Kadru

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Kadru (कद्रू) was a Nagavanshi Queen. Kadru is the name of the mother of Nagas. Kadrava by metathesis becomes Karddava which literally means 'born of Kadru'. Garuda's mother was Vinata, whose sister was Kadru, the mother of Nagas.

Jat clans

History

Bhim Singh Dahiya [1] further writes about Kadyan gotra: We have already quoted inscriptional evidence mentioning a Kadan who is also called "Goti-Putra". Ancient coins have also been found with the legend 'Kāḍasa' in early Brahmi characters. Kadasa (Sanskrit Kāḍasya) means "(the coins of the Kāḍas". According to John Allan, these coins have not yet been attributed. [2] It has been suggested that the name Kāḍa may be for Sanskrit Kala. Cunningham says that Kāḍa may be equated with Kadrava, the descendant of Kadru. [3] Both these suggestions are untenable and these coins really belong to the Kādān or as it is now written, Kadyan clan. The original name is Kaḍā which means high in Persian language and the suffix 'an' is added to it. The places like Kādyān near Amritsar and another place Kadān in Balochistan is named after them. As John Allan states, the name is a tribal name and not that of a ruler. The coins were found along with the coins of Kunindas and therefore, point to a Punjab provenance. They belonged to the third century B.C. or early second century B.C. The standing figure on the coins holds a spear or sceptre in the left hand. The symbols on the coins are those of the Sun, the Swastika, etc.


Kadrava are descendant of nagavanshi ruler Amrakarddava. Hailing from Sukuli-desa who loyally served Chandragupta II by fighting and winning many battles for him.

The first part of the name is based on the mango tree. The second part is karddava. It is the name of some Nagas or serpent-demons thought to be inhabitants of the lower regions. Kadru is the name of the mother of serpents. Kadrava by metathesis becomes Karddava which literally means 'born of Kadru'. In south, among aboriginal people and lower castes, the practice of matriarchal names is well known. The whole term 'Amrakarddava' is inexplicable as one word. Amra seems to be his personal name and Karddava his family title. [4]

In Mahabharata

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 59 mentions descent on the earth from heaven with all the gods: Kadru's sons - Sesha or Ananta, Vasuki, Takshaka, Kurma, and Kulika are known to be the sons of Kadru. (Mbt:I.59.40)

शेषॊ ऽनन्तॊ वासुकिश च तक्षकश च भुजंगमः
कूर्मश च कुलिकश चैव काद्रवेया महाबलाः (Mbt:I.59.40)

In Ramayana

Ramayana ....Aranya Kanda/Aranya Kanda Sarga 14 mentions Rama's Contact with Jatayu. Rama on way to Panchavati came into contact with Jatayu. When Rama questions about its identity, Jatayu narrates the Genealogy , and informs Rama that he is a friend of King Dasharatha and would like to help Rama in exile.

Surasa gave birth to Nagas, viz., many headed serpents, while Kadru gave birth to ordinary serpents. [3-124-28]

Kadru was the sister of Surasa. [3-14-31]

Kadru gave birth to a thousand-headed serpent (Nagas) who is the bearer of this earth, and Vinata gave birth to two sons namely Garuda and Aruna. [3-14-32]

रोहिणि अजनयद् गावो गन्धर्वी वाजिनः सुतान् ।
सुरसा अजनयन् नागान् राम कद्रूःपन्नगान् ॥३-१४-२८॥
सर्वान् पुण्य फलान् वृक्षान् अनला अपि व्यजायत ।
विनता च शुकी पौत्री कद्रूः च सुरसा स्वसा ॥३-१४-३१॥
कद्रूर् नाग सहस्रम् तु विजज्ञे धरणीधरन् ।
द्वौ पुत्रौ विनतायाः तु गरुडो अरुण एव च ॥३-१४-३२॥
तस्मात् जातो अहम् अरुणात् संपातिः च मम अग्रजः ।
जटायुर् इति माम् विद्धि श्येनी पुत्रम् अरिंदम ॥३-१४-३३॥

References

  1. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Appendices/Appendix III, pp.337-38
  2. Catalogue of the coins of ancient India, Orient Reprint, 1975, SS 103.
  3. ASIAR, Vol. II, p. 10,
  4. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Names of Feudatory Kings and High Officers, By - Tej Ram Sharma, p.48

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