Kak

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Kak (काक)[1] Kaka (काक) Kakustha (काकुस्थ) is gotra of Jats found in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan in India. Khak (खाक) is found in Pakistan. Kaka clan is found in Afghanistan.[2]

Origin

This Gotra is said to be originated from Suryavanshi King Kakustha (काकुस्थ) son of Vikukshi. [3] Kaka clan is found in Afghanistan.[4]

History

Ram Swarup Joon[5] writes In the Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48, while describing various Kings who attended a ceremony in the Durbar (court) of Maharaja Yudhisthira, seventeen names are mentioned which are today found as Jat gotras. These are Malhia, Mylaw, Sindhar, Gandhar, Mahity, Mahe, Savi, Bath, Dharan, Virk, Dard, Shaly, Matash, Kukar (Khokar) Kak, Takshak, Sand, Bahik (Bathi) Bije (Bijenia), Andhra, Sorashtra (Rathi) Mann, Ar, Sohat, Kukat, Othiwal (Othval).


Ram Swarup Joon[6] writes.... According to Bhagwatdatta, Baluchis of (of Balochistan) today are the descendants of Anu. Baluchya, Balhara, Bal, Balan are Jat gotras. Kak, Kakarzai, Klock, Kukar, Khokar, Karskar Jats belong to the Anu Branch. Thirty thousand Baluchis in Makran were recognised as Jats. Baluchis of the Lomri region are described as Jats in their chronicles. In the Rig-Veda, there are references to the Kabul River of Afghanistan, Gomal Valley, and rivers Ganga and Jamuna. There are also references to Kshatriya and the five branches of the Yayati Dynasty.


Ram Swarup Joon[7] writes that ... The Kak Jats have 52 villages in Aligarh district, and about 100 villages in other parts of India. These people called themselves descendants of the Nagas or Yadu and worship Balram. Their ancestors ruled over Anhalwara in Ajmer. On being driven out from there they settled down in Brij. They have 40 villages in district Gonda.


Ram Swarup Joon[8] writes about Kukarnag, Kakrryan or Kak: Kukar was the son of Takshak. Kak, Kakrayan, Kakar, Khokhar are derivatives of Kukar. They are also called Karaskars. The Kukar rulers are also mentioned to be present at King Yudhisthira's coronation. They are called Kukars in Dwarika and Kakar in Baluchistan. Kakarzi amongst the Baluch is a big tribe. The Kukar dynasty has been erroneously called a Suryavanshi dynasty.


Rajatarangini[9] mentions thatYashoraja who was related to the Kāka family was banished by the king, and he came over to Sahasramangala who enlisted him in his party. (VIII,p.46)

Rajatarangini[10] mentions that when Sussala became King of Kashmir second time in 1121 AD he faced difficulties. There happened a disaster on the bridge over the Sindhu, king was defeated but Renewal of war continued. It is mentioned that Ananda of the family of Kāka, Loshtasha, Nala and other renowned warriors in the Damara army were killed by the king's (Sussala) soldiers. (VIII,p.94)


B S Dahiya[11] writes: Kak are mentioned in Vayu Purana(4/2/14). They are mentioned in Allahabad Pillar Inscriptions of Samudragupta, along with Kharap, Salkalan, etc.-all Jat clans.[12]

They are mentioned by Cunningham[13] in an inscription at the Buddhist Stupa of Sanchi of the Ashoka period as under:

No. 39. — Kākanāye Bhagavatopamona-lathi ; or

Kākenoye Bhagavatopamāne-rathi,

" Gift of Kākanā, an anxious longer for Bhagavat."

The first King of Ayodhya was Ikshvaku whose son was Vikukshi. Vikukshi's son was Kakustha, who started the vansha Kak or Kakustha. They are mentioned in Vayu Purana.[14] They are mentioned in Allahabad Pillar Inscriptions of Samudragupta, alongwith Khara, Salkalan, etc. - all Jat clans.[15] [16] Their descendants are the modern Kakrana Jats.

