥ[8]

The Jat historian, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, has explained the above legend of the Mahabharata, in which Brahma nominated Swami Kartikeya as senapati of all the beings and performs his coronation on this position. On the occasion of coronation, Swami Kartikeya received various offerings from manifold people. One of these was a chief of all the senapatis (generals) named Jat.[9] This shloka reads in Sanskrit as under:

अक्षः सन्तर्जनो राजन् कुन्दीकश्च तमोन्नकृत।

एकाक्षो द्वादशक्षश्च तथैवैक जटः प्रभु ।।

Translation- O Rajan! Akshaḥ santarjana, kundīka, tamonnakrata, ekāksha, dwādashāksha and a 'Jat' the chief lord offered to Swami Kartikeya.

Thus appearance of Jat name in Mahabharata along with Brahma shows that name of Jat is as antique as Brahma.[10] Mahabharata Anushasan Parva mentions in chapter 17 that one of the names of parmatma or parmeshwar is Jata (जट) as given shloka 86 as under in Devanagari and IAST:[11]

महानखॊ महारॊमा महाकेशॊ महाजटः mahānakho mahāromā mahākeśo mahājaṭaḥ
असपत्नः परसाथश च परत्ययॊ गिरिसाधनः asapatnaḥ prasādaś ca pratyayo girisādhanaḥ

Jats in Shalya Parva

Mahabharata Shalya Parva mentions names of combatants armed with diverse weapons and clad in diverse kinds of robes and ornaments, All of them came to the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo. The list includes the following names of Jat clans:


Shalya Parva in Sanskrit mentions in shloka 51-75 many Jat clans as under as under: Sankhunia, Kumud, Kapahi, Kanchap, Agi, Rajan, Kundu, Jat,Puniya,Kok,Nadal,Ajdolia,Jewlia Jati, Hari, Jathar, Marwada, Udar,Visadi, Sail, Nandav, Dhua, Sweta, Kalinga, Siddhu, Bardak, Nandal, Gandas, Dharan, Kasya, Jat, Kansujia,Gaina, Vats, Hans, Rana, Nandal, Kalkhande,Kurdia Tuhade, Madhur, Waswan, Madh, Kalasman, Dhama, Pandu, Danaki, Achal, Kang, Kok,Lohan,Jathar, Kundu, Kasania, Hanselia, Kundu, Bal, Janmeja, Makad,

Shloka 51-75

51 शृणु नामानि चान्येषां ये ऽनये सकन्दस्य सैनिकाः
    विविधायुधसंपन्नाश चित्राभरण वर्मिणः
52 शङ्कुकर्णॊ निकुम्भश च पद्मः कुमुद एव च
    अनन्तॊ द्वादश भुजस तदा कृष्णॊपकृष्णकौ
53 द्रॊण शरवाः कपिस्कन्धः काञ्चनाक्षॊ जलं धमः
    अक्षसंतर्जनॊ राजन कुनदीकस तमॊ ऽभरकृत
54 एकाक्षॊ द्वादशाक्षश च तदैवैक जटः परभुः
    सहस्रबाहुर विकटॊ वयाघ्राक्षः कषितिकम्पनः
55 पुण्यनामा सुनामा च सुवक्त्रः परियदर्शनः
    परिश्रुतः कॊक नदः परिय माल्यानुलेपनः
56 अजॊदरॊ गजशिराः सकन्धाक्षः शतलॊचनः
    जवाला जिह्वः करालश च सितकेशॊ जटी हरिः
57 चतुर्थंष्ट्रॊ ऽषट जिह्वश च मेघनाथः पृदुश्रवाः
    विथ्युथ अक्षॊ धनुर वक्त्रॊ जठरॊ मारुताशनः
58 उदराक्षॊ झषाक्षश च वज्रनाभॊ वसु परभः
    समुद्रवेगॊ राजेन्थ्र शैलकम्पी तदैव च
59 पुत्र मेषः परवाहश च तदा नन्दॊपनन्दकौ
    धूम्रः शवेतः कलिङ्गशसिद्धार्दॊ वरदस तदा
60 परियकश चैव नन्थशगॊनन्थश च परतापवान
    आनन्दश च परमॊदश च सवस्तिकॊ धरुवकस तदा
61 कषेमवापः सुजातश च सिद्धयात्रश च भारत
    गॊव्रजः कनकापीडॊ महापारिषदेश्वरः
62 गायनॊ हसनश चैव बाणः खड्गश च वीर्यवान
    वैताली चातिताली च तदा कतिक वातिकौ
63 हंसजः पङ्कदिग्धाङ्गः समुद्रॊन्माथनश च ह
    रणॊत्कटः परहासश च शवेतशीर्षश च नन्दकः
64 कालकण्ठः परभासश च तदा कुम्भाण्डकॊ ऽपरः
    कालकाक्षः सितश चैव भूतलॊन्मदनस तदा
65 यज्ञवाहः परवाहश च देव याजी च सॊमपः
    सजालश च महातेजाः करद करादौ च भारत
66 तुहनश च तुहानश च चित्रथेवश च वीर्यवान
    मधुरः सुप्रसादश च किरीटी च महाबलः
67 वसवॊ मधुवर्णशकलशॊदर एव च
    धमन्तॊ मन्मदकरः सूचीवक्त्रश च वीर्यवान
68 शवेतवक्त्रः सुवक्त्रश च चारु वक्त्रश च पाण्डुरः
    दण्डबाहुः सुबाहुश च रजः कॊकिलकस तदा
69 अचलः कनकाक्षशबालानाम अयिकः परभुः
    संचारकः कॊक नदॊ गृध्रवक्त्रश च जम्बुकः
70 लॊहाश वक्त्रॊ जठरः कुम्भवक्त्रश च कुण्डकः
    मथ्गुग्रीवश च कृष्णौजा हंसवक्त्रश च चन्थ्र भाः
71 पाणिकूर्मा च शम्बूकः पञ्चवक्त्रश च शिक्षकः
    चाष वक्त्रश च जम्बूकः शाकवक्त्रश च कुण्डकः
72 यॊगयुक्ता महात्मानः सततं बराह्मण परियाः
    पैतामहा महात्मानॊ महापारिषथाश च ह
    यौवनस्दाश च बालाश च वृद्धाश च जनमेजय
73 सहस्रशः पारिषथाः कुमारम उपतस्दिरे
    वक्त्रैर नानाविधैर ये तु शृणु ताञ जनमेजय
74 कूर्मकुक्कुटवक्त्राश च शशॊलूक मुखास तदा
    खरॊष्ट्रवदनाश चैव वराहवदनास तदा
75 मनुष्यमेष वक्त्राश च सृगालवदनास तदा
    भीमा मकर वक्त्राश च शिशुमार मुखास तदा

See also

Indo-Aryan origin of Jats

References

  1. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Aryan Tribes and the Rig Veda, Dahinam Publishers, 16 B Sujan Singh Park, Sonepat, Haryana,India,1991
  2. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, Page-1
  3. CV Vaidya, History of Medieval Hindu India
  4. Bijayagadh Stone Pillar Inscription of Vishnuvardhana
  5. Mandasor Pillar Inscription of Yashodharman
  6. Mahabharata Shalya Parva section 45
  7. Mahabharata in Sanskrit Ch-44/53
  8. Mahabharata in Sanskrit Ch-44/54
  9. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, Page 2
  10. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, Page 2
  11. The Mahabharata in Sanskrit, Book 13, Chapter 17/86

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