Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Antiquity of the Jats
First Edition 1980
Publisher: Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd, AB/9 Safdarjang Enclave, New Delhi-110064
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The Antiquity of the Jats
- 1 Page 293
- 2 Page 294
- 3 Page 295
- 4 Page 296
- 5 The Van Dynasty
- 6 Page 297
- 7 Page 298
- 8 Page 299
- 9 Page 300
- 10 The period of Herodotus
- 11 Page 301
- 12 Page 302
- 13 Page 303
- 14 Page 304
- 15 Page 305
- 16 Page 306
- 17 Page 307
- 18 Page 308
- 19 Page 309
- 20 Page 310
- 21 Page 311
- 22 Page 312
- 23 Page 313
- 24 Page 314
- 25 Page 314
- 26 References
The Deva Samhita expressly mentions that the Jats were the first rulers of the world. The Chinese annals, too, indicate that the people called 'Di' (Dahi of other authors) and the Hunas are as old as the twenty-sixth century B.C. "The history of these people goes back to 2600 B.C., even earlier, according to the Chinese Chronicles." 1 We should note here that the Chinese called these people Guti.
In Western Asia we hear about these Guti people near about the same time. During that period we find the names of various countries, towns or people, which are similar to the existing names of today. For example, there was a country called Gutium, the land of the Gutis. There was another country named Abarnium, the land of the Abars, the modern Abara clan of the Jats. A king of Larsa, is named Abisare. 2 We know that a king named Abhisara was an ally of Porus at the time of Alexander's invasion. A country named Zawul is mentioned in ancient Persia.3 A place is named Gasur (Kasur) and Gusur is a clan name among the Jats. A mountain is named Nisir and a clan is now named Nasir. We hear of Andaria, and Andar is again a clan name.
According to Cambridge Ancient History, a people called Guti or Gutians, attacked Sumer and Akkad at the close of the reign of Naram Sin (2291-2255 B.C.). These people were called, "by the name given to various barbarous peoples, Umman-Manda ... ".4
1. U. Thakur, op. cit., p. 35.
2. CAH, Vol. 1 (2), p. 628.
3. PED, p. 607.
4. op. cit., p. 454.
Their countries were Media, Armenia and Asia Minor. 5 The great dynasty of Agade was practically overthrown by these mountaineers. 6 The Gutians are not easy to fix upon the map, they were close neighbours of the Lullu (Lalli ?). "Their epithet was 'widespread' and their land seems to have been in the mountains south of Lesser Zab, to the north of Sulaimaniyyah and of the legendary Mount Nisir". 7
These people are called mountaineers and Asiatics, showing that they were from central and northern parts of Asia. They had no kingship, at least there were no hereditary kings. That is why the writer of the Sumerian list of kings put the question about these people, "who was king, who was not king"? This is a direct testimony to the democratic nature of these people. Kings were elected by them from amongst themselves. These Gutians who became overlords of Sumer, Akkad, Lagash, Babylonia, etc., ruled for 125 years and 40 days. Twenty (or twenty-one) kings are listed, the first named being Muruta (Skt. Maruta). And their last king is named Trigan. These names show that they were Aryans. The name given to these, and subsequent people who came to the lands of Western Asia in a similar manner, is Umman-Manda or Amman-Manda. Here we find a combination of two tribes, viz., the Maans and the Mandas-clan names of the Jats. In a later period, in the seventh century B.C., these people were called Mandadehik. Here again there is a combination of two clan names of the Mandas and the Dahis. At this period of time, the name of the empire established by them, was Madaiya empire according to the Persian Inscriptions. This is the same as the Mandavya of the Indian Puranas, which locate this country and its people in the north-west of India. The Greeks called them Medians and the Persian Inscriptions of Darius, etc., named them as Mada. It was thought possible that these people were the same as Indian Madras, in Sanskrit and Maddas, in the Prakrit language. But these Mada or Maddas are the modern Madan/Madhan, a Jat clan. This possibility is excluded by the archaeological findings from the inscriptions of Nabonidus, etc., as already mentioned while
5. ibid., p. 117.
6. ibid., p. 456.
7. ibid., p. 444.
L.A. Waddel, mentions these people called Guti in his book, The Makers of civilization in Race and History. He has mentioned that the planet Jupiter was called by the later Sumerians as, "the Udu, the Etil (Lord), the Gut". 8 Here the word Etil has to be compared with Antil, a clan of the Jats. Waddel also mentions that Her, meaning 'lord' or 'master' in Gothic, was a title of these people and Her is now a clan of Jats. The very word Gut or Guta means "great" or "grand". 9. We have mentioned else where that in India too this word was use in the sense of "king" and later on , in the sense of federation of warrior clans.
- (i) "Under king Companion, Ahamen, the Gut, at Agduland". 10
- (ii) "The Overlord Companion, the Gut". 11
- (iii) "Tasia, the Lord Gut".
- (iv) "Under King Companion, Marru, the Lord, Son of the Gut, the Ara". 12
"The troops of Guti of Guti land who now seized the imperial rule in Mesopotamia ...are of immense historical Importance......... This is the first known mention in ancient history of these famous Northern Aryan people, the typical Nordic race, by their well known modern name; and it is significant to find them as leaders of Sumerian Civilization." 13The national or tribal name of Guti, the name of the "Guti troops who carried off royalty" of Mesopotamian empire by their conquest of Erech, the imperial capital, about 2495 B.C . ... was recognized as obviously suggesting
8. op. cit., p. 132.
9. See PED, p. 1074.
10. op. cit., p. 266.
11. ibid., p. 366.
12. ibid., p. 307.
13. ibid., p. 357.
