|Author: Laxman Burdak IFS (R)|
Mention by Panini
[p.69]: How a string of kanthā-ending place names was found in Ushinara country in the heart of Punjab, is an unexplained problem. It points to an event associated with Shaka history even before Panini, possibly an intrusion which left its relics in place names before the Saka contact with India in the second century BC. Katyayana mentions Shakandhu and Karkandhu, two kinds of wells of the Shakas and Karkas (Karkians), which may be identified as the stepped well (vāpī) and the Persian wheel (arghaṭṭa) well respectively.
whole of the Punjab from the Bannu valley to the Kankhala region and even beyond suggest an intrusion of the Sakas long before the time of Panini,  who is known to have flourished one century before the invasion of Alexander the Great. Kantha is a Saka word for city  and is akin to kadhavara or kanthavara of Kharosthi inscriptions, Kand of Persian, Kantha of Khotanese, Kandh of Sogdian, Kandai of Pushto, Kanda or Koent of the dialect of the Rsikas. It is significant that the land beyond the Oxus, the Urheimat of the Sakas, abounds in Kantha-ending place names, such as Samarkand, Khokand, Chimkand, Tashkand, Panjkand, and Yarkand.
The reference to the stepped-well, called Sakandhu after the Sakas, together with that worked by Persian Wheel, known as Karkandhu after the Karkians, in a varttika of Katyayana  also leads to the same conclusion.
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.511
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.505
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p. 69,213
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.67
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.68-69
- Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Tribes,p.165-166
- VI.2.125 mentions Kantha-ending place-names ; V.S. Agrawala, pp. 70-1.
- Sten Konow, Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol. II, Kharosthi Incsriptions. Intro, p. 43 ; Saka Studies by Sten Konow. pp. 42, 149 ; Panini, IV.2.100 ; IV.2.103; II.4.20; VI.2.124 ; VI.2.125. Also see for details Indian Historical Quarterly, Calcutta . XXVII, Calcutta, March 1951: Some foreign words in ancient Sanskrit literature, pp. 7-13.
- Katyayana's Varttika on Panini, 1.1.64 : शकंध्वादिषु पररूपं वाच्यम् ।