A country is mentioned in Mahabharata [17] as Kaka. [18]

Kaka as a warrior is mentioned in Rajatarangini.[19]

Kakanadabota History

Tejram Sharma [20] writes that ....The word Kakanadabota (काकनादबोट) has been mentioned in two Gupta inscriptions - (No. 5, L. 1): Sanchi Stone Inscription of Chandragupta II Gupta Year 93 (A.D. 412); (No.23, L.2) : Sanchi Stone Inscription of the time of Kumaragupta I Gupta Year 131 (=A.D. 450)

2. Kakanadabota (काकनादबोट) (No. 5, L. 1; No.23, L.2) : In both the inscriptions, we find reference to a grant to the Arya Samgha or the Community of the faithful, at the great Vihara, or Buddhist convent of Kakanadabota, 700 for the purpose of feeding mendicants and maintaining lamps.

D.C. Sircar takes 'Kakanadabota' to be the old name of Sanchi. 701 Fleet is of the view that the Kakanadabota convent is the Great Stupa itself. According to him the word Bota is another form of Pota (पोट) which means 'the foundation of a house'. 702 Fleet further writes that the name 'Kakanada' lit. 'the noise of the crow' was the ancient name of Sanchi it self which is proved by its occurrence in two inscriptions in Mauryan characters found at Sanchi. 703

Thus, it is clear that Kakanada was the ancient name of Sanci in the Bhopal State, now Raisen district, Madhya Pradesh, well-known for its Buddhist topes. 704 The word 'bota' is thus a surplus and joined by 'Kakanada' will refer to the great stupa itself. Its form Pota meaning the foundation of a house is untenable bacause the word 'vihara' in that very sense appears in the inscriptions. The word 'bota' has been used here in the sense of an ascetic cult. 705 It is a Prakrit word which has been used here to refer to 'the Buddhist cult'. Thus the relevant expression means 'in the holy great vihara of the Buddhist cult (assembly) at Kakanada'.

Fleet is wrong in translating the word Kakanada to mean 'the noise of the crow'. 706 K.P. Jayaswal's rendering 'the praise of the Kakas' 707 is more to the point. We know of the Kakas, an autonomous community mentioned in the Allahabad Inscription of Samudragupta. 708 In Eastern Malwa we have two ancient place-names connected with the Kakas. One is the hill now called Sanchi hill (the ancient) Kakanada. The other is an ancient village called Kakapura, some 20 miles north of Bhilsa, and full of ancient monuments. 709


700. No. 5, L. 1 : No. 2, L. 2 : काकनादबोट-श्री-महाविहारे...।

701. Select Inscriptions by D. C. Sircar, p. 281, f.n.3.

702. Corpus Inscripionum Indicarum, Vol. III by John Faithful Fleet, p. 31 also see f.n.I.

703. Ibid., p. 31 : (i) काकणाये भगवतो पमण लठि "the measuring staff of (Buddha), the Divine one, at Kakanada". (ii) "सपुरिसस गोतिपुतस काकनाद - पभासनस कोडिन गोतस " : "(the relics) of the virtuous Prabhasana of Kakanada, the Gotiputra, of the Kaundinya gotra".

704. Cf. Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval India by N. L. Dey, p. 83 : Select Inscriptions by D. C. Sircar. p. 280.

705. Cf. Paia-Sadda-Mahannavo (ed.) V. S. Agrawala and Malvania. p. 639 : बोटिय (बोटिक) : दिगम्बर जैन सम्प्रदाय, वि. दिगम्बर जैन सम्प्रदाय का अनुयायी .... "बिडियसिव भूईयो बोडियलिंगस्स होइ उप्पत्ती ...