'Goths' by Prof. Scheil in 1911. 14 Cambridge Ancient History admits that the Hittites (Khattis) were present in the Gutis. 15 Elsewhere, Waddel mentions that the Indian Jats are the same as the European Gots/Goths and these ancient Gutis. As regards Khattis, they are obviously the Khatris, Kshatriyas in Sanskrit. It is significant that in the sixth century B.C., Fravartish the Manda, revolted against Darius the Great, saying, "I am Kshathrita, of the race of Huvakshatra". 15This claim is similar to the claim of an early Mauryan king, who wanted a share in the holy ashes of Lord Buddha. He is reported to have made his claim to the ashes as justified on the ground that he was a Kshatriya and so was Lord Buddha.
Rawlinson quotes Berosus to say that a Median dynasty ruled over Babylonia more than 2000 years before Christ. 16 We also know from the Egyptian history that in the twenty-first century B.C., the kings of the eleventh dynasty of Egypt fought a war with a people called Amu' or Amuru, " of the land of Djati". About this land of Djati, nothing else is known. 17 This is the same remark which was earlier given about the land of the Gutis. CAH admits that this land of Djati was situated in the north-east of Egypt. We know that the people called Amurru are also called Amor or Amorites and More is a clan now existing. Their connection with the land of Djati speaks for itself because the Mores are even now a clan of the Jats. They are the same as the Moor of Europe and the More of England and the Maurya of India. Therefore, the land of Djati is the same as the land of the Guti, called Gutium and placed by CAH to the south of Lesser Zab mountains. As for Amurru/Amor/Amorites, we have to ignore the initial 'A', because, "the initial vowel is added to make pronunciation 'easier' for the Semites". 18
The Van Dynasty
14. ibid., 358.
15. Vol. I, p. 423.
16. Rawlinson,op. cit., Vol. I, p. 319.
17. CAH; Vol. I (2), p. 525.
18. ibid., Vol. III, p. 194.
It was known that the Vens had played an important role in the history of Central Asia from very ancient times. But the existence of the Ven kingdom of Armenia "was unknown and unsuspected before the decipherment of the cuneiform texts". 19 It "was known as Urartu to the Assyrian's and Babylonian's, Ararat in Hebrew." An early Babylonian tourist's map places the city of Ura-Urtu north of Assyria, and a lexical tablet informs us that Urtu corresponds with Tilla, "The Highlands". 20 Incidentally, the word Tilla, is still widely prevalent among the Jat areas in India and means 'high land'.
The founder of the dynasty was Lutipris, but the important ruler of this line was his son, Sarduris (about 859 b.c.). He is styled as "king of kings", "king of the world", "king of the Naire", "king of the Biainas". Here the titles show that the Nairi (Nahra) and the Biainas (Bains) clans were included in his kingdom, apart from the Ven or Bana.
One of their principal cities was Ardinis (the city of the Sungod) also called Musasir, Menuas (810 B.C.), the grandson of Sarduris I, then subjugated the other Jat clans. "Parsuas (present Parsvals) had already been attacked by Ispuinis, and Menuas now proceeded to subdue the Manna, farther east, on the southern side of Lake Urmia". 21 He brought the Diaus, the Dia or Dayaeni of the Assyrians (present Dahiya clan) under control on the banks of Euphrates, which was made the western boundary of the kingdom. Menuas built many canals through the mountains which were cut open, and one of the canals is now called Shamiram Suo. He built the city of Menuasgert (Melazgert). His son, Argistis I, annexed the territories of the Etius and the Dayaeni. Mileds (Mardii of Herodotus) were brought under control. Sarduris II, his son fought many wars with the Assyrians and won them. He proclaimed his victory over Ashur Nirari V (754-745 B.C.). Later on under Tiglath Pilesar III Assyria avenged the defeats and Sargon of Assyria claims to have destroyed a city of Sarduris, named Riar.
19. ibid., Vol. IlI, p. 173.
20. ibid., p. 169.
21. ibid., p. 174.
Here let us stop and take stock of the situation. It is not our purpose to write history. We have to find out the ethnic history of the Jats only. We have already seen that practically all the names are of Jat clans. Even cities are named after them. The Vens are already shown as the same as Ven or Ben. We have also seen that the Van kings, were also ruling over the Nara and the Bains clans. Further, Mannai or Manna is described as, "the land of Man" 22 and Man is a Jat clan. Similarly Parsuas are to be identified with the Parswal clan. The Mileds are the same as Mardic of Herodotus, the Marda Jats. The Etius are the same as Utiya of Persian inscriptions and Yaudheyas of India. The Daae or Dayaeni are the same as Dahi or Dahinam of Persian inscriptions, the Dahae of Greek writers and the present Dahiya clan. The city of Menuasgert, can be compared with the Mangat clan. Here, gert is the same as Sanskrit 'Jarta', i.e. Jat. The city of Riar is named after the Riar clan. Similarly, the Treres are the same as Drar or Tarar clan, the Dardas of Indian Puranas. The Cimmerians, the Gimiri, the Gomer of Genesis can be compared with the Gumar clan. 23 The name of the leader of the Dahi and the Gumars in 673 B.C., when they were fighting against Essarhhaddon, the Assyrian king, was Teushp (Devaspa, Devasva in Sanskrit). 24 Later on, they were under Dugdamme, and his son, Sandakshatra. 25 Jermiah speaks of the Medes calling upon the kingdom of Ararat, the Mannai and Ashkenaz (Asikeni of India) to come for the sack of Babylon. 26 This also shows their common kinship and unity in adversity. In the map of Armenia, given at page 186 in volume III of CAH, we note the following other clans:
Kars – Khar (Kurus ?)
Lake Gotehen - Lake Jatan (Gotan)
Vaisis – Bassi
Ushnei – Ushinara of India
Erzenum/Erjhana - Arjunaka of India
22. ibid., p. 188.
23. ibid., p. 182.
24. ibid., p, 83
25. ibid., p. 117.
