Kaytha

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Location of Kaytha near Mahidpur in Ujjain District

Kaytha (कायथा) or Kayatha (कायथा)is an ancient historcal village in Tarana tahsil of Ujjain district in Madhya Pradesh. Its ancient name was Kâpitthaka (कपित्थक). This village was the birth place and the place where Varahamihira (वराहमिहिर) (505 - 587) received enlightenment. Its population is 7,062.

Variants of name

Location

It is situated about 15 miles to the east of the present city of Ujjain, on the Ujjain- Makshi road.

Origin of name

The village gets its name from Kaitha (कैथा) trees known as wood apple or Elephant apple in English and Feronia elephantum (correa) or Feronia limonia (Linn.) in botany. Kaitha (कैथा) trees are found in abundance in this area. Its local names are Kabit, Kaitha, Kovit, Kapittha (कपित्थ) . Its sanskrit name is Kapittha (कपित्थ), Dadhistha (दधिस्थ) , Kapipriya (कपिप्रिय) etc.[1]

History

Local tradition reveals that this village was the birth place of Varahamihira (वराहमिहिर) (505 - 587), also called Varaha, or Mihira the Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer born in Ujjain. There is a nalah near the village known as Varaha nalah.


D. G. Dhavale[2] writes that Varähamihira was one of the few Indian astronomers who did not mention his own date in any of his writings. But he has stated his own name, his father's name and the place where he was educated.

A question of considerable interest to scholars is the identification of the place where he received enlightenment. Where is this place Käpitthaka (कापित्थक) situated[3]? Cunningham in his 'Ancient Geography of India' says that Sankisa, on the bank of the Kalinadi in U.P. was called Kia- pi- tha or Kapitha by Huen Tsang. Further, Kielhorn[4] notes that the word Kapitthikäyäh mentioned in the Madhuvana plates of Harshavardhana may be the kia-pi-tha of Huen Tsang identified by Alexander Cunningham as Sankisa. He further suggests that this is probably the Käpitthaka of Varähamihira. This interpretation would have been satisfactory had no other theory been proposed. There are, however, two other identifications by other scholars.

I - Sudhâkara Dvivedi in his ^|U|^^<p^u¡Y, where he gives short summaries of the lives of Indian astronomers, reads «pi'H-f^fy for ^rpTrTÍ and understands it as fngPJVHU. ! He concedes that there is an alternative reading—^pf^H. How «wrfwfctfÍ can be construed as +"l<rrqte»rc is difficult to understand; for a place of the name <ffi(i*fcq is shown by Cunningham in one of his maps. It lies on the bank of the Ganga not far from Sankisa. Kälpi on the other hand is on the bank of Yamuna.

II - About 15 miles to the east of the present city of Ujjain, on the Ujjain- Makshi Road, lies an ancient village called Käyathä. That the village is very ancient is undoubted. Excavations have recently been carried out there by archaeologists of the Vikram University which show a chalcolithic culture. [5] Vol. 9. No. 1 78 dhavale: the kâpitthaka of varahamihira Scholars of Central India claim that Käyathä is the Kâpitthaka of Varahamihira. In the 'fafirr ncrf^nrRr' (Hindi) there are three references to Käyathä as Varâha's Kâpitthaka. The claim, however is only in the form of assertions. No attempt is made by any author to prove the claim, nor is there any reference to earlier papers on the subject. There is, however, a manuscript commentary at the Scindia Oriental Institute Library at Ujjain, on the Brhajjätaka of Varahamihira by Pandit Sivalala Pathaka in which the author gives both the place names Kampilyaka and Kâpitthaka explaining the first as Kampel and the second as Käyathä; and states that both these places are near Ujjain, in Mälwa. [6]

The archaeological discoveries indicate that the place must have been a centre of culture from prehistoric times. A number of images of deities, including the Sun, have been found. No inscriptions of any kind were, however, discovered; and there is no direct or indirect proof to associate the place with Varahamihira.