706. Corpus Inscripionum Indicarum, Vol. III by John Faithful Fleet. p. 31

707. Journal of Bihar and Orissa Research Society, Patna. Vol. XVIII, 1952, Pt. II, p. 212.

708. No. I, L. 22 : Corpus Inscripionum Indicarum, Vol. III by John Faithful Fleet , pp. 8,14.

709. Jayaswal, 'The Kakas... their location" Journal of Bihar and Orissa Research Society, Patna, Vol. XV1IT, 1932, Pt. II, pp. 212-13. P. 212 'Kakapura is situated on a river and a hill opposite the village by the road has two square temples and a few Gupta Sculptures. A large number of pillars and Sati memorials cover the plain in front of the temple hill. Medieval inscriptions are also in evidence. They with the temples testify to the continued importance of the place, from the Gupta to the medieval period.

काक

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[21] ने लेख किया है ...काक (AS, p.160) गुप्त सम्राट महाराजाधिराज समुद्रगुप्त की प्रयाग प्रशस्ति में समुद्रगुप्त के साम्राज्य की पश्चिमी व पश्चिम दक्षिणी सीमा पर स्थित कुछ अधीन प्रजातियों की सूची में 'काक' भी है.... इनका प्रदेश संभवत: काकूपर (जिला कानपुर, उत्तर प्रदेश) के निकट रहा होगा. विंसेंट स्मिथ के अनुसार यह काकनाद अथवा सांची का परिवर्ती प्रदेश है. काक पाठांतर खाक है.


काक नामक एक जनपद का उल्लेख पौराणिक महाकाव्य महाभारत में हुआ है। महाभारत के अनुसार यह दक्षिण दिशा में स्थित एक जनपद था।[22]

In Ramayana

The Ramayana Bala Kanda mentions Kak at various places. [23]

Distribution in Uttar Pradesh

The Kak Jats have 52 villages in Aligarh district in Uttar Pradesh and about 100 villages in other parts of India. These people called themselves descendants of the Nagas or Yadu and worship Balarama. Their ancestors ruled over Anhalwara in Ajmer. On being driven out from there they settled down in Brij. Kak Jats have 40 villages in district Gonda. [24]

Distribution in Rajasthan

Villages in Sikar district

Garh Taknet,

Distribution in Pakistan

According to 1911 census the Khak were the principal Muslim Jat clan in:

Distribution in Afghanistan

Notable persons

See also

Kakapura - Ancient historical site in Vidisha district, Madhya Pradesh.

References

  1. B S Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.239, s.n.105
  2. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, H. W. Bellew, p.113,117,118,158
  3. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya etc,: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, p.227
  4. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan,H. W. Bellew, p.80
  5. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter II,p. 32-33
  6. Ram Swarup Joon:History of the Jats/Chapter II,p.32
  7. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V,p. 89
  8. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V,p. 91
  9. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII, p.46
  10. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII, p.94
  11. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Jat Clan in India,p. 258
  12. IA, Vol. II.
  13. The Bhilsa topes: Inscriptions, P. 241
  14. Vayu Purana, 4/2/14
  15. Indian Antiquity, Vol. II
  16. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study),
  17. Mahabharata, 6 /9/64
  18. [Bhim Singh Dahiya]], Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), p. 285
  19. Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book VII (i) (p.269)
  20. Tejram Sharma:Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 265
  21. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.160
  22. भारतकोश-काक
  23. विश्वामित्रो ययौ अग्रे ततो रामो महायशाः ।
    काक पक्ष धरो धन्वी तम् च सौमित्रिः अन्वगात् ॥१-२२-६॥ राज्य भार नियुक्तानाम् एष धर्मः सनातनः । अधर्म्याम् जहि काकुत्स्थ धर्मो हि अस्याम् न विद्यते ॥१-२५-१९॥ प्रभातायाम् तु शर्वर्याम् विश्वामित्रो महामुनिः । अभ्यभाषत काकुत्स्थौ शयानौ पर्ण संस्तरे ॥१-२३-१॥ श्रूयताम् वत्स काकुत्स्थ यस्य एतत् दारुणम् वनम् । एतौ जनपदौ स्फीतौ पूर्वम् आस्ताम् नरोउत्तम ॥१-२४-१७॥
  24. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p.89

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