26. Chapter L, 1.
The Vens were sun-worshippers and were called the children of sun-god, (Surya Vamsi of India). Their goddess is named Saris, Sri of India, and they worshipped the earth and water, too. The Scythians had a goddess, named Tabiti (of Tevathi clan) who was also called Hestia. 27 This latter word is the basis for the Sanskrit name, Shasti of this goddess of the ancient Jats, who still worship her under the same name, Chhathi (cf the proverb, Chhathi Ka Dudha Yad Ana, i.e., to be reminded of the milk of Chhathi-sixth day after birth). It is supposed that the goddess comes to write the future of the child on the sixth day after birth, and all preparations are made for the occasion. The goddess with six heads (Hestia/Shasthi) is represented on the coins of the Yaudheyas. 28 The Scythian/Saka "are each probably a tribal name spread to the whole people". 29 It is quite correct, and we must remember that the origin of these Sakas is from a legendary king Targitaus (or Tir gita, i.e. Tir, the Jat). To revert to the Vens, in 714 B.C., Sargon the Assyrian, destroyed and. looted in the most barbarous manner, the sun-city of Musasir, whose king Urzana (Arjana cf Arjuna of India), a subordinate king under the Vens, had to flee. Gold, silver, ivory, swords of gold, chariots of silver, statues of the former kings, those of the gods and goddesses were looted; the temples were burnt. Rusas (Ursa), the paramount king, hearing of this tragedy, committed suicide by sword. 30
The author of Cambridge Ancient History, when writing about a Similar situation, where the Mandas under Astyges destroyed the temple of E-Khulkhul, condemned the action in the following words, "The barbarians ... cared little for the ancient fanes or other peoples' gods". 31 But CAB glorifies the same action on the part of the so-called 'civilised' Assyrians by mentioning the detailed loot and destruction of the temple and statues of the ancestors and the sun-god. 32 Perhaps, there is a difference between "the gods and fanes" of the "barbarians" and those of the "civilized'" !
27. CAH, p. 195.
28. JNSI, V, p. 29.
29. CAH, p. 194.
30. ibid., 18 J.
31. ibid., vol. III, p. 220.
32. ibid., p. 180.
The Venyan dynasty kings are as under:
(2) Sarduris I (ascended the throne about 859 B.C.)
(3) Ispuinis (the establisher)
(4) Menuas (810 B.C.)
(5) Argistis I
(6) Sarduris II
(7) Rusas (Ursa in Assyrian texts)
(8) Argistis II (714 B.C.)
(9) Rusas II
(10) Sarduris III
In 658 B.C. we hear that Assyria was attacked by Andaria, who "was most probably a Scythian leader". 33 Ashur Banipal was the Assyrian ruler at that time. We must note that Andaria is to be compared with the Andar clan. Again we hear the Maans attacking Assyria. These Maans were in fact, "the hereditary enemies of the Assyrians". 34 The Maan king Akhshari, called upon the other Jat clans or help, and greatly harassed the Assyrians.- Ultimately, Assyria was destroyed by the Jats under Huvaksatra (Cyaxeres), who invited the fellow Sakas for this purpose: The mightiest empire of that time, with its legendary city of Nineveh fell to the Mandas in 614 B.C., or the last time, and was heard of no more. The Assyrian king committed suicide by jumping into the fire and thus was avenged the suicide of Ursa; exactly after a span of hundred years.
The period of Herodotus
By this period we mean the period from ninth century B.C. to the fourth century B.C., roughly the time between the Manda and Van empires and Alexander's invasion. Here also we find numerous tribes of the Jats finding a name in the history of Herodotus and others. Among the tribes of the Medians, we find Busae ( the present Bassi) the Budii, (the present Bodhi or Budhwar), the Phut of the scriptures; the Magi (the famous Magian priests). The ruling people are called Arizanti or Arizatoi. The word Ari is a form of Arya and Zanti/Zatoi are of course the Jats,
33. ibid., p. 118.
34. ibid., p. 128.
the Djati of ancient Egypt and the Guti of Sumer and China. The Sagartians may be compared with the Sagarvars; the Alarodians may be compared with the Alarod or Aroda of today; the Sapiri may be compared with the Sapra of today; the Hyrcanias may be compared with the Varkans or Virks of today; the Paeonia may be compare with the Paunia/Punia of today; the Sarangians may be compare with the Saran of today; the Utians with the Utars of today or the Utiya of the Persians.
Further the Pactyan may be compared with the Pashtoon/ Pakhtoon of present Afghanistan. It is again to be pointed out that these Pashtoons are mentioned at the time of Sargon of Agade. The CAH mentions a city of Purushkhand, near Kayseri in Cappadocia where Sargon goes to battle against the land of the Utarapashtum.35 CAH is, however, not sure of the name. We have shown elsewhere that it may stand for the Uttara and the Pashtoons. These people Uttara (Utar clan) are mentioned in the Puranas and the Pashtoons are, of course, the ancient people found now in Afghanistan also. What is, perhaps, more reasonable is that the word Utara here stands for North and the people named will be "the northern Pashtoons". It will be similar to the northern and southern branch of the Kurus, and the northern and southern branch of the Madras. The northern Kuru, called "Uttara Kuru" in the Mahabharata, are located towards the West of Caspian sea where the name of a river is Kuru (Cyrus). The southern Kurus were, of course, on the Yamuna river in India. Similarly, the Uttara Madras were in the same Caspian sea area and the southern Madras were in the Punjab. On this basis the Uttara Pashtoon will be near Armenia and the southern Pashtoons are of course in Afghanistan. What is remarkable, however, is the pure Sanskrit form of the name of these people and the city mentioned above. This only shows that these people were Aryans. The Mandas "were called anciently, by all the people, Arians".36
Again the people called Aegli by Herodotus and Geli by others, as a Median tribe, correspond to the modern Gill, whose brothers in Central Asia are even now called Gilli, just like the Shergill clan of the Jats in India today are still called Sirigilli in
35. Vol. I (2), p. 428.
36. Herodotus, Bk. VII, p. 62.
Central Asia. The Dahis are to be compared with the present Dahiyas and the Sindi are to be compared with the present Sindhu clan and the Teucarians can be compared with the Tokharians, the present Takhar clan.