From Indore, via Makshi, Käyathä is about 50 miles distant. It is situated on the banks of the river Choti Kali Sindh which is a tributary of the Chambal. The association of this place with Varahamihira was brought to Dhavla's notice at Indore by a friend who was formerly Collector of the district in which Käyathä lies. Dhavle visited the place in April 1969 and saw the excavations carried out there. But they could not meet anyone locally who could give them details of the discoveries. Later he was able to meet Dr. V. S. Wakankar who led the survey team and who was kind enough to give him a copy of the Käyathä Excavation number of the J. Vk. Univ. and discuss the subject with him.

Dhavle's team saw a signboard in the village giving the name of the place as 'Kapittha- nagari'. Whether this was really the ancient name of the place or was adopted by local enthusiasts who were eager to seal the association with Varahamihira is difficult to say. There is no doubt, however, that the place deserves to be called Kapitthanagarî today owing to the number of Kapittha-wood apple-trees (कैथा) growing on the banks of the river.

Conclusion of D. G. Dhavale is: It will be seen that there are three sites which could be considered as Varähamihira's places of education. (1) Sankisa or Kia-pi-tha, (2) Kâlpï and (3) Käyathä. The second may be rejected outright as Kâmpillaka could not be interpreted as Kâlpï. Between the remaining two Dhavale is inclined to accept the last as most probable. For one thing there is an early reference in a manuscript which says that the place is situated in Mälwa. Secondly, since it is recognised that Varahamihira belonged to Ujjain there is a greater possibility of his being educated in Mälwa than in far off U. P. Thirdly, it is not improbable that a name like Kapittha or Käpittha may degenerate after a sufficiently long time into Käyathä.

Ahar, Kayatha, and Malwa cultures

Dr Naval Viyogi[7] writes about The South and the Central Indian Cultures of Chalcolithic Age: (Ahar, Kayatha, and Malava) ...The remains of Chalcolithic culture have been recovered from the excavation of Ahar and Gelund sites of Bana valley in Rajasthan [8]The date of this culture is 2000 BC-500 BC. Later it was occupied by the 'Iron Age People'. The latest Carbon date of Kalibanga has been calculated to be 1500 B.C. It means Harappan culture survived there later, for a period of about 300 years. In this way Harappan culture of Kalibanga and Chalcolithic culture of Ahar lived contemporarily for a long period of about 700 years (2000 BC-1300 BC). The date 1725 BC, derived by the Tata Institute of Technology Bombay, is also not less contemporary. Since the carbon dates of Eran (Distt [[Sagar Madhya Pradesh]]), Navadatoli (Distt Nimad in Madhya Pradesh), Nevasa (Distt Ahmad Nagar), Songaon, Inamgaon Chandoli (Distt Pune M.R.) etc have been fixed within the second millenium B.C. From this it has become clear that Chalcolithic culture developed in the South and the Central India[9] during the last period of Harappan culture or last phase of some sites or just after.

In this age, the successive development of three cultures of Kayatha, Malava and Jorve is also evident. The Savalda culture of Tapti valley is of some specific type, but it is similar to Kayatha culture. Remains of whatever Chalcolithic culture have come to hands from Maheshwara and Navadatoli (9 kms South of Indore) lying in between Ujjain and Indore, has been named as Malava culture. On a later date, from excavation of Kayatha (on the bank of Kali Sindh) we have come to know about a rich Chalcolithic culture, which developed a few centuries (about 2000 BC) earlier than the Malava culture. Ahar, Kayatha and Malava cultures are so similar that it will be Justified to call them fundamentally one culture. The Ahar and the Kayatha cultures should be taken as parent cultures of Malava[10].