Although more such clans can be identified, we now pass on to the two divisions of the Jats. The Mandas gave their costume to the Persians 37 as well as their armaments.38 It is, therefore, the Persians who adopted the dress, armaments, etc., of the Mandas, and not vice versa. The two great divisions of the Jats are mentioned by Herodotus as well as by he Chines chronicles. They are called the Massagetae and the Thyssa-getae. The word Massa means great in Pahlvi language and therefore, Massa-gatae means "the great Jats . This is the same as Ta-Yue-che or Ta-guti of the Chinese, and in the Chinese language Ta means great. Therefore, Ta-Yue-che denotes the same as Massagetae. Thr lesser of the two divisions is called Thyssa getae and naturally the word thyssa means small or lesser. 39 It is possible that the root of the word thyssa may be the same as that of the Sanskrit word tucch or Tus, meaning little, lesser or small. The Chinese called them Siao-Yue-che and Siao in their language means little. Therefore, the two divisions of the Jats were known to the Chinese as well as Herodotus and both these authorities gave the same names to these divisions. Like the Mandas, the Massagetae were Aryans.40 A king of the Massagetae is named Sparga Pises which Rawlinson translates as "Lord of Heaven", Swargapati in Sanskrit. Another king of the Dahis is called Arsaces, who conquered Parthia, according to Strabo, and founded the Arsacid empire. The Jats, in particular, are called by Herodotus as "the noblest and the most just of all the Thracian tribes."41 The leader of the Sagartians, who rebelled against Darius is named Chitra Takham. The name of the Magian who rebelled against Darius and occupied the throne is Gaumata. All these names show that these people were Aryans by race and language.
37. ibid., bk. I, p. 135.
38. ibid., bk. VII, p. 62.
39. Rawlinson, op. cit. Vol.III, p. 175, note A.
40. ibid., p. 170.
41. ibid, bk. lV, 93.
Rawlinson mentions that after the rule of 8 kings of the Median (Mandian) dynasty in Babylonia for 224 years, the next dynasty ruled for 258 years and its first king was called Uruk or Warak. He dedicated his temples to the Sun and the Moon (Bal and Balit respective.42 Hur or Her was a title of this king. Further Khak was title of the king of Susa, Tir-Khak. The word Khak means king as per Josephus.43 The Her and Kak are now two clans among the Jats. "The Armenians still call the Georgians by the name of Virk 44 This shows that the country called Georgia, remained under the Virks for a pretty long time.As for Armenia itself, it may be from Ariman, i.e., Aryamans. We have a ready seen that Bulgaria is named after the Balls and means the land of the caravan (wagons) of the Balls. Similarly, Hungary is obviously named after the Henga or the Hunas) clan. The word Gari in these names stands for wagons in which these people travelled, the Indian Gāri. The name of Chorasmia is Khairizao in the Avesta, and is obviously named after the Khair/Kher clan of the Jats.
The other clans mentioned by Herodotus may be identified as under:
Lulla - Lalli
Nisir - Nasir
Samarians - Samras
Derbices - Dabas
Finally, we may mention that the world famous Hanging Garden of Babylonia were created by Nebuchad Nezar in honour of his wife Amitis (Amithia who was a Mad/Manda princess. It is well known from Indian works that the ladies of Madra people (in the Punjab) were famous for their beauty, and were much sought after as wives by kings of distant lands. The examples of Madri, wife of Pandu, and of Savitri, can be quoted in this connection. Of course, the love story of Heer-Ranjha is on the lips of every Indian. All these were Jat ladies noted for their beauty, gaiety, amorous songs and dance in the Mahabharata.
42. ibid., vol. 1, p. 347.
43. ibid., p. 348.
44. ibid., p. 530, note 4,
It is significant that Madri wife of Pandu, is called Bahliki, obviously because she was from Balkh area. 45 It is also significant that she was perhaps the only lady among the kuru-Pandava who committed Sati, at the pyre of her husband. It is this custom which was later on eulogised in India and was very much prevalent among the Rajputs in the later centuries.
Here we must note that these people are expressly called Guti or Djati or Jatoi in the ancient period. We also find the name Jarta mentioned as Garta. We have already mentioned the Asi Gartas (Sagartians) from the inscriptions of Darius. Thus the various forms of the names, Gut, Garta/Jarta, Guti/Djati, are found mentioned in the various ancient periods. We have also seen that the word Gut was given the meaning of Bull. The PED gives the meaning of Gut/Guta as great, grand.46 We have quoted Indian works to show that the word Jat had the meaning of king, and later on, it meant confederation of warriors. The word also came to mean 'hair' because these people used to keep long hair. We have a also seen that the ruling classes of ancient Persia were called Arizantoi or Arya Jats. The most solid example of the existence of the Jats is found in the records of the Van kingdom of Armenia. Every single name of that kingdom, whether it is of cities or of the various clans, can-only be identified with the name Jat or its various clans. After this ninth century B.C. king of the Yen/Ben (present Beniwal clan) we come across the next kingdom of the Maan clan called the Mannai kingdom on the Lake Urumiya. This Lake Urumiya was the Centre of the Jats in the ninth century B.C. and earlier; and it was from here that Moika, the Urumiy scion of Kushana inscriptions came to India in the first century A.D. This Lake Urumiya is situated in the western part of Iran, or bordering Turkey. It was the reputed birth place of Zoroaster. 47 This 'Maan kingdom' on the Lake Urumiya, as well as the earlier Venwal kingdom on the Lake Ven, were later merged in the seventh century B.C. in the kingdom of Manda clan, under Huvakshatra (Cyaxeres of the Greeks). This empire of the Mandas was superseded by Cyrus the Great and at that time,
45. MBT, I, 125,21.
46 PED, p. 1074.
47. P. Sykes, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 23,
many Jats, who refused to accept the change of government, went into various directions. Many of them came to India and some of them spread into Europe where they were called Gots or Goths. Those who remained there and accepted the change of dynasty by expressing their loyalty to Darius, were called Euer Gatae, meaning the "benefactor" Jats, obviously benefactors to the Persians and not to the Jats' cause.
In India. they built the first great kingdom at Gandhara whose king Nagnajit is mentioned prominently by the Jain writers. Another kingdom established in India was by the Nandal clan and was called the Magadha kingdom of Nandas. It is signifiant that the Puranas expressly state this change from local to foreign rule by saying that the Nandas were Sudras. The puranas say, "henceforth - the earth shall be ruled by Sudras only". And It is a fact also because with the possible exception of Sunga and Kanva rule India was ruled by the Jats from the period of Nandas up to Harshavardhana and later. As for Iran Itself, the Jats gave their support to the Achaemenians, but after the Greek were overthrown, the Dahiya clan, under its leader, Arsaces, founded the Arscid dynasty in the 3rd century B.C. and ruled up to 224 AD, when they were superseded by the Sassaids.
The connection of the Jats with West Asia (or Middle East) is not accidental. R.G. Harshe has shown that many Vedic tribal names are the words of ancient Iraq area. He gives the example Vrika which is based on the word, Warak or Uruk. The names Mana and Mandarya are also connected by him with the Median (Manda) names of tribes.48 Here the name Mana, is obviously the Maan clan of the Jats and the second name Mandarya stands for the Mand+Arya, who were ruling the empire under the kings Huvakshatra, Eshtuveguetc. We must note in this connection that according to Herodotus all the Mands were anciently called Aryans. And, of course, the Virk Jat, are the Vrikas of Sanskrit literature. It is not without significance that the name Indarota is found on certain cuneiform tablets of the kings of Middle East.49 This Indarota is the same as Vedic Indrota and Burrow feels that
48. "Vedic Names in Assyrian Records", Adyar Library Bulletin, May 1957, vol. xxi, pt. I-II. Also, "Trails of Vedic Civilisation in Middle East". K. P .B. Commemoration Volume, Kanpur, 196, pp. 163-176.
49. T. Burrow, The Sanskrit Language, p. 27, quoted in P&SM, p. 31.
the Aryan invasion came from south Russia, via the Caucasus.50 The name of a people, Andar appears in West Asia at that time and again Andar is a Jat clan. Even the Aryan god Indra is described as the son of Dasa Vyarnsa, whom he later killed. 51 Is the similarity of Vyamsa with Vains/Bains-a Jat clan, merely coinciidental? We must also note that the Sarangh/Saramha clan of the Jats is the same as the Sarangai of Herodotus, Saranka/ Zaranka of the Achaemenian inscriptions, the Sirrenke of Elamite records, the Saraggoi of Arian, whose country was called Saranngiana. Buddha Prakash, to whom we are greatly indebted, identifies the five people, Panchala of India as including the Kassites, the Sarangai, the Turas, and the Scyths.52 While agreeing with him on the main point, we would like to further clarify that the Kassites are not only to be identified with the Kesins of India but also with the Kasvans (Kushanas) of the later period. The Sarangai have already been identified with the Saramgha clan of the Jats. Similarly Turas, identified with Turvasa of ancient India, are further to be identified with the Tur clan. An area in Iran was called Tur and another area in Baluchistan is called Turan. As for the Scyths of Buddha Prakash, we shall substitute the particular clan, the Virk clan of the Jats, because the Persian name is Saka Haumavarga, meaning the Scythian Virka. Buddha Prakash correctly identifies the Vrikas of Sanskrit literature with the Virk Jats.53 According to R.N. Dandekar, the Vedas were originally born in Balkh region between 2400 and 2000 B.C. and were later on revised and ritualized in the land of the seven rivers, i.e., Afghanistan and the Punjab. The Vedic Druhyus belonged to the North West. 54 The descendants of Druhyu were rulers at Gandhara, according to Matsya Purana and Vayu Purana. The MBT mentions Prahalada as a king of Balkh and there is evidence to show that the king of Gandhara, Nagnajit was a pupil of Prahalada.
Now let us go back to Indian scriptures. According to Indian traditions, Prajapati had a number of wives. The sons born from his wife, Diti. were called Daityas; the sons born from his wife,
50. ibid., p. 30.
51. Rig Veda, IV, 18, 9.
52. P&SM, p. 76.
53. ibid., p. 102.
54. Mc-Donnell and Keith, Vedic Index, Vol. I. p. 385.
Aditi were called Adityas, the later Devas. The sons born from his wife Danu, were called Danavas who figure prominently, in the ancient history of West Asia. These Danavas were later called Asuras. It is significant that many Jat clans figure in the Asura stories of India. For example Balasura, stands for the Bal clan of the Jats or one particular king of that clan. Vrikasura similarly stands for the Vrika clan or a king of that clan. The very name Jatasura, i.e., Jat Asura is also mentioned in the Mahabharata and by Varahamihira. These are some examples only and are similar to the Babylonian names, e.g., Asurabani Pal, Asurnezar Pal, etc. Even Varuna, the Aryan god, is called Asura Varuna.55 Baudhayana Dharmasutra speaks of the Asura branch of Kashyapa gotra. 56
We have already seen that the Maurs were called Amorites or Amur.
We have also seen that the first king of the Jats (Guti) in the third millennium B.C. was called Maruta. Now Maruta or Marut is an Aryan god also, who is the god of wind and rain. But there are other meanings given to the word Marut and on the whole it is clear that Marut is not only a god, but also a people with definite mode of living, particular dress, armaments and ideas of human equality with a kingless or republican form of government.