Owing to fixation of carbon-14 date[11] of Malva culture between 1660 ± 130 and 1445 ± 130 BC, period of its origin has been decided 1500 BC (Aggarwal-l971). Evidences of extension of this culture from the region of Ujjain and Navadatoli up to the Tapti and onward up to the Bhima valley, has been noted from the excavation of Chandoli, Songaon and Inamgaon.[12]

कायथा का इतिहास

कपित्थ (AS, p.132) चीनी यात्री युवानच्वांग ने अपने भारत-यात्रा के वृतांत में संकिसा या सांकाश्य (जिला फर्रुखाबाद, उत्तर प्रदेश) का एक नाम कपित्थ भी बताया है. हर्षकालीन मधुवन-ताम्रपट्ट लेख में भी कपित्थका (=कपित्था, कपित्थ) का उल्लेख है.यह ताम्रपट्ट इसी नगरी से प्रचलित किया गया था. इससे हर्षकालीन (606-636 ई.) शासन-व्यवस्था पर अच्छा प्रकाश पड़ता है.[13]

कायथा नामक पुरास्थल उज्जैन से लगभग 25 किलोमीटर दूरी पर पूर्व दिशा में चम्बल नदी की सहायक नदी काली सिंध के दाहिने तट पर काली मिट्टी के मैदान में स्थित है। कायथा पुरास्थल की खोज का श्रेय वी.एस. वाकणकर को जाता है, जिन्होंने इस कायथा पुरास्थल को सन् 1964 ई. में खोज निकाला था।[14]

कायथा का समीकरण 'बृहज्जातक' नामक ग्रंथ में उल्लिखित प्रसिद्ध ज्योतिषाचार्य वराहमिहिर के जन्मस्थान 'कपित्थक' से किया जाता है। आजकल कायथा के टीले के अधिकतर भाग पर बस्ती बसी हुई है, इस कारण बहुत कम स्थान उत्खनन के लिए उपलब्ध हो पाते है। टीले के उत्तरी कायथा संस्कृति के लोग आकर छोटे क्षेत्र में बसे थे। बाद में अहाड़ (आहड़) संस्कृति के लोगों ने अपेक्षाकृत बड़े भू-भाग पर अपनी बस्ती बसायी। कायथा के टीले पर ताम्रपाषाण युग से लेकर गुहाकाल तक के स्तर मिले हैं। [15]

उत्खनन: कायथा पर 1965-1967 ई. में उत्खनन करवाया गया। परिणाम स्वरूप एक सर्वथा अज्ञात ताम्रपाषाणिक संस्कृति के विषय में जानकारी मिली। उत्खनन में प्राप्त सामग्री के आधार पर इसे पाँच स्तरों में विभाजित किया जा सकता है[16]-

  • प्रथम, कायथा संस्कृति (2000-1800 ई.पू.);
  • द्वितीय, अहाड़ संस्कृति (1700-1500 ई.पू.);
  • तृतीय, मालवा संस्कृति( 1500-1200 ई.पू.)
  • चतुर्थ, प्रारम्भिक ऐतिहासिक काल (600-200 ई.पू.) तथा
  • पंचम, शुंग-कुषाण-गुप्त काल (200 ई.पू. से 600 ई. तक)।

इन पाँच पुरा संस्कृतियों में से प्रथम तीन ताम्र-पाषाणिक संस्कृतियाँ हैं। प्रथम कायथा संस्कृति पूर्व ज्ञात किसी अन्य ताम्र-पाषाण संस्कृति से पुरानी एवं एकदम भिन्न है। कायथा संस्कृति में तीन मृद्भाण्ड परम्पराएँ मिलती हैं। पहली हल्के गुलाबी रंग की है, जिस पर बैंगनी रंग में चित्रकारी मिलती है। मुख्य पात्र हैं- हाँडी, कटोरे, तसले एवं मटके। अनेक पात्रों की पेंदी में वलय आकार का आधार है। दूसरी परम्परा पाण्डुरंग की है। बर्तनों पर लाल रंग की चित्र-सज्जा है। मझौले आकार के लोटे इसके मुख्य पात्र हैं। तीसरी बिना अलंकरण के लाल रंग की मृद्भाण्ड परम्परा है। इसके मुख्य पात्र आरेखित हैं। और कटोरे तथा थालियाँ मुख्य पात्र हैं। इनके अतिरिक्त हस्तनिर्मित लाल-भूरे रंग के मिट्टी के बर्तन भी मिले हैं, जिन पर ऊपर से चिपकाये अलंकरण भी हैं। इनमें नाँद, तसले, बड़े कटोरे आदि उल्लेखनीय हैं।[17]