The following quotations are taken from Daivata Samhita edited by Shripada Damodara Satavalekar (1941 Edn.). Some of the meanings given to Marut are as under:
- (i) One who fights war "without tears" (Mā + Rud).
- (ii) One who gets up and fights till death (Mara + Ut).
- (iii) One who speaks less (Mā + Rut).
- (iv) Those who live in groups (गणशो हि मरुत:) Tandya B. 19/14/2).
- (v) These who are agriculturists.
- (vi) Those who are soldiers of Indra.
- (i) They do not care about their bodies. (तनूषु न कि: येतिरे Rig. 8/22/12).
- (ii) They decorate their bodies with strange ornaments. (चित्रै: अञ्जिभि: Rig. 1/64/4),
55. ABORI, 1940, Vol. XXI, pp. 157-191.
56. Bibliotheca Indica, Vol. III. p. 450.
- (iii) They bear spears on their shoulders.
- (iv) They have movable bows (on their bodies) and immovable bows on their chariots. 57 These chariots are drawn by horses or stags.58 रथेषु पृषती: Their chariots are full of arrows and food.
- (v) They have golden turbans or head dress on their heads. (शिप्रा शीर्षन् हरिण्ययी: Rig. 8/7/25).
- (vi) They have whips (producing sound) in their hands. (हस्तेषु कशावदान् Rig. 1/37/3).
- (vii) They feel pleasure in wars. (विदथेषु मदन्ति Rig. 1/85/4).
- (viii) They are the sons of Rudra. (रुद्रस्य सूनव:).
- (ix) Indra is surrounded by Maruts.59
- (x) They believe in human equality. They have no superiors among them, nor inferiors. All are equal and move with their group strength.
- (xi) They are "well born" (sic) Su-Jātasah and they call the earth, their mother.
- (vii) They are brave among men. 60
- (xiii) They call each other 'brothers'.61
- (xiv) The whole world is afraid of them. (मरुद्भय विश्व भुवनानि-भवन्ते)
- (xv) They are like kings (राजान: इव ) but kingless (अराजिन:).
- (xvi) They have no higher (अकनिष्ठास:) or middle (अमध्यसास:) or lower (अचरमा:) among them; yet they are superior in qualities (sic) (ज्येष्ठास:),
- (xvii) They do not bow before anybody (अन्-आनत:)
- (xviii) They keep horses (अश्वयुज :), especially red coloured horses. (अरुनाश्व: रोहित:)
- (xix) They are invincible, and indestructible (न स: जीयन्ते;न हन्यते).
They look ferocious.62 (त्वेष संद्रिश: नर:, Rig. 1/85/8)
57. Rig Veda, 8/20/12.
58. ibid., 1/85/4.
59. ibid., VI, 5/6/2.
60. ibid., 5/59/6 ..
61. ibid., 1/60/5.
62. ibid., 1/85/8,
Now who are these brave, fearless, kingless but kinglike horse-owning warriors, hunters wearing head dress, spears and bow, moving in horse or stag-drawn chariots (wagons), soldiers of Indra, sons of Rudra having no superiors or inferiors among them, who address each other as brothers, who live and fight in large groups, and who call the earth their 'mother'? They cannot be native to India because stag-drawn wagons are unthinkable in the Indian context, and this single fact, points out, unmistakably, towards the Siberian plains. It is well known that the Scythians used stags for driving their wagons and the Eskimos still do. The very name Shalva meaning a stag or gazelle, is of Scythian origin,63 and is the name of a Jat clan, the present Syal. Russian scholar Nicholas Marrr, was of the view that stag was used for riding before the use of horse, and his view has been confirmed by archaeology.64 Every single characteristic mentioned above gives the one and only one answer. They are the Scythians, the Getae of northern plains of Asia! Their federal or communistic living and war habits, their democratic, kingless government, their presence feared by the world, is very apt indeed. It is significant that they are called here, Sujata and Jyestha, because both these names are associated with the origins of Jats in the Puranas.
They are the soldiers of Indra; they are the Aryans; they are the Guts, about whom the authors of the Sumerian kings list queried, "who was king? who was not king", because they were kingless (अराजिन:)-All were kings and no one was king!
This identification of Maruts, sons of Rudra, with the Scythian Getae finds further confirmation from the Vedic literature. Satapatha Brahmana mentions a king, Marutta Aviksita, performing a horse sacrifice in which the Maruts act as his body guards, the Agni (fire) acts as his Chamberlain and all the gods (visve-devas) as his courtiers. 65
Here we find a king named Marutta, and of course, the Marut bodyguards are his soldiers, and horse sacrifice is a Central Asian custom, followed by the Mandas, the Scythians and the Hunas. Now these Maruts are described as "Sons of Rudra" and Rudra
63. JA, 1929, pp. 312-325.
64. American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 37, p. 30.
65. Satopathu Brahmana, XIII, 5/4-6.
- स्तुहि श्रुतं गर्तसदं जनानाम् राजानं भीममुपहत्नुमुग्रम
- मुडा जरित्रे रुद्र स्तवानो अन्यमस्मत्ते नि वपन्तु सेन्यम (18.1.40)
Here Rudra is called "Gartasadam Jananam Rajanam". S.D. Satavalekar translates this word 'Gartasadam' asadan as "one who lives inside everybody".66 But this is manifestly incorrect; because the king of the people "who live inside everybody" does not make sense. Satavalekar is conscious of this fact, and he says that "the words" Jananam Rajana Rudram "carry special importance, all people have one king, Rudra". He is again dissatisfied and says that the word "Gartasad" requires consideration, with reference to other words, and he finally takes 'Garta' as equivalent to a cave (Guha). But 'Garta' is the same as 'Asi-garta' of Iran; Sagarta of the Greeks. Chitra Takhma the opponent of Darius the Great, is called an Asagarta. Asi, the name of the people, means 'horse' and 'Garta' stands for Jat, so Asigarta means horse-owning Jat or Jat horse, like the later Skinners' Horse of the British Indian Army. The old name of Hunas, as per Herodotus, is Arimaspa, which means Arima = first + Asp. =Horse, i.e. the "First Horse". It is significant that the area around Jullundur/Kangra inhabited by the Jat is named 'Tri-garta' in the Puranas. Obviously it is named after the three clans of the Jats, though in the time of Panini, the three had become six (clans). 67 Now Aitereya Brahmana mentions a person, Shunahshepa, who is the son of Aji-garta. Here Aji-garta has to be compared with Asigarta/Asagarta. This Sunahsepa, whose name is rather Persian, was adopted as a son by Visvamitra, son of Gathi, (Gathin). Referring to this episode, R.S. Sharma, says this is "an early example of the priestly ingenuity in the invention of genealogies" of the foreigners.68 Obviously, Ajigarta and his son were not Indian.
The hymn of Atharva Veda quoted above, has its parallel in the Rig Veda where the phrase "Gartasadam Jananam Rajanam" is modified into "Gartasadam Yuvanam mrigam na". The earlier
66. Daivata Samhita, Vol. II, pt. 7, p. 6.
67. See also Sukumar Sen, Old Persian Inscriptions (1941).
68. Sudras in Ancient India', p. 65.
(तवत् ओजीयो न वा अस्ति)
G.P. Upadhyaya in his Hindi edition of Satapatha Brahmana (Vol. I) translates the word 'Sad din' as horse-rider, the word Asad is mentioned as 'on foot', obviously, the word Sad, as antonym of Asad means one who is not on foot, i.e., a horse or chariot rider. SED' defines Sada as sitting on horse-back, riding.70 Sadin is defined as horseman. Sadya is defined as riding-horse. Garta is defined as a high seat, or throne; the seat of a chariot. Gartasad is defined as sitting on the seat of a chariot. 71 Thus, the word Gartasad, used for a people can be taken as chariot. or horseriding people- a definition which exactly fit the Scythians or the Massagetae.
Rig Veda mentions the stags used as horses, as Prisad-Ashva. The Maruts are called as those who use stags as horses.71 Sadya is mentioned in the Ashvalayana Sutra as a riding-horse. Sujata is mentioned in the Rig Veda as a title of people.
The Puranas derived the word Jat from Sujata. We have already seen that, according to Unadi Vritti, the word Jat means king, i.e. a title. HVI, however, says that it would not be proper to take Sujata as royal or special people as agaaist common people.72 Buddha Prakash equates the Indian word Mashaka with Massagetae.73 The word Mashaka is the name of a country in Sakadvipa, inhabited by Kshatriya.74 Panini mentions a river, Mashakavati, obviously in the same region. There was, however, not much of a difference between the Massagetae and the Scythians although they were fighting each other on occasions. But such fighting seem to be a regular phenomena in the lower Siberian plains, and these disruptions of peaceful existence, affected the history of Asia and Europe. This was so right from the movements of Aryans and up to the movements of the Mughals.
69. SED, p. 1139.
70. ibid., p. 349.
71. HVI, Vol. II, p. 22.
72. ibid., Vol. II, p. 501.
73. P&SM, p. 40.
74. SED, p. 793.
Now we shall put forth a hypothesis, the word 'Garta-sad' is the same as "Garta-scyth" or Jat-Scythian or 'Scytheon Getae' of the Greek writers. Here we should remember that the king Manuas of Ven/Ben dynasty of Armenia founded a city after his name and called it Manuash garta, mentioned above. We are not sure of the second word 'Sad' or 'Sada', but is it impossible to equate it with Scyth? Of course, we are taking only strictly historical aspect of the hymns. Yajur Veda says that "innumerable thousands (in number) are these Rudras on the Earth".
(असंख्याता: सहस्राणि ये रूदा: अधिभूभ्याम्)
This remark for the innumerable number of the Rudra Maruts, has to be compared with the remark of the Greek writers about the Scythian Getae. These writers remark that the Getae were so ferocious and so innumerable, that no power of the earth could stop them, provided they had unity.
We have already seen their wars and battles with the Assyrians, the Iranians and the Greeks under Alexander. Just like the Maurs establishing their empire in India, the Jats in the South of Caspian Sea established their own empire. Under a leader named Arsaces (Ashk of the Iranians) they overthrew the Selucid Greeks, in 256 B.C. and founded the Parthian or Arsacide empire. We have already quoted MAKI, in support of the theory that this Arsaces was from the Dahi/Dahiya clan. Other historians also accept this fact while some others say that Arsaces was brought up among the Dahi people.76 They are admitted to be Turanians in contradiction to the term Iranians. It is significant that Firdausi in his Shahnama calls them Muluk-at-Tawai meaning the "kings of tribes". Of course they were not Iranian tribe but Turanian or Scythian Getae clans. It is again significant that their language of official dealings was Greek and not Persian. Their king, Vologeses I, was the first king who became fully Zoroastrian in religion and got their scriptures classified and compiled. King Mithradates I (171-136 B.C.) conquered Persia proper. It was they who were sun-worshippers, and who defeated
75. op. cit., Bk. 1, p. 215.
76. Stein Konow, CII, Vol. II, pt. I, footnote.
the Roman armies under General Crassus in 53 B.C., in the battle of Carrhae. It was here that the Romans saw for the first time the silken, coloured banners. Later on they fought against repeated Roman armies, including that under the famous Mark Antony. Their last king Artabanus IV, was defeated in 224 A.D., by Ardshir, the Persian king of Sasanid dynasty after three battles. Thus ended the kingdom of the Dahiya Jats after a rule of 480 years.