संस्कृति: कायथा संस्कृति के लोग अपने मकान घास-फूस एवं बाँस के बनाते थे। कायथा संस्कृति के लोग ताँबे के औजार एवं उपकरण बनाने के ज्ञाने से परिचित थे। यहाँ से ताँबे की चूड़ियाँ, कुल्हाड़ियाँ एवं ताँबे की छेनी मिली है। कुल्हाड़ियाँ साँचे में ढ़ालकर बनायी गयी हैं। इसके साथ ही पाषाण के लघु उपकरणों के प्रमाण भी मिले हैं। यहाँ से कई तरह के मनकों के हार भी मिले हैं। कायथा से आहड़ संस्कृति के स्तर से हस्तनिर्मित रुक्ष मृद्भाण्ड और लाल रंग के मृद्- पात्र तथा वृषभ मृण्मूर्तियाँ प्रचुर मात्रा में मिली हैं। इस स्तर के मकान कंकड़-पत्थर एवं पीली मिट्टी को कूटकर बनाये गये थे। मालवा संस्कृति के स्तर में लाल एवं गुलाबी रंग की पात्र-परम्परा विशिष्ट है। इस काल में लघु पाषाण उपकरणों में ब्लैड प्रचुर मात्रा में मिले हैं। गोल घड़े, कटोरे एवं थालियाँ मुख्य पात्र-प्रकार हैं। बाद के ऐतिहासिक काल में प्राचीन पात्र-परम्परा का स्थान नवीन पात्र-परम्परा ले लेती है। ताँबे एवं पाषाण उपकरणों का स्तर में अभाव हैं। लौह उपकरण मिलते हैं। इस स्तर से आहत सिक्के भी मिले हैं। अंतिम स्तर शुंग-कुषाण-गुप्त-काल से अनेक प्रकार के मृद- पात्र मिलते हैं। कायथा से प्राप्त सामग्री अत्यधिक पुरातात्त्विक महत्त्व की है। यहाँ से प्राप्त भिन्न प्रकार की सामग्री के आधार पर विभिन्न ताम्र-पाषाणिक संस्कृतियों का स्वतंत्र उद्भव का मत बहुत सम्भव लगता है।[18]

कायथा के सिक्के: कायथा के उत्खनन से इस क्षेत्र की ताम्रपाषाण युगीन सभ्यता के इतिहास को एक नया मोड़ दिया है। यहाँ सिक्कों का प्रमाण शुंग- कुषाण युग से मिलना प्रारभं हो जाता है। प्राप्त सिक्के ढ़ले हुए हैं, जिनके एक ओर स्वास्तिक तथा दूसरी ओर चक्र अथवा मनुष्याकृति बनी है।[19]

See also

External links

References

  1. S G Joshi, Medicinal Plants, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, 2004, ISBN 81-204-1414-4, p.347
  2. [http://www.new.dli.ernet.in/rawdataupload/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005b61_77.pdf.THE KÄPITTHAKA OF VARÄHAMIHIRA D.G.Dhavale 850/4, Shivaji Nagar, Poona 4]
  3. Dhavale has referred to this point in a footnote in his paper on 'The date of Varahamihira'. Annals B.O.R. Institute (1968) p. 347.
  4. J.R.Â.S. (1897) p. 422.
  5. See 'The Vikram' Käyathä Excavation Number (1967).
  6. ibid. p. 38
  7. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.57
  8. Dr. Madan Mohan Singh, "Puratatva Ki Ruprekha" (1989), p.54
  9. Dr. Madan Mohan Singh, "Puratatva Ki Ruprekha" (1989), p.56
  10. ibid
  11. Dr. Madan Mohan Singh, "Puratatva Ki Ruprekha" (1989), p.57
  12. ibid
  13. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.132
  14. भारतकोश-कायथा
  15. भारतकोश-कायथा
  16. भारतकोश-कायथा
  17. भारतकोश-कायथा
  18. भारतकोश-कायथा
  19. अमितेश कुमार:मालवा के विभिन्न क्षेत्रों के सिक्के

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