According to Arrian, Mithradates I had extended his conquests up to the river Indus, and subdued the territory between the Indus and the Jhelum rivers. The Indo-Parthian kings, like Azes, Gondophernes, etc., were ruling that area, as representatives of their sovereigns in the south of Caspian Sea.77
Now coming to the Mahabharata itself, we have already noted numerous Jat clans mentioned in that epic. Regarding the system of polyandry, it is generally agreed that this was not a custom native to India, whereas, on the other hand, it was a custom very much prevalent among the Central Asian people. Herodotus says that the Massagetae had the custom of holding their wives in common among the brothers.78 (Book I, 216). Various other Central Asian people are similarly known to have this Custom and it is still prevalent among the Himalayan people. In the Mahabharata we know that Draupadi was married to the five Pandavas in common. Her father raised an objection on moral grounds and Yudhisthira justified it on the ground that this was their ancient custom, which he was bound to follow, irrespective of the finer issues of morality.79 [Query: is the last word of the first line Gatim, correctly reproduced? Is it not connected with Vayam (we), meaning "we Guts" ?]
सूक्ष्मो धर्मो महाराज नास्य विदनो वयं गतिम् ।
पूर्वेषामनुपूर्वें यातं वतर्मानुयामहे ।।
Buddha Prakash argues that Arjuna, the Pandava hero is the symbol of Saka/Yue-che; Bhima is the symbol of Vrikas, Yudhishthira is the symbol of Yaudheyas; and Nakula and Sahadeva are the symbols of Madras.80
77. P.C. Davar, Iran and its Culture, p. 172
78. op. cit., Bk. I, 216.
79. MBT, 1/20/29.
80. P&SM, p. 90.
Here the Yue-che are of course of the Guti, i.e., the Jats, Vrikas are a Jat clan, so are the Yaudheyas (Johiya clan) and Madra (Madan/Madhan clan). Does it not show that the Pandavas were Jats? We find confirmation of this remark in the fact that Dhūmakāri Jātaka (No. 413) speaks of Yuddhitthila gotta ruling at Indapatt (Indraprastha). Now the question is, why Yudhishthira is called a Got/Gotta? The answer is obvious: the Pandavas were Jats. This explains their strange customs, their polyandry, their bloody oaths, their drinking of blood from their enemies' breasts and the washing of hair of Draupadi with the blood of her enemies. All these are entirely un-Indian customs. We must also note here that Shalya, the king of Madra, justified the taking of the price of a bride on the basis of ancient custom among them. Toynbee was of the opinion that Mahabharata is the product of Scythians.81 Referring to the people of northwestern India at the time of Alexander's invasion, Arnold J. Toynbee says, "It is tempting to conjecture that the warlike communities, that were encountered by Alexander the Great in the Indus Valley in 327-324 B.C. were the descendants of Eurasian nomads, who had been deposited there by a more recent Volkerwanderung than that of the Aryas. The most recent period of aridity and effervescence on the Steppes may have run from about 825 to about 525 B.C. and this period partly coincides in date with both the Babylonic 'Time of Troubles' (1000-600 B.C.) and the Syriac 'Time of Troubles' (925-525 B.C.).82 It is gratifying to find a historian of the Status of Toynbee, inclined to the same theory.
Referring to the similar migrations/movements in earlier times, Buddha Prakash observes, "that tides of invasions and migrations, in the Vedic period had strong Iranian and Bactrian currents which merged in the multitudinous tribal confluence of the Punjab and thence rolled towards the East". 83 It is this period of ancient history, i.e., from the earliest to the wars of Alexander and the
81. A.J. Toynbee, A Study of History, Vol. V, pp. 605-606.
82. ibid., p. 274.
83. op cit., p. 79.
Mauryas, that we have to search for a truer interpretation of history, and this study should not be carried out from the Indian point of view alone, but also from a pan-Asian standpoint. Humanity does not live in watertight compartments, nor do the artificial national boundaries ever stop its cyclic movements. Neither the China Wall saved the Chinese, nor did the Roman Wall save the Romans from the determined Jats. As far India itself, we have already noted the struggles of the Jats, under their Nandal/Nander, Maur/Mor, Kasvan/Kushana, Dharan/Gupta, Kalkil/Vakataka, Virk/Bains and other clans to found empire after empire for more than a millennium. First they came under their Arya clan, then under their Kuru (Kur, present Khar) clan, then followed the Virk, Mand, Madhan, [Maur]], Kasvan, Gussar clans, as leaders of the Jats, in their migration to India.
Masoudi, who wrote about the year 947, and had been in India, throws some light in his Golden Meadows upon the Jat dynasties. "The dynasty of Phour, who was overcome by Alexannder, lasted 140 years; then came that of Dabschalim which lasted 120 years. That of Yalith (Balhit) was next, and lasted 80 years; some say 130 years.
"The next dynasty was that of Cours (Kurush) and lasted 120 years.
"Then the Indians divided and formed several kingdoms; there was a king in the country of Sindh, one at Kanauj, another in Kashmir, and the fourth in the city of Mankir .. and the prince who reigned there, had the title of Balhara."84
It is worth an inquiry to find out why Mauryas are not mentioned after Phor/Porus. Who are the Dabschalims? Is the later Paur kingdom confused with the famous Poros, adversary of Alexander? We know from Strabo that Porous (Phor/Phour), a ruler over 600 kings, sent an embassy to Augustus in Rome in 21/25 B.C.85 As for Balhara, Karpura Manjari also mentions it as Balhara. They were the rulers of Ballbhipura. According to Cunningham, Mandlii and Monedes of Megasthenes were one and the same.86 They are the ancient Mandas.
84. Asiatic Researches, Vol. IX, p. 181.
85. Strabo, Geography, bk. XV, ch. I, p. 73.
86. op. cit., pp. 508-509.
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